50 terms

crj101 final

Which of the following is a possible outcome in state court criminal trials that end in hung juries?
A(n) ____sentence has a fixed minimum and maximum term of incarceration, rather than a set period.
5 to 10 minutes
Public defenders commonly spend ________ with their clients.
small percent
Research confirms that ____ of capital offenders released from prison have killed again.
Which of the following is usually a monetary guarantee deposited with the court that is supposed to ensure that the suspect or defendant will appear at a later stage in the criminal justice process?
Release on own recognizance
Which of the following is simply a release secured by a suspect's written promise to appear in court?
Truth-in-sentencing laws require offenders to serve a substantial portion of their prison sentence, usually ____ of incarceration.
do not admit guilt but are willing to accept punishment
When defendants plead nolo contendre, they ___
FISA court
Which of the following is a secretive federal court that was created in 1978 and has approved thousands of Justice Department requests to conduct secret searches and surveillance of people in the United States who are suspected of having links to foreign agents or powers, often involving terrorism and espionage?
Which of the following is a problem with victims' rights laws and their implementation?
higher; shorter
Incarceration rates are ______ for defendants with publicly financed attorneys than for those with privately retained counsel in state and federal courts, and the length of jail or prison sentence is ______ for defendants with publicly financed attorneys.
Which of the following is the attempt to "correct" the personality and behavior of convicted offenders through educational, vocational, or therapeutic treatment and to return them to society as law-abiding citizens?
A 2005 poll found that more than ____ of Americans nationwide believed that an innocent person had been executed in the last 5 years.
hung jury
What is the result if, after serious deliberation, even one juror cannot agree with the others on a verdict?
A court of ____jurisdiction has the authority to hear a case when it is first brought to court.
en banc hearing
In highly controversial cases, all of the judges in a federal circuit may sit together and hear a case in what is known as a(n) _______________.
From biblical times through the eighteenth century, ____ was the dominant justification for punishment.
Which of the following is an effort to do something for victims and their survivors—to return them, as much as possible, to their previous state and to make them "whole" again?
Approximately what percent of state prison inmates had attorneys appointed by the court?
The rules of discovery
____ mandate(s) that a prosecutor provide defense counsel with any exculpatory evidence in the prosecutor's possession
provide the best possible legal counsel and advocacy within the legal and ethical limits of the profession
The role of defense lawyers is to _______.
victim-impact statement
Before the Supreme Court's 1991 decision, ____ were considered irrelevant and potentially inflammatory and were not allowed.
Ring v. Arizona
In which of the following cases did the Supreme Court in 2002 rule that jurors and not judges must determine whether death is the appropriate penalty in a capital case.
Nearly ____ of state trial court decisions are affirmed on appeal.
Which type of deterrence focuses on preventing people from violating society's rules through instilling a fear of the consequences from witnessing or perceiving another person's punishment?
parens patriae
The legal philosophy justifying state intervention in the lives of children is called the doctrine of ________________________.
In re Gault
The U.S. Supreme Court case ____ greatly expanded the overall due-process protections afforded juveniles within the juvenile court.
Child Savers
During the late 1800s a new group of reformers known as the ____ began to advocate instituting a juvenile court to deal with youth problems.
In re Winship
In the case ____, the Supreme Court ruled that delinquency charges must be proven beyond a reasonable doubt where there was a possibility that a youth could be confined in a locked facility.
Fare v. Michael C.
In ____, the Supreme Court ruled that parents or attorneys do not have to be present for juveniles to waive their rights.
A distinguishing feature of the inmate society in many women's prisons is the presence of ___
To provide an example of general deterrence to the rest of the community
There are three primary reasons for the practice of detaining juveniles, which are listed below. Which one does NOT belong?
All of the above
For which of the following reasons did the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in the late 1980s initiate an intensive community-based juvenile aftercare project called the Intensive Aftercare Program (IAP)?
Inmates who adopt the ____ lifestyle are primarily concerned with getting out of prison as soon as possible and avoiding hard time in the process
exploited inmate labor through various links to the free market.
Originially, big-house prisons ___.
boredom and stimulus overload
Researchers have observed that the work of correctional officers is characterized by both _____.
Chicago, 1899
Where and when was the first juvenile court established?
Total institution
A ____is an institutional setting in which people are cut off from the wider society and are expected to live according to institutional rules and procedures.
security level
Men's prisons are often distinguished from one another by _______.
hand's-off philosophy
Until the middle of the 20th century, the courts followed a ____ toward prison matters.
first generation jails
Which of the following types of jails is built in a linear design, in which inmates live together in cells, dormitories, or "tanks," and guards at regular intervals walk up and down the corridors or "catwalks" and observe inmates.
brutality is normally construed as a tort rather than a constitiutional issue
Ironically, the Eighth Amendment has done little to protect inmates from staff brutality because _________
Complete rehabilitation of prisoners is impossible
John Howard's 1777 book, The State of the Prisons in England and Wales, stated several opinions about how to improve prison conditions. Which of the following is NOT one of Howard's opinions, as discussed in your textbook?
prior arrest history
The results of research on recidivism indicate that the factor most strongly related to the likelihood of rearrest was _____________.
Which of the following states is the first state to allow female prisoners to work on chain gangs?
had the most difficulty adjusting
One study on recidivism demonstrated that the inmates who adjusted most successfully to prison ____ to life in the free community upon release.
According to a recent national study of recidivism among state prisoners, what percent of nearly 300,000 former inmates released from prisons in 1994 were rearrested for a new offense within 3 years of their release?
The quality of services and programs in private facilities are frequently superior to those in public correctional facilities.
Which of the following has NOT been found about private correctional facilities?
cognitive-behavioral treatments
According to a recent comprehensive review of research that evaluated the effects of correctional interventions on recidivism rates, which of the following types of interventions was most successful in reducing recidivism rates?
All of the above
Which of the following has research shown to be an advantage of direct-supervision jails?