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contemporary psychology is best defined as the

science of behavior and mental processes

during a political debate on candidate points out an error in his opponents judgement regarding past budget cost he then states he would have handled the situation in a better way. this best illistrates

Hindsight BIas

three key attitudes of scientific inquiry

curiosity skepticism and humility

scientific attitude requires an open minded humility because it involves a willingness to

recognize the errors in our own ideas

surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "welfare" than "aid to the needy" illustrate importance of

wording effects

correlational research is most useful for


statistical measure of relationship between

a correlation

illusory correlation refers to

perception of a relationship btw two variables that does not exist

to find out whether breat milk feeding contributes to the intellectual development of children physcologist used


in a study of the effects of alcohol some participants drank a nonalcholic beverage, this nonalcholic drink was

a placebo

in psychological experiment the experiment factor is manipulated by the investigator is the

independent variable

to asses the influence of hte self-esteem on interpersonal attraction researchers either insulted or complimented students about their physical appearance right before they went on a blind date. the dependent variable was

interpersonal attraction

most sensitive measure of central tendency to skewness


both the researcher and the participants in a memory study are ignorant

double blind procedure

replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by

operational definition

if each member of population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample

random sample

an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events


parts of neuron distinguishes it from ever other type of cell in body


function of dendrites

recieve incoming signals from other neurons

the axon is

the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body

speed at which neural impulse travles is increased when the axon is encases by a

myelin sheath

a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron

actoin potential


junction btwn sending neuron and a recieving neuron

chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions btwn neurons


schizoprenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for


two major divisions of nervous system

central and peripheral

central nervous systme consists of

brain and spinal cord

to experience pain of sprained ankle__ must relay incoming pain

sensory neurons

some neurons enable you to grasp objects , these neurons are

motor neurons

which type of neuron affects lou gehrigs disease


how do neurons communicate

chemicaly and electronically

a football player making many calculations at same time is an example of

neural networks

an amplified recording of he waves of electrical activity that sweap across the surface of the brain is


learning involves

relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience

pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrates

classical conditioning

children often learn associate learning by pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. best illustrates the proces underlying

operant conditioning

after one chimp sees a second open a box that contains a food reward the first animal opens a similar box with great speed

observational learning

pavlovs experiments the dogs salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was

conditioned response

ability to distinguish btwn a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli


makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago the fact that today she can fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone


James lange theory, emotion__ . Cannon bard theory emotion_

after, same time

noticing that his heart was pounding and palms sweaty while taking a test Harley concluded he was anxious.... differing emotions can be explained by

two factor theory

Camping along because your friends left you as a joke

James lange theory

autonomic nervous sytem regulates

physiological arousal

when confronted by an armed robber emotional arousal is likely accompanied by

slowing of digestion

as her professor distributed the tes BLairs heart started to pound, reactions were activated by

sympathetic nervous system

when her son fails to arrive home as expected elena fears he has been in an accident her body soon returns to normal due to action of

parasympathetic nervous system

increased activity in the left frontal love is related to dopaminiergic reward system and is usually associated with


people who are especially good at detecting facial expressions of


freud is to the psychoanalytic perspective as allport is to the

trait perspective

by selective breeding researchers can produce bold or shy birds, this best illustrates

genetically influenced

Dr. wants to assess the extent to which a client is suffering from depression social withdrawal.. personality inventory would be most helpful


Mr. maloney trust his employees. pattern of trust kindness and diligence illustrates what is meant by

recipricol determinism

laura fails to recognize any connection btwn her unsafe sex and likelihood of getting an STI. best illustrates

external locus of control

being highly imaginative is closely related to big five trait dimension of


two years after being beaten and raped brianna still has anxiety


luke has acrophobia, trigger from childhood accident

learning perspective

mike couldnt move his arm during a fight

conversion diorder

william unable to remember bombing raid

dissociative disorder

gabrielle felt lethargic not geting out of bed withdrawn worthless unlovable

major depressive disorder

kristen suffers from obsessive compulsive disorder with thoughts of contamination and excessive hand washing

obsessions, compulsions

our most rapid and automatic emotional responses may reslut from the routing of sensory input through the thalamus directly to the


while he was studying matthew suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension

panic attack

kaylee is afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities


defense mechanism in which self justifying explanations replace the real unconscious reasons for actions


abraham maslow said that once all physiological safety belongingness and love and esteem needs have been met people can then attempt to meet needs related to

self actualization

which country


tina stubbed toe, made her body smile it would remember hot to feel happy, concept is

embodied emotion

a stress moderating hormone released by cuddling and associated with pair bonding


dante is most likely to help after he has

recieved an A on his test

mildly excited when she thinks about her admission

adaption level phenomenon

Haleys dissapointment after finding out her friend had a new bike

relative deprivation

a general sense of happiness or life satisfaction is most unrelated to whether pepl are

well educated

people who are very outgoing and engage in risky behaviors are thought to activate behavioral_system more often thatn the behavioral_system

activation, inhibition

replication of research study is most likely facilitated by

operational definitions

every nongenetic influence


chromosomes are contained within nuclei

of brain cells, blood cells, sperm cells

DNa is a complex


depending on environmental conditions, specific genes can be either

active or inactive

dante is healthier thant his twin brother

prenatal environment

easy, difficult, slow to warm up are used to refer to differencs in an infants


unique temperaments of children evoke predictable responses from their caregivers


frans avoids talking with food in his mouth bc other people thing it is crude and inappropriate


willingness to switch jobs and move from one part of the country to another


personal space

distance we like to maintain btwn ourselves and others

rashaad is most like to have come from_ culture

individualistic; collectivist


extent to which variation among members of a group can be attributed to genes


provides complete instructions for making an organism




DNA segments that provide the code for the production of protein molecules when switched on


each chromosome contains this

developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and _ changes throughout human life cycle


belief that the adult personality is completely determined in early childhoos

stability or change

mary believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual and almost imperceptible changes over time

continuity or stages

symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome

brain abnormalities

sequence of brain regions form oldest to newest

brainstem, limbic system, cerebral cortes

mice without neurod 2 gene were more likely to take risk in experimental studies.. fear and aggression


ridge on brain that looks like wrinkles


associated with the greates amount of brain tissue in motor cortex


Phineas gage emotions are unrestrained if damage to

frontal cortex

localization fo a function such as speech production to the right or left side of brain


corpus callosum is wide band of axon fibers that

transmits infro btwn left and right cerebral hemispheres

pons is directly __ to medulla


cerebellum sits__ to and on either side of the brainstem


After miguels recent automobile accident doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in brocas area . difficulty

speaking fluently

which of the following structures or hormones is not primarily invovled in circadiam rhythm

pituitary gland

suprachiasmatic nucleus causes a gland to __ its production of melatonin in the morning or __ it in the evening

Decrease; increase

in addition to melatonin, other hormone in relationship with circadian rhythm and stress responses


normal sleep cycle includes how many stages


during _ might be talking in you sleep

stage 2

during_ sleep you are most liekly to experience dreams


during rem sleep, the experiences a type of paralysis, what blocks motor cortex


sleep disorder affects 1 in 10 adults problems falling or staying asleep


cannot breathe consistently while sleeping

sleep apnea

B.F. Skinner's work elaborated what E.L. Thorndike had called

law of effect

receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as _ is to _

positive reinforce; negative reinforce

revoking the driver's license of a reckless driver is intended to serve as a

negative punishment

a learned association between a response and a consequence is central

operant conditioning

a learned association between two stimuli is central to

classical conditioning

Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so, importance

of modeling

we find it harder to frown when viewing a smile than when viewing a frown

mirror neurons

who highlighted the importance of observational learning


alex learned to babysit and care for young children effectively by observing the many ways his mother carefully nurtured his own younger siblings

prosocial behavior

process of encoding refers to

getting info into memory

retention of encoded info over time refers to


process of getting info out of memory is called


your consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called

short term

integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long term memory involves the activity

working memory

spelling the word aloud 30 times


magical number seven plus or minus two refers to sotrage capacity of __

short term memory

after having a stroke Aaron has great difficulty recalling any of his subsequent life experiences. He is most likely suffering from


When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened which tes of memory is being used


Arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriends telephone number that he finds it difficult to recall his new girlfriends number. Arnolds difficulty best illustrates

Procative interference

shortly after hearing a list of items, people tend to recall the last items in the list especially quickly and accurately

recency effect

Ingrids friend is talking about which of the following


every girl buys delicate flowers to remember the treble clef is an example of


Janica's difficulty is

proactive interference

Robert Sternberg distinguised among analytical practical and _ intelligence


ability to produce novel and valuable ideas is called


Professors McGuires perceptual skill best illustrates

emotional intelligence

10 year old hugh came to be evaluated, obtained a mental age of 5, intelligence quotient is


example of achievement test

woodcock johnson

a girl scores consitently lower on math test when boys are in the room but does well when only girls are there

stereotype threat

Dr. pepper finds his research on intelligence in children that intelligence only modestly predicts future...

Stability vs. Change

researchers have identified chromosomal regions that are important for intelligence


identical twins have extremely similar IQ scores


Practice strengthens neural networks, free recall on memory test, and overall performance on IQ test


Malnutrition and poverty are correlated with lower IQ scores


Spearman noticed that when one type of ability goes up on an IQ test, so do the ohter abilities. What did he determine from his findings?

he decided that there was only one overall intelligence known as G

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