176 terms


contemporary psychology is best defined as the
science of behavior and mental processes
during a political debate on candidate points out an error in his opponents judgement regarding past budget cost he then states he would have handled the situation in a better way. this best illistrates
Hindsight BIas
three key attitudes of scientific inquiry
curiosity skepticism and humility
scientific attitude requires an open minded humility because it involves a willingness to
recognize the errors in our own ideas
surveys indicate that people are much less likely to support "welfare" than "aid to the needy" illustrate importance of
wording effects
correlational research is most useful for
statistical measure of relationship between
a correlation
illusory correlation refers to
perception of a relationship btw two variables that does not exist
to find out whether breat milk feeding contributes to the intellectual development of children physcologist used
in a study of the effects of alcohol some participants drank a nonalcholic beverage, this nonalcholic drink was
a placebo
in psychological experiment the experiment factor is manipulated by the investigator is the
independent variable
to asses the influence of hte self-esteem on interpersonal attraction researchers either insulted or complimented students about their physical appearance right before they went on a blind date. the dependent variable was
interpersonal attraction
most sensitive measure of central tendency to skewness
both the researcher and the participants in a memory study are ignorant
double blind procedure
replication of a research study is most likely to be facilitated by
operational definition
if each member of population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample
random sample
an explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events
parts of neuron distinguishes it from ever other type of cell in body
function of dendrites
recieve incoming signals from other neurons
the axon is
the extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body
speed at which neural impulse travles is increased when the axon is encases by a
myelin sheath
a brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron
actoin potential
junction btwn sending neuron and a recieving neuron
chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions btwn neurons
schizoprenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for
two major divisions of nervous system
central and peripheral
central nervous systme consists of
brain and spinal cord
to experience pain of sprained ankle__ must relay incoming pain
sensory neurons
some neurons enable you to grasp objects , these neurons are
motor neurons
which type of neuron affects lou gehrigs disease
how do neurons communicate
chemicaly and electronically
a football player making many calculations at same time is an example of
neural networks
an amplified recording of he waves of electrical activity that sweap across the surface of the brain is
learning involves
relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience
pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrates
classical conditioning
children often learn associate learning by pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. best illustrates the proces underlying
operant conditioning
after one chimp sees a second open a box that contains a food reward the first animal opens a similar box with great speed
observational learning
pavlovs experiments the dogs salivation triggered by the sound of the tone was
conditioned response
ability to distinguish btwn a conditioned stimulus and similar stimuli
makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago the fact that today she can fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone
James lange theory, emotion__ . Cannon bard theory emotion_
after, same time
noticing that his heart was pounding and palms sweaty while taking a test Harley concluded he was anxious.... differing emotions can be explained by
two factor theory
Camping along because your friends left you as a joke
James lange theory
autonomic nervous sytem regulates
physiological arousal
when confronted by an armed robber emotional arousal is likely accompanied by
slowing of digestion
as her professor distributed the tes BLairs heart started to pound, reactions were activated by
sympathetic nervous system
when her son fails to arrive home as expected elena fears he has been in an accident her body soon returns to normal due to action of
parasympathetic nervous system
increased activity in the left frontal love is related to dopaminiergic reward system and is usually associated with
people who are especially good at detecting facial expressions of
freud is to the psychoanalytic perspective as allport is to the
trait perspective
by selective breeding researchers can produce bold or shy birds, this best illustrates
genetically influenced
Dr. wants to assess the extent to which a client is suffering from depression social withdrawal.. personality inventory would be most helpful
Mr. maloney trust his employees. pattern of trust kindness and diligence illustrates what is meant by
recipricol determinism
laura fails to recognize any connection btwn her unsafe sex and likelihood of getting an STI. best illustrates
external locus of control
being highly imaginative is closely related to big five trait dimension of
two years after being beaten and raped brianna still has anxiety
luke has acrophobia, trigger from childhood accident
learning perspective
mike couldnt move his arm during a fight
conversion diorder
william unable to remember bombing raid
dissociative disorder
gabrielle felt lethargic not geting out of bed withdrawn worthless unlovable
major depressive disorder
kristen suffers from obsessive compulsive disorder with thoughts of contamination and excessive hand washing
obsessions, compulsions
our most rapid and automatic emotional responses may reslut from the routing of sensory input through the thalamus directly to the
while he was studying matthew suddenly overwhelmed by feelings of intense apprehension
panic attack
kaylee is afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities
defense mechanism in which self justifying explanations replace the real unconscious reasons for actions
abraham maslow said that once all physiological safety belongingness and love and esteem needs have been met people can then attempt to meet needs related to
self actualization
which country
tina stubbed toe, made her body smile it would remember hot to feel happy, concept is
embodied emotion
a stress moderating hormone released by cuddling and associated with pair bonding
dante is most likely to help after he has
recieved an A on his test
mildly excited when she thinks about her admission
adaption level phenomenon
Haleys dissapointment after finding out her friend had a new bike
relative deprivation
a general sense of happiness or life satisfaction is most unrelated to whether pepl are
well educated
people who are very outgoing and engage in risky behaviors are thought to activate behavioral_system more often thatn the behavioral_system
activation, inhibition
replication of research study is most likely facilitated by
operational definitions
every nongenetic influence
chromosomes are contained within nuclei
of brain cells, blood cells, sperm cells
DNa is a complex
depending on environmental conditions, specific genes can be either
active or inactive
dante is healthier thant his twin brother
prenatal environment
easy, difficult, slow to warm up are used to refer to differencs in an infants
unique temperaments of children evoke predictable responses from their caregivers
frans avoids talking with food in his mouth bc other people thing it is crude and inappropriate
willingness to switch jobs and move from one part of the country to another
personal space
distance we like to maintain btwn ourselves and others
rashaad is most like to have come from_ culture
individualistic; collectivist
extent to which variation among members of a group can be attributed to genes
provides complete instructions for making an organism
DNA segments that provide the code for the production of protein molecules when switched on
each chromosome contains this
developmental psychologists study physical, cognitive, and _ changes throughout human life cycle
belief that the adult personality is completely determined in early childhoos
stability or change
mary believes that cognitive development is a matter of gradual and almost imperceptible changes over time
continuity or stages
symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome
brain abnormalities
sequence of brain regions form oldest to newest
brainstem, limbic system, cerebral cortes
mice without neurod 2 gene were more likely to take risk in experimental studies.. fear and aggression
ridge on brain that looks like wrinkles
associated with the greates amount of brain tissue in motor cortex
Phineas gage emotions are unrestrained if damage to
frontal cortex
localization fo a function such as speech production to the right or left side of brain
corpus callosum is wide band of axon fibers that
transmits infro btwn left and right cerebral hemispheres
pons is directly __ to medulla
cerebellum sits__ to and on either side of the brainstem
After miguels recent automobile accident doctors detected damage to his cerebral cortex in brocas area . difficulty
speaking fluently
which of the following structures or hormones is not primarily invovled in circadiam rhythm
pituitary gland
suprachiasmatic nucleus causes a gland to __ its production of melatonin in the morning or __ it in the evening
Decrease; increase
in addition to melatonin, other hormone in relationship with circadian rhythm and stress responses
normal sleep cycle includes how many stages
during _ might be talking in you sleep
stage 2
during_ sleep you are most liekly to experience dreams
during rem sleep, the experiences a type of paralysis, what blocks motor cortex
sleep disorder affects 1 in 10 adults problems falling or staying asleep
cannot breathe consistently while sleeping
sleep apnea
B.F. Skinner's work elaborated what E.L. Thorndike had called
law of effect
receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as _ is to _
positive reinforce; negative reinforce
revoking the driver's license of a reckless driver is intended to serve as a
negative punishment
a learned association between a response and a consequence is central
operant conditioning
a learned association between two stimuli is central to
classical conditioning
Jeremy wears his baseball cap backward because he noticed his older brother does so, importance
of modeling
we find it harder to frown when viewing a smile than when viewing a frown
mirror neurons
who highlighted the importance of observational learning
alex learned to babysit and care for young children effectively by observing the many ways his mother carefully nurtured his own younger siblings
prosocial behavior
process of encoding refers to
getting info into memory
retention of encoded info over time refers to
process of getting info out of memory is called
your consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called
short term
integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long term memory involves the activity
working memory
spelling the word aloud 30 times
magical number seven plus or minus two refers to sotrage capacity of __
short term memory
after having a stroke Aaron has great difficulty recalling any of his subsequent life experiences. He is most likely suffering from
When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened which tes of memory is being used
Arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriends telephone number that he finds it difficult to recall his new girlfriends number. Arnolds difficulty best illustrates
Procative interference
shortly after hearing a list of items, people tend to recall the last items in the list especially quickly and accurately
recency effect
Ingrids friend is talking about which of the following
every girl buys delicate flowers to remember the treble clef is an example of
Janica's difficulty is
proactive interference
Robert Sternberg distinguised among analytical practical and _ intelligence
ability to produce novel and valuable ideas is called
Professors McGuires perceptual skill best illustrates
emotional intelligence
10 year old hugh came to be evaluated, obtained a mental age of 5, intelligence quotient is
example of achievement test
woodcock johnson
a girl scores consitently lower on math test when boys are in the room but does well when only girls are there
stereotype threat
Dr. pepper finds his research on intelligence in children that intelligence only modestly predicts future...
Stability vs. Change
researchers have identified chromosomal regions that are important for intelligence
identical twins have extremely similar IQ scores
Practice strengthens neural networks, free recall on memory test, and overall performance on IQ test
Malnutrition and poverty are correlated with lower IQ scores
Spearman noticed that when one type of ability goes up on an IQ test, so do the ohter abilities. What did he determine from his findings?
he decided that there was only one overall intelligence known as G
why should we be hesitant to conclude from this finding that having more synapses results in higher intelligence?
correlation data do not tell us if synapses are caused by education or if being born with more synapses cause people to seek out more education
Phillip realized how much knowledge he had gained from his world history class when he got a perfect score on his final exam
Alexandra performed her piano piece of the recital flawlessly and recieved a standing ovation from her audience
ability testing
shakira recently took an IQ test and her school psychologist said that based on the results she will likely do well in advanced subjects such as calculus and physics
Nick went to the DMV to apply for his drivers license...
Achievement; ability
IQ testing is considered to be the largest unique contribution of psychology to society
throughout IQ testing history, IQ tests have never been used fro means other than to help identify students who were struggling in school and have consistently proven to be culturally sensitive tools for psychologists
triggered rooting reflex in infant by touching his
men and women are most liketly to differ in theri
when teased by his older sister 9 yr old waldo does not cry because he has learned that boys are not supposed to cry
gender roles
childern typically socialize into more distinct gender roles than do children in nomaidc societies. gender role differences between social groups result from
cultural influence
migdalia insists on wearing very feminine looking clothes because she wants to appear ladylike. shows impact of
gender typing
Proffessor smith emphasizes that gender similarities and differences are products of a ....
biopsychosocial approach
who was most influential in shaping our understanding of cognitive developement
jean piaget
interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemes is called
piaget would say that sylvia doesnt understand the principles of
vygotsky suggested that new words provide a temporary_ from which children can step to higher levels of thinking
in a pleasant but unfamiliar setting infants with a secure maternal attachment are most liekly to
use their mothers as a base from whihc to explore new surroundings
Harry Harlow studied attachment of inftants...
infant monkeys preferred the terry cloth monkey surrogate
nature is to nurture as _ is to_
temperament;responsive parenting
authoritative parents are liekly to have children who
have high self esteem and are self reliant
heidi is maturing early and already towers over all the girls and most of the boys in her class likely to be
the object of teasing
not a primary sex characteristic
facial hair
kohlberg, post conventional morality involves
affirmation of self defined ethical principles
brandon is so apathetic about his occupational future... according to erikson brandon
role confusion
erikson suggested that the adolescent search for identity is followed by a developing capacity for
fact that different professions have different ethnic codes best exemplifies the developement of which moral stage
post conventional