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Nutrition Ch. 2

The diet-planning principle that provides all the nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health is called
a. variety.
b. adequacy.
c. moderation.
d. kcalorie control.
What are the principles of diet planning?
a. Abundance, B vitamins, kcalories, diet control, minerals, and variety
b. Abundance, balance, conservative, diversity, moderation, and vitamins
c. Adequacy, bone development, correction, vitamin density, master, and variety
d. Adequacy, balance, kcalorie control, nutrient density, moderation, and variety
Which of the following is the most calcium-dense food?
a. Whole milk
b. Nonfat milk
c. Low-fat milk
d. Cheddar cheese
Nutrient dense refers to foods that
a. carry the USDA nutrition labeling.
b. are higher in weight relative to volume.
c. provide more nutrients relative to kcalories.
d. contain a mixture of carbohydrate, fat, and protein.
The concept of nutrient density is most helpful in achieving what principle of diet planning?
a. Variety
b. Balance
c. Moderation
d. kCalorie control
Which of the following is an expression of the nutrient density of a food?
a. 0.01 mg iron per kcalorie
b. 110 kcalories per cup
c. 0.5 mg iron per serving
d. 110 kcalories per serving
An empty-kcalorie food is one that contains
a. no kcalories.
b. an abundance of vitamins but little or no minerals.
c. an abundance of minerals but little or no vitamins.
d. energy and little or no protein, vitamins or minerals.
Providing enough, but not an excess, of a food is a diet-planning principle known as
a. safety.
b. variety.
c. moderation.
d. undernutrition.
Applying the principle of variety in food planning ensures the benefits of
a. moderation.
b. vegetarianism.
c. nutrient density.
d. dilution of harmful substances.
Which of the following practices is not consistent with achieving a healthy diet?
a. Intake of eggs
b. Intake of nuts
c. Emphasis on trans-fat
d. Emphasis on low-fat milk products
Which of the following is among the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans?
a. Practice good foot hygiene
b. Reduce television viewing time
c. Reduce computer Internet time
d. Engage in regular physical activities
The consumption of 2000 kcalories per day is sufficient to meet the energy needs of most
a. teenage girls.
b. most children.
c. sedentary men.
d. sedentary women.
Which of the following is not a feature of a food group plan?
a. Defines serving equivalents
b. Considered a tool for diet planning
c. Sorts foods of similar water content
d. Specifies the number of servings from each group
Consider the following menu from the point of view of the USDA Food Guide.

Which of the following describes the nutritional value of the fruits and vegetables in this menu?
a. A source of vitamin A is missing
b. A source of vitamin C is marginal
c. The daily amounts recommended for a 2000-kcalorie diet are met
d. The daily amounts recommended for a 2000-kcalorie diet are exceeded
Jamie is a vegetarian who is trying to plan a healthy diet according to the USDA Food Guide. Which of the following meat alternatives would be the best nutrient choices for one day?
a. 2 pieces bacon, ½ can tuna, 2 pieces bread
b. 3 oz. cheese, ½ sweet potato, 2 tbsp peanut butter
c. ½ cup black beans, 2 tbsp peanut butter, 1 c spinach
d. 1 skinless chicken breast, 2 egg whites, meal replacement bar
Of the daily recommended intake of fruit servings, what maximum percentage may be supplied by fruit juice?
a. 10
b. 20
c. 33
d. 50
What two major nutrients are supplied by the fruit and vegetable groups?
a. Vitamins D and E
b. Vitamins A and C
c. Protein and calcium
d. B vitamins and iron
Which of the following is not characteristic of the USDA Food Guide?
a. It places most foods into one of five groups
b. Its nutrients of greatest concern include iron, chromium, and vitamin B12
c. It can be used with great flexibility once its intent is understood
d. It specifies that a certain quantity of food be consumed from each group, based upon energy intake
All of the following are examples of legumes except
a. peas.
b. beans.
c. peanuts.
d. potatoes.
Which of the following is an alternative choice for meats in the USDA Food Guide?
a. Nuts
b. Bacon
c. Baked potatoes
d. Sweet potatoes
In which of the following food groups are legumes found?
a. Meats
b. Dairy
c. Fruits
d. Grains
Which of the following foods could help meet the iron needs of vegetarians who consume dairy?
a. Coconut
b. Legumes
c. Skim milk
d. Potato salad
How many subgroups comprise the vegetable food group?
a. 1
b. 3
c. 5
d. 7
Legumes are used as meat alternatives for all of the following reasons except
a. they are economical.
b. they can be graded as prime, choice, and select.
c. they can be processed to look and taste like meat.
d. they contribute the same key nutrients, including zinc and protein.
Approximately how many kcalories more per day are needed by an average college-age student who is active compared with her inactive counterpart?
a. 400-500
b. 600-800
c. 1000-1200
d. 1500-2000
General features of legumes include all of the following except
a. they are high in fat.
b. they are low in cost.
c. they are rich in fiber.
d. they include peanuts.
According to the principles of the USDA Food Guide, the foundation of a healthful diet should consist of
a. dairy.
b. fruits.
c. nutrient-dense foods.
d. meats and alternatives.
Which of the following foods provides discretionary kcalories for the person on a weight reduction diet?
a. Watermelon
b. Canned pears in syrup
c. Milk with all fat removed
c. Chicken with the skin removed
Which of the following foods' kcalories would be considered as part of one's discretionary kcalorie allowance?
a. Jam
b. Watermelon
c. Raw carrots
d. Brussels sprouts
A cup of fresh blueberries is about the size of a
a. golf ball.
b. baseball.
c. grapefruit.
d. marshmallow.
Which of the following is not descriptive of MyPyramid?
a. An education tool that illustrates the concepts of the Dietary Guidelines and USDA Food Guide
b. A graphic image designed to encourage consumers to make healthy food and physical activity choices every day
c. A multi-colored pyramid that illustrates variety, with each color representative of the five food groups, plus one for oils
d. A broad-based figure that conveys the message that grains should be abundant and form the foundation of a healthy diet
What is the assessment tool designed to measure how well a diet meets the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines and MyPyramid?
a. Healthy Eating Index
b. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
c. Dietitian's Comparative Effectiveness Plan
d. U.S. Public Health Nutrient Assessment Barometer
Which of the following is a main criticism of the use of the MyPyramid?
a. It lacks a personalized approach
b. The five food groups are not clearly identified
c. There is no encouragement of physical activity
d. Not enough information is readily available because there is no text
Food exchange systems were originally developed for people with
a. diabetes.
b. terminal diseases.
c. cardiovascular disease.
d. life-threatening obesity.
Which of the following is a feature of the exchange list system?
a. Foods are grouped according to their source
b. Adequate intakes of minerals and vitamins are virtually guaranteed
c. A fat portion provides about twice the energy as a carbohydrate portion
d. All foods are grouped according to their content of carbohydrate, protein, and fats
In food exchange lists, to what group are olives assigned?
a. Fat
b. Meat
c. Carbohydrate
d. Meat substitute
Whole-grain flour contains all parts of the grain with the exception of the
a. bran.
b. husk.
c. germ.
d. endosperm.
Refined grain products contain only the
a. bran.
b. husk.
c. germ.
d. endosperm.
The addition of calcium to some orange juice products by food manufacturers is most properly termed nutrient
a. enrichment.
b. restoration.
c. fortification.
d. mineralization.
What nutrient makes up most of the endosperm section of grains such as wheat and rice?
a. Fat
b. Fiber
c. Starch
d. Protein
The part of the grain that remains after being refined is the
a. bran.
b. germ.
c. husk.
d. endosperm.
Which of the following breads has the highest fiber content?
a. White
b. Refined
c. Enriched
d. Whole-grain
Which of the following is a characteristic of enriched grain products?
a. They have all of the added nutrients listed on the label
b. They have the fiber restored from the refining procedure
c. They have virtually all the nutrients restored from refining procedure
d. They have only 4 vitamins and 4 minerals added by the food manufacturer
All of the following are features of the process of nutrient enrichment of flours except
a. it includes products such as pastas.
b. fiber levels are similar to those in the whole grains.
c. it is required of all refined grain products that cross state lines.
d. thiamin and riboflavin are added in amounts exceeding their levels in the whole grain.
Approximately what minimum percentage of all grains consumed by a person should be whole grains?
a. 20
b. 35
c. 50
d. 100
What mineral is added to refined flours in the enrichment process?
a. Iron
b. Iodine
c. Calcium
d. Magnesium
Which of the following product labels always denotes a whole-grain product?
a. Multi-grain
b. 100% wheat
c. Whole-wheat
d. Stone-ground
The enrichment of grain products in the United States was initiated in the
a. 1840s.
b. 1890s.
c. 1940s.
d. 1990s.
Approximately how many years have grain products been subject to nutrient enrichment legislation?
a. 70
b. 100
c. 175
d. 225
Which of the following is an enrichment nutrient for grains?
a. Zinc
b. Folate
c. Protein
d. Calcium
The "More Matters" food campaign promotes increased consumption of
a. fruits and vegetables.
b. fish and skinless poultry.
c. five to nine kcalories less per day.
d. nonfat dairy products.
The most highly fortified foods on the market are
a. frozen dinners.
b. imitation foods.
c. enriched breads.
d. breakfast cereals.
Which of the following nutrients would be supplied in much greater amounts from whole-grain bread versus enriched bread?
a. Zinc
b. Folate
c. Riboflavin
d. Thiamine
Which of the following nutrients is not supplied in about the same amount by a slice of enriched bread compared with one from whole-grain bread?
a. Iron
b. Niacin
c. Thiamine
d. Magnesium
Cooking an 8-ounce raw steak will reduce the weight (ounces) to approximately
a. 3 ½.
b. 5.
c. 6.
d. 7.
Textured vegetable protein is usually made from
a. soybeans.
b. corn stalks.
c. a mixture of legumes.
d. cruciferous vegetables.
Which of the following terms is used to describe a cut of meat having a low fat content?
a. End
b. Round
c. Prime
d. Choice
A meat described as "prime cut" means that it
a. has an extended shelf life.
b. usually carries a high price.
c. is served only in restaurants.
d. is higher in fat than other cuts of meat.
Which of the following is not the same as fat-free milk?
a. Skim milk
b. No-fat milk
c. 1% milk
d. Non-fat milk
What term describes a food that resembles and substitutes for another food but is nutritionally inferior to it?
a. Faux food
b. Pseudo food
c. Imitation food
d. Food substitute
According to food labeling laws, acceptable synonyms for nonfat milk include all of the following except
a. skim milk.
b. no-fat milk.
c. zero-fat milk.
d. reduced-fat milk.
Which of the following is a feature of U.S. laws governing information on food labels?
a. The term "fresh" can be used only for raw and moderately processed food
b. Nutrition labeling must appear on virtually all processed as well as fresh foods
c. Restaurant foods must provide nutrient content information on the menu
d. Nutrition labeling is not required on foods produced by small businesses or products produced and sold in the same establishment
A food scientist is developing a new and improved cereal bar. She consults with you to ask in what order the ingredients should be listed on the food label. The ingredients are: Sugar: 30 g, Puffed wheat: 28 g, Dry milk powder: 5 g, Red food coloring: 35 mg, Salt: 2 g. What is the appropriate order in which to list these ingredients on the food label?
a. Sugar, puffed wheat, dry milk powder, salt, red food coloring
b. Red food coloring, salt, dry milk powder, puffed wheat, sugar
c. Dry milk powder, puffed wheat, red food coloring, salt, sugar
d. Puffed wheat, sugar, dry milk powder, salt, red food coloring
According to nutrition labeling laws, what two minerals must be listed on the package label as percent Daily Value?
a. Calcium and Iron
b. Zinc and Phosphorus
c. Fluoride and Chloride
d. Chromium and Magnesium
A food label ingredient list reads in the following order: Wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in the smallest amount in the food?
a. Salt
b. Sugar
c. Cornstarch
d. Wheat flour
By law, a serving size on beverage food labels is
a. 4-6 fluid ounces.
b. 8 fluid ounces.
c. 10-12 fluid ounces.
d. 16 fluid ounces.
Approximately how many milliliters constitute a fluid ounce?
a. 10
b. 20
c. 30
d. 40
Approximately how many grams are in an ounce?
a. 10
b. 20
c. 30
d. 40
All of the following are features of serving size information on food labels except
a. serving sizes for solid foods are expressed in both ounces and grams.
b. small bags of individually wrapped food items must contain only one serving.
c. serving sizes on food labels are not necessarily the same as those of MyPyramid.
d. for a given product, the serving size is the same, no matter how large the package
Which of the following is a characteristic of food serving sizes?
a. Serving sizes for most foods have not yet been established by the FDA
b. The serving size for ice cream is 2 cups and the serving size for all beverages is 12 fluid ounces
c. Serving sizes on food labels are not always the same as those of the USDA Food Guide
d. Serving sizes must be listed in common household measures, such as cups, or metric measures, such as milliliters, but not both
Information that must be lawfully provided on food labels includes all of the following except
a. the amount recommended for ingestion each day.
b. the amounts of specified nutrients and food components.
c. the net contents expressed by weight, measure, or count.
d. the name and address of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor.
According to nutrition labeling laws, the amounts of what two vitamins must be listed on the package label as percent Daily Value?
a. Vitamins D and E
b. Vitamins A and C
c. Thiamin and riboflavin
d. Vitamin B6 and niacin
Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values known as the
a. Daily Values.
b. FDA Standards.
c. Reference Dietary Intakes.
d. Recommended Dietary Intakes.
Population groups such as sedentary older men, sedentary younger women, and active older women have a daily energy need (kcalories) of approximately
a. 1200.
b. 1500.
c. 2000.
d. 2700.
On a food label, the "% Daily Value" table compares key nutrients per serving for a person consuming how many kcalories daily?
a. 1500
b. 2000
c. 2500
d. 3000
Which of the following foods qualifies as a "good source" of calcium?
a. Cheese with 50 g of calcium
b. Yogurt with 150 mg of calcium
c. Ice cream with 90 mg calcium
d. Whole milk with 300 mg of calcium
Which of the following is a feature of the Daily Values found on food labels?
a. They are updated every two years as mandated by the USDA
b. They are expressed on a "per 1000-kcalorie intake" basis
c. They assist people in determining whether a food contains a little or a lot of a nutrient
d. They define a food as an excellent source of a nutrient if it contributes at least 50% of the dietary recommended intake
A food label that advertises the product as a "rich source of fiber" is an example of a
a. nutrient claim.
b. lite-food claim.
c. weight reduction claim.
d. structure-function claim.
Greg is trying to decide which brand of cereal to buy, but he is a somewhat confused by the health claims. Which of the following represents the highest level of significant scientific agreement?
a. "Promotes a healthy heart"
b. "This cereal supports heart health"
c. "This product contains whole grains which have been proven to reduce the risk of heart disease and certain cancers"
d. "Very limited and preliminary scientific research suggests this product can reduce risk for cancers, FDA concludes that there is little scientific evidence supporting this claim"
Which of the following is descriptive of the FDA's "A" list?
a. A series of unqualified health claims on food labels
b. A list of foods conforming to the USDA Food Guide
c. The most nutrient-dense foods found within MyPyramid
d. A list of foods that should be avoided to maintain a healthy diet
Which of the following is a feature of the FDA's regulations of food label health claims?
a. The claims cannot be reviewed in a court of law
b. There are four grades of health claim quality: A, B, C, and D
c. There are three grades of health claim quality: prime, choice, and select
d. All health claims must undergo careful and scientifically thorough evaluation to ensure accuracy
According to U.S. food labeling regulations, clear and convincing evidence has been found for all of the following health claims regarding nutrition and disease except
a. sugar and diabetes.
b. sodium and hypertensioxn.
c. calcium and osteoporosis.
d. lipids and cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Which of the following is a characteristic of structure-function claims on food labels?
a. They are allowed only for unprocessed food
b. They can be made without any FDA approval
c. They must conform to guidelines of the "A" list of health claims
d. They must state the name of the disease or symptom for which a benefit is claimed
According to the FDA, which of the following diet-health messages on food labels represents a qualified health claim?
a. Fiber and cancer
b. Lipids and obesity
c. Calcium and osteoporosis
d. Sodium and high blood pressure
Which of the following are allowed in the diet of a lactovegetarian?
a. Plant foods only
b. Eggs and plant foods only
c. Meat, eggs, and plant foods only
d. Milk products and plant foods only
Tempeh is made from
a. soybeans.
b. any legume.
c. fermented leafy vegetables.
d. fermented yellow vegetables.
Which of the following would not be permitted on a macrobiotic diet?
a. Small amounts of dairy
b. Small amounts of seeds
c. Abundant amounts of legumes
d. Abundant amounts of whole grains
Which of the following ingredients found on a food label is a source of protein?
a. BHT
b. Tofu
c. Corn starch
d. Diglycerides
Which of the following is a feature of people regularly eating meals based on tofu?
a. They show less heart disease but more colon cancer than omnivores
b. They show evidence of marginal protein intake compared with omnivores
c. They have lower blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels than those eating meat
d. They have lower sodium intakes but blood pressure is similar to those eating red meat
All of the following are documented benefits for people following a vegetarian diet except
a. lower body weights.
b. lower rates of anemia.
c. lower blood cholesterol levels.
d. lower rates of certain types of cancer
In vegetarians, the RDA is higher for
a. iron.
b. folate.
c. calcium.
d. vitamin A.
Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition in vegetarians?
a. Vegetarians absorb iron more efficiently
b. Iron utilization is inhibited by the high zinc content in grains
c. The absorption of iron is low due to the high vitamin C intake
d. More iron deficiency is found in vegetarians than in people eating a mixed diet
Textured vegetable protein is usually made of
a. soy protein.
b. fish protein.
c. bean plus rice proteins.
d. bean plus cheese proteins.
For the most part, all of the following are advantages of vegetarian diets except
a. fat intake is lower.
b. fiber intake is higher.
c. vitamin B12 intake is higher.
d. intakes of vitamins A and C are higher.
Which of the following is a feature of vitamin B12 nutrition in vegetarians?
a. Vitamin B12 in fortified cereals has low bioavailability
b. Vegan mothers need only infrequent intake of vitamin B12-fortified cereals
c. The vitamin B12 in fermented soy products may be present in inactive form
d. Infants born to vegan mothers are resistant to the development of vitamin B12 deficiency
All of the following are typical characteristics of vegetarians except
a. they are no more iron deficient than are omnivores.
b. their zinc absorption is efficient due to their high soy intake.
c. they are at risk for iodine toxicity when consuming high amounts of seaweeds.
d. their need for calcium can be met, in large part, from enriched soy milk, breakfast cereals, and fortified juices.