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Compared to Freudian theory, neo-Freudian theories are more likely to

attribute differences between the personalities of men and women to cultural forces

"Parents should allow children to be independent, to make their own choices and mistakes, but without depriving the children of the parental attention they need." Which theorist is most likely to have said this?


According to Adler, all but one of the following parental behaviors is likely to lead to personality problems in the children. Which one?

Allowing the child to be independent

Who was the first neo-freudian theorist to break with Freud

Alfred Adler

Wanda was the hardest working student in her school. Her constant efforts were rewarded at graduation when she received an award as the university's best math student. She confessed at that time that in elementary school she had failed math and was told by her teacher that she should pick an occupation that did not require her to work with numbers. What might Alfred Adler have said about Wanda?

Her striving for achievement resulted from her earlier feelings of inferiority.

Which of the following is correct about Alder's concept of striving for superiority?

Striving for superiority has its roots in a child's perception of personal inferiority.

Ben is one of the hardest working people in his office. He has climbed the corporate ladder in a surprisingly short time. However, he always seems to find someone in the company who is doing a little bit better than he is and sets his mind to surpassing this person. According to Adler, Ben is probably a

middle-born child

Which of the following observations did Adler make about the effects of birth order on personality?

Middle-born are the most well-adjusted and the highest achievers.

Which of the following is made op of primordial images (archetypes), according to Jung?

collective unconscious

According to Jung, the objectionable characteristics we see in other people are often projections of our own


Jung identified all but one of the following as a place in which the primordial images in our collective unconscious can surface. Which one?

Choice of occupation

According to Erikson, the principal function of the ego is to

establish and maintain a sense of identity

Erikson talked about people encountering crises in personality development. Which of the following is correct about his description of a crisis?

How we resolve the crisis determines the direction our personality develops

The last stage of personality development described by Erikson typically occurs when in the life cycle?

Late adulthood

According to Erikson, a person in middle adulthood is most likely to be dealing with which of the following

whether or not to take an active role in the lives of young people

According to Horney, which of the three interpersonal styles is likely to lead to a successful relationship?

Moving against people

Freud introduced the idea of "penis envy" to explain the personality development of young girls. By introducing the concept of "womb envy," Karen Horney was suggesting that

each gender has attributes that the other admires

Which of the following statements can be attributed to Jung's view of religion?

"Modern psychotherapy has taken on the role once reserved for the clergy"

According to Freud, guilt is most closely associated with

moral anxiety

Which of the following is true about neurotic anxiety, as conceived by Freud?

It is experienced when id impulses are close to breaking into consciousness.

Sam is facing a difficult midterm exam and is feeling stressed out about it. As the exam date approaches and his anxiety increases, Sam starts thinking about ways to study more effectively. He schedules a large portion of time for active study of the material on the test so that he is prepared. In terms of coping, which of the following is Sam's strategy?

Problem-focused strategy

A friend comes to you with a problem. You determine that there is nothing she can do to solve the problem but also that it is not going to go away any time soon. According to research, which type of coping strategy should you recommend?

Emotion-focused strategy

According to the original frustration-aggression hypothesis, what is needed to reduce the likelihood of aggression in a frustrated person?


To explain why aggression sometimes decreases, many researchers have adopted the Freudian concept of


According to object relations theory, a child's relationship with is or her parents

affects the way the child thinks of others in future relationships

A woman is uncomfortable getting close to others and has difficulty trusting potential romantic partners. She probably has which kind of adult attachment style?


Carol is having difficulty with her romantic relationship. She is afraid of losing her partner, so she gives in to her partner's wishes to keep him happy. Carol probably has which kind of attachment style?


Francisco has fallen in love many times, but has difficulty finding long-term happiness in any of his relationships. He desperately wants to find a romantic partner. Francisco probably has which kind of adult attachment style?


Although she is involved in a steady romantic relationship, Jackie has an avoidant attachment style. This week she is stressed about an upcoming medical operation. Studies the stress will cause Jackie to

pull away from her partner

In terms of the four-category model of adult attachment, preoccupied people

have feelings that they are unworthy while they tend to see others as trustworthy.

The trait approach is built on the assumption that personality characteristics are relatively stable over time and that

personality characteristics are relatively stable over situations, too.

"If asked why Carol hugged Tom, we say it is because Carol is affectionate; however, if asked how we know Carol is affectionate, we say it is because she hugged Tom." This example is used to criticize which approach to personality?


Traits were introduced into the field of personality psychology by

Gordon Allport

According to Allport, which of the following is true abut central traits?

They are useful when examining personality through the idiographic approach

The idiographic approach to personality has advantages. For example

the person rather than the researcher determines what traits to examine

A psychologist collects data from a large number of people. She places each person on a continuum ranging from high to low conscientiousness and makes predictions about how people in the high range will act compared to those in the low range. This psychologist is using which approach to understanding personality?

Nomothetic approach

People with traits that dominate their personality can be described with a

cardinal trait

In terms of personality development, Allport believed that

infants learn they have little control over their environment

Which theorist had a strong influence on Henry Murray's theorizing about personality?

Carl Jung

Which of the following is not a psychogenic need?


Murray referred to each environmental force that activates a need as a


Raymond Cattell argued that in their efforts to understanding the basic structure of personalty, psychologist should

allow empirical data analyses to describe the basic structure of personality to us.

Personality psychologists use factor analysis to help them determine

which personality traits correlate together

A psychologist examines six personality tests. She suspects that four of the tests are really measuring the same personality trait and that the other two measure another personality trait. What kind of research should the psychologist conduct to test her hypothesis?

Factor analysis

According to Cattell, which of the following traits ultimately constitute the human personality>


Andrew has strong opinions and enjoys a good argument in which he can stand up for his beliefs. he prefers to work where he can compete with others, rather than an organization that stresses cooperation. Andrew would probably score low on a measure of


Tony often becomes upset over daily stressors. More than most people, she experiences such emotions as sadness, anger and anxiety. This description of Tonya is best accounted for by which of the factors in the five-factor model?


Test-takers who "fake good"

are trying to present a better image than is accurate

A woman indicates on a test that she agrees with the statement, "I am confident in my abilities." Later on the same test she agrees with the statement, "I have doubts about my abilities." This woman's responses may indicate the presence of which potential problem?

acquiescence response

Social desirability scales measure the extent to which a person

tries to present him- or herself in a desirable light.

A psychologist asks you to look at some pictures and tell a story about the people in them. Which test are you probably taking?

Thematic Apperception Test

Which of the following people is likely to have the highest need for Achievement?

A bank president

Juanita works hard to do well in her English class. She wants to get the highest grade in the class on each exam, and is especially pleased when she is singled out for recognition. Researchers would say that Juanita is motivated by

performance goals

Most research identifies the "toxic component" in the Type A behavior pattern as


People high in social anxiety report that their anxiety often is very painful and that they desire to be more sociable. This finding helps us distinguish between social anxiety and


Darlene's emotions are easy to read: she smiles broadly when happy an dlooks down when sad. Researchers would say that Darlene is high in

emotinl expressiveness

One reason dispositional optimists handle stressful situations better than pessimists is that optimists

are more likely to use active coping strategies

Jeff is an actor. He tends to worry and fret about all the things that might go wrong before each performance. If Jeff is a defensive pessimist who is too distracted to worry before the performance, he will probably

perform worse

Drake is dealing with the stress associated with some health problems. If we know that he is a dispositional optimist, which of the following coping strategies is Drake most likely to use?

seek advice and support from friends

Suppose your roommate is a defensive pessimist and has a major test coming up. If you let your roommate worry about the test, the likely results is that your friend will_____ than people not allowed to worry.

feel better

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