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large amount of bleeding in a short amount of time


both liquid and solid components, 7 percent of body weight

Average adult has how many pints of blood?

10-12 pints

Plasma is...

the liquid part of blood, 1/2 of total blood volume, mostly water

Solid part of blood?

Red blood cells, White blood cells, Platelets

Plasma's purpose

nutrients needed for energy production, growth and cell maintenance. Carries waste products for elimination and transports other blood components.


disease fighting-part of the immune system and defends the body against microorganisms and pathogens. Produces antibodies that resist infection


Make up most of the solid components of blood. Produced in the marrow of large bones. 260 million red blood cells in one drop of blood. Transports oxygen from lungs to body cells and carbon dioxide from cells to lungs.


disk-shaped structures-cell fragments. Essential for clotting-tendency to bind together. Helps stop bleeding by forming blood clots at wound sites.

Functions of the Blood

Transports oxygen, nutrients, and waste. Protects against disease by producing antibodies. Maintains body temp by circulating blood everywhere.

3 main blood vessels are

arteries, capillaries, veins


blood AWAY from heart, blood travels faster (greater pressure)


microscopic blood vessels, link arteries and veins. Transfers oxygen to other nutrients from blood to cell. Carbon dioxide from cells move into veins


carries waste products from cells to kidneys, intestines, and lungs (where was is eliminated)


Maintain flow of oxygen rich blood to blood tissues (vital organs)

Process of bleeding

Brain will recognize shortage, signal heart to circulate more blood, and signals lungs to work harder and provide more oxygen.

External bleeding:

blood vessel is opened externally.

Arterial external bleeding

rapid, severe, and life threatening. Difficult to clot, bright red

Venous external bleeding

Damaged often, close to skin surface, less pressure, dark maroon.

Capillary external bleeding

Most common external bleeding. Small, slow, oozes, pale red

Direct pressure:

sterile dressing and gloved hand. Pressure places on wound, restricts blood out of wound and helps clot

Pressure bandage:

bandage applied to bleeding snugly

What happens if direct pressure doesn't work?

That means there is severe external bleeding.

Severe external bleeding signals

Blood spurting from wound, bleeding does not stop after trying to stop it.

Steps to care for external bleeding

1. Check scene and person
2. Obtain consent
3. Cover w/sterile dressing
4. Apply direct pressure until bleeding stops
5. Cover the dressing w/bandage
6. Place direct pressure on wound with gauze, pad, or clean cloth
7. Apply pressure bandage to hold gauze in place
8. Add more pads/bandage if the blood soaks through
9. Dont remove blood soaked pads!!!
10. Call 911
11. Monitor victims airway and breathing; observe signals of condition worsening

Steps to care for external bleeding if bleeding does not stop:

1. Apply bandages
2. Take steps to minimize shock
3. Call 911 if haven't already

Internal bleeding:

escape of blood from arteries, veins, capillaries, into spaces of body.

Severe internal bleeding may result from

a blunt force

Severe internal bleeding signals:

Hard tissues become soft, injured area is swollen, tender, or rigid; anxiety/restlessness; rapid, weak pulse; rapid breathing, shortness of breath; moist, pale, cool, ashen skin; bruising; nausea/vomiting; coughing blood; abdomen pain; excessive thirst; decreased level of consciousness; severe headache

Steps to care for internal bleeding:

If severe, call 911. 1. Do not further harm. 2. Monitor bleeding/consciousness. 3. Help victim rest in a comfortable position. 4. Keep victim from getting chilled/heated. 5. Reassure victim. 6. Give specific care when needed.

Minor internal bleeding:

ice pack to reduce swelling/pain.

When do you use ABCDEs?

to assess life-threatening conditions.

ABCDE stands for:

airway, breathing, circulation, disability (damage to spinal cord), exposure (injuries caused by environmental condition)

Secondary assessment consists of:

DOTS, AVPU, and vitals.

DOTS stands for:

Deformity, open injuries, tenderness, swelling.

AVPU stands for:

Alert, verbal (to any stimuli), painful (to any stimuli), and unresponsive (to any stimuli).

Levels of alertness:

A+Ox4= who, when, where, and what happened
A+Ox3=who, when, where
A+Ox3=who and when

SAMPLE is used to...

gain essential information about the patient's medical history.

SAMPLE stands for:

Signs and symptoms, allergies, pertinent past medical history, last intake and output, events leading up to injury/illness.

LOR stands for:

Level of responsiveness

CSM stands for:

circulation, sensation, movement.

Average vitals on an adult

HR 50-100
RR 12-20

Health body conditions to maintain adequate blood flow:

Heart working well, adequate amount of oxygen rich blood to circulate body, blood vessels intact to blood flow


failure of circulatory system to provide an adequate amount of oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body.

Vital organs:

brain, heart, and lungs. do not function properly without an adequate amount of oxygen rich blood

Blood volume

total amount of blood circulating body

Any severe fluid loss equals..


Signals of shock:

Restlessness or irritability, Altered consciousness, pale, ashen bluish skin; rapid breathing, rapid/weak pulse, excessive thirst, nausea/vomiting.

Care for shock:

Check, call, care.
1. Help victim lie down on back
2. Elevate legs 12 in to help blood circulate to vital organs

Do NOT elevate legs when caring for shock IF:

Victim is nauseated or has trouble breathing, any head/neck/back injury, or victim is moving because of more pain.

soft tissues

layers of skin, fat, and muscle that protect underlying body structures


top layer, barrier to bacteria/organisms


deepest layer, contains nerves, hair roots, sweat and oil glands


below dermis: contains fat, blood vessels and connective tissue


considered soft tissue and lie beneath fat layer-comprise largest segment of body's soft tissue


any physical injury involving breakage of skin

closed wound

injury that doesnt break skin, soft tissue damages, occurs beneath skin

Care for closed wounds:

direct pressure/elevate injured area, apply cold to reduce swelling or pain. leave ice pack for 20 minutes.

4 types of open wounds:

abrasions, lacerations, avulsions, and punctures


most common, skin rubbed/scrapped away


cut/jagged/smooth edges


skin/soft tissue is partially/completely torn away


skin is pierced.


pads placed directly on wound to absorb blood

occlusive dressing

bandage or dressing that closes a wound/damaged area

critical burn

any burn that is potentially life threatening, disabling or disfiguring

deep burn

a burn that involves the two lower layers of the skins (dermis and hypodermis) and may destroy underlying structures

superficial burn

burn that only involves the top layer of the skin. dry, red skin. sun burn.

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