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68 terms

Health Careers Chapters 8-10

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Hemorrhage
large amount of bleeding in a short amount of time
Blood
both liquid and solid components, 7 percent of body weight
Average adult has how many pints of blood?
10-12 pints
Plasma is...
the liquid part of blood, 1/2 of total blood volume, mostly water
Solid part of blood?
Red blood cells, White blood cells, Platelets
Plasma's purpose
nutrients needed for energy production, growth and cell maintenance. Carries waste products for elimination and transports other blood components.
WBC
disease fighting-part of the immune system and defends the body against microorganisms and pathogens. Produces antibodies that resist infection
RBC
Make up most of the solid components of blood. Produced in the marrow of large bones. 260 million red blood cells in one drop of blood. Transports oxygen from lungs to body cells and carbon dioxide from cells to lungs.
Platelets
disk-shaped structures-cell fragments. Essential for clotting-tendency to bind together. Helps stop bleeding by forming blood clots at wound sites.
Functions of the Blood
Transports oxygen, nutrients, and waste. Protects against disease by producing antibodies. Maintains body temp by circulating blood everywhere.
3 main blood vessels are
arteries, capillaries, veins
Arteries:
blood AWAY from heart, blood travels faster (greater pressure)
Capillaries:
microscopic blood vessels, link arteries and veins. Transfers oxygen to other nutrients from blood to cell. Carbon dioxide from cells move into veins
Veins:
carries waste products from cells to kidneys, intestines, and lungs (where was is eliminated)
Bleeding:
Maintain flow of oxygen rich blood to blood tissues (vital organs)
Process of bleeding
Brain will recognize shortage, signal heart to circulate more blood, and signals lungs to work harder and provide more oxygen.
External bleeding:
blood vessel is opened externally.
Arterial external bleeding
rapid, severe, and life threatening. Difficult to clot, bright red
Venous external bleeding
Damaged often, close to skin surface, less pressure, dark maroon.
Capillary external bleeding
Most common external bleeding. Small, slow, oozes, pale red
Direct pressure:
sterile dressing and gloved hand. Pressure places on wound, restricts blood out of wound and helps clot
Pressure bandage:
bandage applied to bleeding snugly
What happens if direct pressure doesn't work?
That means there is severe external bleeding.
Severe external bleeding signals
Blood spurting from wound, bleeding does not stop after trying to stop it.
Steps to care for external bleeding
1. Check scene and person
2. Obtain consent
3. Cover w/sterile dressing
4. Apply direct pressure until bleeding stops
5. Cover the dressing w/bandage
6. Place direct pressure on wound with gauze, pad, or clean cloth
7. Apply pressure bandage to hold gauze in place
8. Add more pads/bandage if the blood soaks through
9. Dont remove blood soaked pads!!!
10. Call 911
11. Monitor victims airway and breathing; observe signals of condition worsening
Steps to care for external bleeding if bleeding does not stop:
1. Apply bandages
2. Take steps to minimize shock
3. Call 911 if haven't already
Internal bleeding:
escape of blood from arteries, veins, capillaries, into spaces of body.
Severe internal bleeding may result from
a blunt force
Severe internal bleeding signals:
Hard tissues become soft, injured area is swollen, tender, or rigid; anxiety/restlessness; rapid, weak pulse; rapid breathing, shortness of breath; moist, pale, cool, ashen skin; bruising; nausea/vomiting; coughing blood; abdomen pain; excessive thirst; decreased level of consciousness; severe headache
Steps to care for internal bleeding:
If severe, call 911. 1. Do not further harm. 2. Monitor bleeding/consciousness. 3. Help victim rest in a comfortable position. 4. Keep victim from getting chilled/heated. 5. Reassure victim. 6. Give specific care when needed.
Minor internal bleeding:
ice pack to reduce swelling/pain.
When do you use ABCDEs?
to assess life-threatening conditions.
ABCDE stands for:
airway, breathing, circulation, disability (damage to spinal cord), exposure (injuries caused by environmental condition)
Secondary assessment consists of:
DOTS, AVPU, and vitals.
DOTS stands for:
Deformity, open injuries, tenderness, swelling.
AVPU stands for:
Alert, verbal (to any stimuli), painful (to any stimuli), and unresponsive (to any stimuli).
Levels of alertness:
A+Ox4= who, when, where, and what happened
A+Ox3=who, when, where
A+Ox3=who and when
A+Ox2=who
SAMPLE is used to...
gain essential information about the patient's medical history.
SAMPLE stands for:
Signs and symptoms, allergies, pertinent past medical history, last intake and output, events leading up to injury/illness.
LOR stands for:
Level of responsiveness
CSM stands for:
circulation, sensation, movement.
Average vitals on an adult
HR 50-100
RR 12-20
Health body conditions to maintain adequate blood flow:
Heart working well, adequate amount of oxygen rich blood to circulate body, blood vessels intact to blood flow
Shock:
failure of circulatory system to provide an adequate amount of oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body.
Vital organs:
brain, heart, and lungs. do not function properly without an adequate amount of oxygen rich blood
Blood volume
total amount of blood circulating body
Any severe fluid loss equals..
shock
Signals of shock:
Restlessness or irritability, Altered consciousness, pale, ashen bluish skin; rapid breathing, rapid/weak pulse, excessive thirst, nausea/vomiting.
Care for shock:
Check, call, care.
1. Help victim lie down on back
2. Elevate legs 12 in to help blood circulate to vital organs
Do NOT elevate legs when caring for shock IF:
Victim is nauseated or has trouble breathing, any head/neck/back injury, or victim is moving because of more pain.
soft tissues
layers of skin, fat, and muscle that protect underlying body structures
epidermis:
top layer, barrier to bacteria/organisms
dermis:
deepest layer, contains nerves, hair roots, sweat and oil glands
hypodermis
below dermis: contains fat, blood vessels and connective tissue
muscles
considered soft tissue and lie beneath fat layer-comprise largest segment of body's soft tissue
wounds
any physical injury involving breakage of skin
closed wound
injury that doesnt break skin, soft tissue damages, occurs beneath skin
Care for closed wounds:
direct pressure/elevate injured area, apply cold to reduce swelling or pain. leave ice pack for 20 minutes.
4 types of open wounds:
abrasions, lacerations, avulsions, and punctures
Abrasion
most common, skin rubbed/scrapped away
Laceration:
cut/jagged/smooth edges
Avulsions
skin/soft tissue is partially/completely torn away
Puncture:
skin is pierced.
Dressings
pads placed directly on wound to absorb blood
occlusive dressing
bandage or dressing that closes a wound/damaged area
critical burn
any burn that is potentially life threatening, disabling or disfiguring
deep burn
a burn that involves the two lower layers of the skins (dermis and hypodermis) and may destroy underlying structures
superficial burn
burn that only involves the top layer of the skin. dry, red skin. sun burn.