A.P. Psychology: Chapter 8 - Memory
Terms in this set (67)
persistence of learning over time through storage and retrieval of info.
getting info into memory system—for example, by extracting meaning or elaborating
clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event; high confidence in the memory, but still subject to decay/errors in recall
relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
process of getting info out of memory storage.
immediate, very brief recording of sensory info in the memory system.
activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before info is stored or forgotten.
memory process of the retention of encoded info over time.
unconscious encoding of incidental info, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
encoding that requires attention and conscious work
system for remembering involving repeating info to oneself without attempting to find meaning in it
spacing effect or distributive study
tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
phonemic or acoustic encoding
encoding sound, especially sounds of words.
encoding of meaning, including meaning of words.
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
structural (visual) encoding
encoding of picture images.
mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
long-term potentiation (LTP)
increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
loss of memory caused by brain injury resulting from physical damage, disease, or alcohol or drugs
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare." (Also called declarative memory.) Includes episodic and semantic
a memory that was not deliberately learned or of which you have no conscious awareness of a procedure (also called procedural or non declarative memory)
brain part located in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
measure of memory in which person must retrieve info learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
measure of memory in which person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response -aids in retrieval
eerie sense that "I've experienced this before." Cues from current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience.
tendency to recall experiences consistent with one's current good or bad affect. When we are happy it is easier to recall positive memories than negative ones.
old info interferes with learning new info and you can't remember the new info
new info interferes with remembering old info and you can't remember the old info
in psychoanalytic theory, basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. (done unconsciously)
incorporating incorrect info into someone's memory of an event can alter their memory - important for research on eyewitnesses and jury trials
attributing to wrong source an event we experienced, heard about, or read about.
strong desire or motive to forget, usually experience is too disturbing/upsetting to remember (like repression)
Linking a stimulus to other info at time of encoding.
strategy for remembering lists by picturing items in familiar locations.
associating items to be remembered with pre-memorized peg words like one-bun
did a case study on himself; memorizing nonsense words, curve of forgetting
studied false memories (confabulations) and impact on eyewitness testimony; effects of leading questions
Continuing to rehearse info even after it has been memorized; method to overcome forgetting curve
founded by Ebbinghaus graphic representation of speed and amount of forgetting that occurs
memory measure that assesses amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
individual that found that STM has capacity of about 7 (+/- 2) items.
memory for meanings and general (impersonal) facts stored in hippocampus
Memory of one's life, including time of occurrence - dated personal recollections stored in hippocampus
even after encoding something well, we sometimes later forget it because connections to memory disintegrate
inability to remember events that occurred during one's early years (before age 3) due to neurological immaturity
tip of the tongue phenomenon
The experience during attempted recall that you have access to some aspects of the memory - but can't quite get it out
context dependent memory
theory that info learned in a particular situation or PLACE is better remembered when in that same situation or place.
state dependent memory
Memory is recalled better because you are in the same physiological state as when you were learning the info
memory for skills, including perceptual, motor, and cognitive skills required to complete tasks; also called implicit memory
cocktail party effect
ability to focus one's listening attention on a single talker among a mixture of conversations and background noises and still pick up relevant info such as your name
tendency to rate past events more positively than they had actually rated them when the event occurred.
ability to remember with great accuracy visual information on the basis of short-term exposure; also called photographic memory
next in line effect
phenomenon in which people tend to not recall much of what was said just before they took their turn to speak.
tendency to show greater memory for info that comes first in a sequence. One part of serial position effect
tendency to show greater memory for info that comes last in a sequence. One part of the serial position effect
levels of processing theory
concept that the more deeply people encode info, the better they will recall it. (semantic is most deep level of processing)
Stimuli used to study memory (originally used by Ebbinghaus); typically composed of a consonant-vowel-consonant sequence
information processing model
model of memory in which info must pass through discrete stages via processes of encoding, storage, and retrieval
the capacity of STM
7 plus or minus 2
newer understanding of STM that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory & visual-spatial info, and of info retrieved from LTM
two almond-shaped neural clusters of the limbic system that process the emotional aspects of memories
brain area which stores implicit or procedural memories
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