To be classified as a psychological disorder, behavior must be deviant (different from norm), distressful, and dysfunctional (affects daily life)
An eating disorder that involves persistent loss of appetite that endangers an individual's health and stems from emotional or psychological reasons rather than from organic causes.
Antisocial personality disorder
Characterized by a long-sanding pattern of irresponsible behavior indicating a lack of conscience and a diminished sense of responsibility to others.
Mental problems characterized mainly by anxiety; include panic disorder, specific phobias, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A developmental disability involving short attention span, distractibility, and extreme difficulty in remaining inactive for any period.
A developmental disorder marked by disabilities in language, social interaction, and the ability to understand another person's state of mind.
An eating disorder characterized by binges followed by "purges" induced by vomiting or laxatives; typically initiated as a weight-control method.
A type of somatoform disorder, marked by paralysis, weakness, or loss of sensation but with no discernible physical cause.
Extreme disorders of thinking, involving persistent false beliefs; hallmark of paranoid disorders.
An abnormality involving the sensation that mind and body have separated, as in an "out-of-body" experience.
In reference to schizophrenia, the proposal that says that genetic factors place the individual at risk while environmental stress transform this potential into an actual schizophrenic disorder.
A psychologically induced loss of memory for personal information, such as one's identity or residence.
A group of pathologies involving "fragmentation" of the personality, in which some parts of the personality have become detached, or dissociated, from other parts.
Essentially the same as dissociative amnesia, but with the addition of "flight" from one's home, family, and job.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
A condition in which an individual displays multiple identities, or personalities; formerly called "multiple personality disorder."
The fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association; the psychiatric classification system most widely accepted in the United States.
Generalized anxiety disorder
A psychological problem characterized by persistent and pervasive feelings of anxiety, without any external causes.
False sensory experiences that may suggest mental disorder; may have other causes, such as drugs or sensory isolation.
A legal term, not a psychological or psychiatric one, referring to a person who is unable, because of a mental disorder or defect, to conform his or her behavior to the law.
Major depressive disorder
A mood disorder that occurs when a person exhibits the lethargy, feelings of worthlessness, or loss of interest in family, friends, and activities characteristic of depression for more than a two-week period and for no discernible reason.
A wildly optimistic, euphoric, hyperactive state that alternates with depression in the bipolar disorder
The view that mental disorders are diseases that, like ordinary physical diseases, have objective physical causes and require specific treatments.
Abnormal disturbances in emotion or mood, including bipolar disorder and unipolar disorder; also called affective disorders.
Narcissistic personality disorder
Characterized by a grandiose sense of self-importance, a preoccupation with fantasies of success or power, and a need for constant attention or admiration.
Before the DSM-IV, this term was used as a label for subjective distress or self-defeating behavior that did not shows signs of brain abnormalities or grossly irrational thinking.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
A condition characterized by patterns of persistent, unwanted thoughts and behaviors.
A disturbance marked by panic attacks that have no obvious connection with events in the person's present experience; unlike generalized anxiety disorder, the victim is usually free of anxiety between panic attacks.
Conditions involving a chronic, pervasive, inflexible, and maladaptive pattern of thinking, emotion, social relationships, or impulse control.
A group of anxiety disorders involving a pathological fear of a specific object or situation.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia lasting four weeks ore more following a traumatic experience.
Refers to positive psychological changes that may result from dealing with extremely challenging circumstances
The notion that we have an innate tendency, acquired through natural selection, to respond quickly and automatically to stimuli that posed a survival threat to our ancestors.
Any pattern of emotions, behaviors, or thoughts inappropriate to the situation and leading to personal distress or the inability to achieve important goals.
Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
Believed to be a form of depression caused by deprivation of sunlight.
A psychological alternative to the medical model that views psychological disorder through a combination of the social, cognitive, and behavioral perspectives.