92 terms

CA final trouble terms

a combination of phonemes that communicates a standardized meaning
scientific approaches
theoretical notion that human cultural differences and similarities can be explained in the same sense as biologists explain life and its evolution
the study of the units of meaning in language
Material culture
artifacts and other physical, visible manifestations of culture, including art, architectural features, tools, consumer goods, clothing, and writing
each individual is allowed to have only one spouse at a time
ecclesiastical organizations
religious organizations in which a full-time priesthood performs rituals believe to benefit believers or the whole society, usually in large buildings dedicated to religious purposes or deities; found in complex societies
Anthropological linguistics
subfield that focuses on the interrelationships between language and other aspects of a people's culture
rights and duties that individuals receive because of their personal identity or membership in a social group
a kind of religious specialist, usually full-time, who officiates at large-scale, bureaucratically organized rituals that keep the population in proper relationship to deities or cosmic forces
court leagal systems
systems in which authority for settling disputes and punishing crimes is formally vested in a single individual or group
a kind of social control characterized by the presence of authority, intention of universal application, obligation, and sanction
system of stratification in which membership in a stratum can theoretically be altered and intermarriage between strata is allowed
sapir-whorf hypothesis
the idea that language profoundly shapes the perceptions and the worldview of its speakers
the use of psychic powers to harm others by supernatural means
initiation rite
a rite held to mark the transition, usually to sexual maturity, of an individual or group of individuals of the same sex
psychological approach
the notion that the emotional or affective satisfactions people gain from religion are primary
degree to which individuals, groups, and categories differ in their access to rewards
Patterns of behavior
within a single culture, the behavior most people perform when they are in certain culturally defined situations
ideas and beliefs that legitimize and reinforce inequalities in stratified societies
stratified society
society with marked and largely or partly heritable differences in access to wealth, power, and prestige; inequality is based mainly on unequal access to productive and valued resources
Cultural knowledge
information, skills, attitudes, conceptions, beliefs, values, and other mental components of culture that people socially learn during enculturation
the description of a specific culture
a method of cultivation in which hand tools powered by human muscles are used and in which land use is extensive
social control
mechanisms by which behavior is constrained and directed into acceptable channels, thus maintaining conformity
Cultural integration
the interrelationships among the various components of a cultural system
Cultural identity
the cultural tradition a group of people recognize as their own; the shared customs and beliefs that define how a group sees itself as distinctive
custom whereby a widower marries a female relative of his deceased wife
incipient courts
Court systems in which judicial authorities meet, frequently informally, in private to discuss issues and determine solutions to be imposed. Evidence is not formally collected, and the parties involved in these cases are not formally consulted
theoretical orientation claiming that the main influences on cultural differences and similarities are technology, environment, and how people produce and distribute resources
theoretical idea that each culture historically develops its own unique thematic patterns around which beliefs, values, and behaviors oriented
conflict theory of inequality
theory holding that stratification benefits mainly the upper stratum and is the cause of most social unrest and other conflicts in human societies
Biological determinism
the idea that biologically inherited differences between populations are important influences on cultural differences between them
evolutionary psychology
emphasizes that humans are animals and so are subject to similar evolutionary forces as the other animals
centralized political systems with authority vested in formal, usually hereditary, offices or titles
gender stratification
the degree to which males and females are unequal in dimensions such as status, power, or influence, access to valued resources, eligibility for social positions, and ability to make decisions about their own lives
hunting and gathering
adaptations based on the harvest of wild plants and animals
humanistic approach
theoretical orientation that rejects attempts to explain culture in general in favor of achieving an empathetic understanding of particular cultures
Enculturation (socialization)
the transmission (by means of social learning) of cultural knowledge to the next generation
Medical Anthropology
the specialization that researches the connections between cultural beliefs and habits and the spread and treatment of diseases and illnesses
shamanistic organizations
religious organizations in which certain individuals (shamans) have relationships with supernatural powers that ordinary people lack
Cultural Relativism
the notion that one should not judge the behavior of other peoples using the standards of one's own culture
biolocal residence
postmarital residence in which couples move between the households of both sets of parents
omaha terminology
kinship terminology system associated with patrilineal descent in which ego's mothers and relatives are distinguished only by their sex
theoretical orientation that analyzes cultural elements in terms of their useful effects to individuals or to the persistence of the whole society
formal institutions that cut across communities and serve to unite geographically scattered groups; may be based on kin groups (clans or lineages) or on non-kin-based groups (age grades or warrior societies)
custom whereby a widow marries a male relative of her deceased husband
intenional plantin, cultivation, care, and harvest of domesticated food plants
exogamous rules
marriage rules prohibiting individuals from marrying a member of their own social group or category
cultural construction of kinship
the idea that the kinship relationships a given people recognize do not perfectly reflect biological relationships; reflected in the kinship terminology
communal organizations
religious organizations in which the members of a group cooperate to perform rituals intended to benefit all.
unilineal evolutionism
the nineteenth-century theoretical orientation that held that all human ways of life pass through a similar sequence of stages in their development
life course
the changes in expected activities, roles, rights and obligations, and social relationships individuals experience as they move through culturally defined age categories
self-help legal systems
Informal legal systems in societies without centralized political systems, in which authorities who settle disputes are defined by the circumstances of the case
revitalization movement
a religious movement explicitly intended to create a new way of life for a society or group
intellectual approach
the notion that religious beliefs provide explanations for puzzling things and events
semantic domain
a class of things or properties perceived as alike in some fundamental respect
individualistic organizations
religious organizations based on personal relationships between specific individuals and specific supernatural powers
simple bands
autonomous or independent political units, often consisting of little more than an extended family, with informal leadership vested in one of the older family members
cross-cultural comparisons
a methodology for testing a hypothesis using a sample of societies drawn from around the world
courts of regulation
court systems that use codified laws, with formally prescribed rights, duties and sanctions
the study of human cultures from a comparative perspective
tone languages
languages in which changing voice pitch within a word alters the entire meaning of the word
those who follow the philosophical viewpoint that emphasizes as the relativity of all knowledge, including science, focus on how the knowledge of a particular time and place is constructed
the socially learned knowledge and patterns of behavior shared by some group
Comparative Perspective
the insistence by anthropologists that valid hypotheses and theories about humanity be tested with information from a wide range of cultures
ranked society
society that has a limited number of high-ranking social positions that grant authority; groups are ranked relative to one another, with the highest rank bringing the highest rewards in prestige, power, and sometimes wealth
cargo cults
Melanesian revitalization movements in which prophets claim to know secret rituals that will bring wealth (cargo).
the mid-twentieth century rebirth of evolutionary approaches to the theoretical study of culture
the pastoral pattern involving migration to different elevations to respond to seasonal differences in the availability of pasturelands
a form of communal religious organization in which all members of a kin group have mystical relationships with one or more natural objects
total system of linguistic knowledge that allows the speakers of a language to send meaningful messages that hearers can understand
studies of changes in a culture over time
the description of a culture at one period in time
the description of a culture at one period in time
an autonomous political unit encompassing a number of distinct, geographically dispersed communities held together by sodalities
the performance of rites and spells for the purpose of causing harm to others by supernatural means
Biological (physical) anthropology
major subfield of anthropology that studies the biological dimensions of humans and other primates
courts of mediation
court systems in which the judges attempt to reach compromise solutions, based on the cultural norms and values of the parties involved, that will restore the social cohesion of the community.
marriage alliances
the relationships created between families or kin groups by intermarriage
the collection of goods or money from a group, followed by a reallocation to the group by a central authority
custom in which a man spends a period of time working for the family of his wife
studies of changes in a culture over time
cultural differences characteristic of members of various ethnic groups, regions, religions, and so forth within a single society or country
kinship terminology
the logically consistent system by which people classify their relatives into labeled categories or into kinds of relatives
ethnographic fieldwork
collection of information from living people about their way of life
historical particularism
the theoretical orientation emphasizing that each culture is the unique product of all the influences to which it was subjected in its past, making cross-cultural generalizations questionable
a method of cultivation in which hand tools powered by human muscles are used and in which land use is extensive
functional theory of inequality
theory holding that stratification is a way to reward individuals who contribute most to society's well-being
secular ideology
an ideology that does not rely on the will of supernatural powers but justifies inequality on the basis of its society wide benefits
Classifications of reality
ways in which the members of a culture divide up the natural and social world into categories, usually linguistically encoded
ethnohistoric research
the study of past cultures using written accounts and other documents
a centralized, multilevel political unit characterized by the presence of a bureaucracy that acts on behalf of the ruling elite