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a learning strategy that young children frequently use to relocate someone' behaviors, actions, phrases, etc.

Language Development

modeling and not correction is always the best way to support language development in young children

Six Components

Phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon, semantics, and pragmatics


is the study of the sound system of a language. The basic units of sound are called Phonemes


individual letters.
Example: through has seven graphemes


is the study of the structure of words and word formations


are the smallest representation of meaning.
For example, the word cars is made up with two morphemes: the basic word or root word car and the plural morphemes s.

Syntax **

entails the ways in which words are organized and arranged in a language. English has specific basic sentence structures that are referred to as Kernel Sentence


refers to the vocabulary of a language.
example, the word HOT can have several different meanings; high temperature, fashionable and lucky

Semantics 의미

refers to the way that meaning is conveyed in language through the use of its vocabulary. The meaning of words is also based on culture as well as the context of the conversation taking place


referes to the implied meaning of words and ideas. speaker must have knowledge of the culture to understand an expression's implied meaning


refers to the literal meaning of words and ideas.


describes how context can affect the interpretation of communication. Native speakers often call these rules "commonsense rules"

Stages of Language Development

Babbling or Pre-Language Stage (0~6 months)
Holophrastic One-Word Stage ( 11-19 months)
Two-Word Stage (13-24 months)
Telegraphic Stage (18-27 months)
Ages Two to Three Year
Age Four
Age Five
Ages Six and SEven
Ages Eight to Twelve


refers to words that can be used to accomplish multiple functions. i.e., no,up,all, see more, and gone


voice, fluency, articulation, and language processing


to carry; to transport. to communicate


또렷한 발음

Voice Disorders

considered any type of distortion of the pitch, timbre(음색), or volume of spoken communication.
Two Types of Voice Disorder: Phonation and Resonance

Phonation 발음, 발성

any kind of abnormality in the vibration of the vocal fold. For example, hoarseness or extreme breathiness can interfere with comprehension

Resonance 울림

describes abnormalities created when sound passes through the vocal tract. The most typical example of resonance disorder occurs when the sound passing through the nasal cavity changes oral sounds to nasal, which is called hyper-nasal sounds. This type of disorder should not be confused with nasal quality of Sourther dialects like the Texas twang

Stuttering 말을 더듬다

characterized by multiple false starts or the inability to produce the intended sounds


빠른 말투로 불명확하게 떠들다
occurs when children try to communicate in a excessively face mode that makes comprehension difficult


혀 짧은 발음
a tern used when children (or adults) produce the sound /s/, /sh/, /z/, and /ch/ with their tongue between the upper and lower teeth

Language processing Disorders

generally caused by a brain-based distrubance called aphasia ( 실어증)
Three Types of Aphasia are known as : receptive, expressisve, and global

Receptive Aphasia

or sensory aphasia
result from a lesion to a region in the upper back part of the temporal lobe of the brain.
People affected with this condiction have the tendency of repeating formulaic phrases and producing unintelligible sequences of words or sounds.

Expressive Aphasia

Result from damage to the lower back part of the frontal lobe. This damage affects the speaking ability and causes specific problems with articulation and fluencty.

Global Aphasis

Also a brain-based disorder that affects both the receptive and expressive feature of language. Children with this kind of serer impariment of articulation and fluency produce minimal speech and thier comprehension is very limited. This type of language disorder is also known as "irreversible aphasis" which susgest that little can be done to help children suffering from this condition.

Activities to Promote Oral Communication

Dramatic Play
Language Play
Puppet Show
Pair Interview

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Voice Recording