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1) Which of the following statements concerning cellular metabolism is FALSE?
A) Energy obtained from nutrients or light is stored in the bonds of ATP.
B) Enzymes are used in both catabolic and anabolic reactions.
C) Macromolecules are converted into cell structures via catabolism.
D) The goal of metabolism is reproduction of the organism.
E) ATP is used in the formation of macromolecules.
2) Anabolic reactions may be characterized as
A) exergonic.
B) breaking large molecules into smaller molecules.
C) forming large molecules from smaller molecules.
D) producing ATP.
E) breaking large molecules into smaller molecules to produce ATP.
3) Which of the following statements concerning reduction reactions is FALSE?
A) An electron acceptor gains an electron.
B) They are coupled with oxidation reactions.
C) They frequently involve electron carrier molecules.
D) An electron acceptor becomes more positively charged.
E) A molecule gains a hydrogen atom.
4) The molecule that an enzyme acts upon is known as its
A) substrate.
B) coenzyme.
C) apoenzyme.
D) holoenzyme.
E) catalyst.
5) Which of the following statements concerning enzymes is FALSE?
A) They are usually, but not always, proteins.
B) They function best at 37°C.
C) They can be denatured if the pH of their environment is too high or too low.
D) They form a temporary intermediate compound with a substrate.
E) They can be used to catalyze a chemical reaction over and over again.
6) Sulfanilamide is an antimicrobial drug that mimics the shape of an important substrate for a particular bacterial enzyme, thereby inhibiting the enzyme. This type of inhibition is known as
A) allosteric inhibition.
B) competitive inhibition.
C) excitatory allosteric control.
D) noncompetitive inhibition.
E) feedback inhibition.
7) Which of the following produces NADPH?
A) the pentose phosphate pathway
B) the Entner-Doudoroff pathway
C) the Embden-Meyerhof pathway
D) both the Embden-Meyerhof and Entner-Doudoroff pathways
E) both the pentose phosphate and Entner-Doudoroff pathways
8) Which of the following statements concerning glycolysis is TRUE?
A) It produces ATP by oxidative phosphorylation.
B) It occurs in the cell membranes of bacteria.
C) It both requires the input of ATP and produces ATP.
D) It is an alternative to fermentation.
E) It involves ribulose 5-phosphate as an intermediate
9) Carbon dioxide is a by-product of which of the following?
A) the Krebs cycle
B) glycolysis
C) chemiosmosis
D) the pentose phosphate pathway
E) electron transport
10) Pyruvic acid is a product of
A) the Krebs cycle.
B) fermentation.
C) glycolysis.
D) the Entner-Doudoroff pathway.
E) both glycolysis and the Entner-Doudoroff pathway.
11) All of the following are forms of oxidation EXCEPT
A) loss of an electron.
B) loss of hydrogen atom.
C) a dehydrogenation event.
D) substrate level phosphorylation.
E) gain of an oxygen atom and its electrons.
12) Which of the following can be the final electron receptor in anaerobic respiration in bacteria?
A) nitrate
B) pyruvic acid
C) sulfate
D) both nitrate and sulfate
E) both pyruvic acid and sulfate
13) Which of the following types of carrier molecules is NOT found in electron transport chains?
A) flavoproteins
B) metal-containing proteins
C) hemoglobin
D) cytochromes
E) ubiquinones
14) All of the following are associated with chemiosmosis EXCEPT
A) creation of a proton gradient.
B) beta-oxidation.
C) phosphorylation of 34 molecules of ADP.
D) oxidative phosphorylation.
E) ATP synthase.
15) Which of the following is a by-product of the catabolism of proteins?
A) lactic acid
B) acetyl-CoA
C) proteases
D) ammonia
E) carbon dioxide
16) What is the purpose of the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?
A) production of ATP and NADPH
B) production of oxygen
C) production of ATP and NADH
D) carbon fixation
E) regeneration of NAD+
17) Which of the following is (are) common to chemiosmosis and the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis?
A) reduction of NADP+
B) electron transport
C) a proton gradient
D) both electron transport and a proton gradient
E) electron transport, a proton gradient, and reduction of NADP+
18) Which of the following statements concerning the Krebs cycle is FALSE?
A) Oxaloacetic acid is regenerated.
B) It is also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle.
C) Two molecules of acetyl-CoA generate more ATP after two cycles than a single molecule of glucose at the end of glycolysis.
D) The ATP generated is initially GTP.
E) NAD+ and FAD are reduced as a result.
19) How many ATP molecules can be produced from the NADH generated by the catabolism of a molecule of glucose?
A) 34
B) 30
C) 38
D) 36
E) 4
20) Types of chlorophyll differ in the
A) amount of light they can absorb.
B) amount of ATP they produce.
C) number of electrons they release.
D) amount of oxygen they utilize.
E) wavelengths of light they absorb.
21) Membranes containing the photosystems necessary for photosynthesis are called
A) thylakoids.
B) grana.
C) stroma.
D) chlorophylls.
E) cytochromes.
22) Beta-oxidation of fatty acids produces a substrate of
A) the pentose phosphate pathway.
B) the Entner-Doudoroff pathway.
C) the Embden-Meyerhof pathway.
D) the Krebs cycle.
E) the Calvin-Benson cycle.
23) Which of the following is associated with the Calvin-Benson cycle?
A) acetyl-CoA
24) What is the major product of the Calvin-Benson cycle that can then be used to form glucose?
A) CO2
D) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
25) Chemical reactions that can proceed toward either anabolism or catabolism are called
A) glycolytic.
B) light-independent.
C) synthetic.
D) cyclic.
E) amphibolic.
26) If a cell reverses the process of beta-oxidation, which of the following molecules will it make?
A) glycerol
B) amino acids
C) fatty acids
D) nucleotides
E) starch
27) When a cell forms an amino acid by adding an amine group derived from ammonia to a precursor metabolite, this process is called
A) amination.
B) transamination.
C) reduction.
D) polymerization.
E) deamination.
28) The conversion of amino acids to carbohydrates is an example of
A) amination.
B) gluconeogenesis.
C) substrate-level phosphorylation.
D) beta-oxidation.
E) electron transport.
29) All of the following are aspects of a cell's ability to regulate its metabolism EXCEPT
A) use of the most energy-efficient energy source available.
B) synthesis or degradation of membrane transport proteins.
C) isolation of various enzymes within membranous organelles.
D) synthesis of a catabolic enzyme only when its substrate is available.
E) use of the same coenzymes for anabolic and catabolic reactions that share substrate molecules.
30) The metabolic processes called fermentation
A) produce substrates for the Krebs cycle.
B) are alternatives for the pentose phosphate pathway.
C) use an organic molecule as a final electron acceptor.
D) occur only when oxygen is readily available.
E) produce substrates for glycolysis.
31) Which of the following is a TRUE statement concerning the structure and function of enzymes?
A) All enzymes bind to cofactors necessary for their function.
B) An apoenzyme is a combination of a cofactor bound to a holoenzyme.
C) The higher the temperature, the faster an enzyme will work.
D) Competitive inhibition of an enzyme occurs when an inhibitor binds to an allosteric site on the enzyme.
E) After an enzyme has catalyzed a reaction, it resumes its original shape and can interact with a new substrate molecule.
32) In which of the following stages of glycolysis is ATP made?
A) energy-investment stage
B) lysis stage
C) energy-conserving stage
D) both the energy-investment and the lysis stages
E) both the lysis and energy-conserving stages
33) Where is the most ATP generated for most eukaryotic cells?
A) in the cytoplasmic membrane
B) in the cytosol
C) in the outer membrane of the mitochondria
D) in the mitochondrial matrix
E) on ribosomes
34) The conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl-CoA can be described as __________, because a molecule of CO2 is produced as a by-product.
A) decarboxylation
B) amination
C) respiration
D) oxidation
E) phosphorylation
35) Although glycolysis requires an input of ATP, this pathway results in a net gain of two ATP; therefore it is a(n) __________ pathway.
A) exergonic
B) endergonic
C) oxidative
D) reductive
E) neither exergonic nor endergonic
36) Enzymes known as lyases participate in __________ reactions.
A) anabolic
B) catabolic
C) both anabolic and catabolic
D) neither anabolic nor catabolic
E) oxidation-reduction
37) Reactions involving isomerases are
A) anabolic.
B) catabolic.
C) both anabolic and catabolic.
D) neither anabolic nor catabolic.
E) exergonic.
38) Reactions catalyzed by transferases are
A) catabolic.
B) anabolic.
C) neither anabolic nor catabolic.
D) both anabolic and catabolic.
E) reactions that do not require cofactors.
39) Oxidoreductases participate in __________ reactions.
A) catabolic
B) anabolic
C) both anabolic and catabolic
D) neither anabolic nor catabolic
E) energy neutral
40) Hydrolases are generally involved in __________ reactions.
A) anabolic
B) catabolic
C) both anabolic and catabolic
D) neither anabolic nor catabolic
E) oxidation-reduction
41) Reactions involving ligases are typically __________ reactions.
A) anabolic
B) catabolic
C) both anabolic and catabolic
D) neither anabolic nor catabolic
E) exergonic
42) Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs during the __________ stage(s) of glycolysis.
A) energy-investment
B) lysis
C) energy-conservation
D) both energy-investment and energy-conservation
E) energy-investment, lysis, and energy-conservation
43) The production of NADH takes place during the __________ stage(s) of glycolysis.
A) energy-conservation
B) energy-investment
C) lysis
D) both lysis and energy-investment
E) both energy-investment and energy-conservation
44) Glucose enters glycolysis at the __________ stage(s).
A) energy-conservation
B) lysis
C) energy-investment
D) both lysis and energy-conservation
E) both energy-investment and conservation
45) The intermediate known as DHAP is formed during the __________ stage(s) of glycolysis.
A) energy-investment
B) lysis
C) energy-conservation
D) both energy-investment and energy-conservation
E) both lysis and energy-conservation
1) Reactions that are both catabolic and anabolic are amphibolic.
2) NAD+ and NADP+ are important examples of both coenzymes and electron carriers.
3) Environmental changes can result in the inactivation of enzymes.
4) As the concentration of substrate increases, the activity of the enzyme decreases.
5) Ribozymes are enzymes that cleave the subunits of the ribosome.
6) During chemiosmosis, electrons are pumped across a membrane to produce ATP.
7) Fermentation pathways provide a cell with an alternative way to regenerate NAD+ for glycolysis.
8) Glucose is used as an energy source only when proteins and fats are not available.
9) Essential amino acids are amino acids that cannot be synthesized by an organism and so must be provided as nutrients.
10) The pentose phosphate pathway generates all the necessary precursors for nucleotide biosynthesis.
1) ATP is produced by the phosphorylation of __________.
Answer: ADP
2) Another term for an organic catalyst is a(n) __________.
Answer: enzyme
3) A __________ reaction is one in which a molecule accepts an electron.
Answer: reduction
4) The __________ point of an enzyme is reached when all active sites have bound substrate molecules.
Answer: saturation
5) When a noncompetitive inhibitor molecule binds to a(n) __________ site on an enzyme, the shape of the active site changes so that the substrate molecules can no longer bind.
Answer: allosteric
6) During glycolysis, glucose is converted to __________ acid, a molecule that can be used in either fermentation or respiration pathways.
Answer: pyruvic
7) Electrons are transferred in the Krebs cycle in the form of __________ atoms to NAD+ and FAD.
Answer: hydrogen
8) The purpose of electron transport is to create a proton __________ across a membrane that can then be used to make ATP.
Answer: gradient
9) Anaerobic respiration involves the use of molecules other than oxygen as the final electron __________ in an electron transport chain.
Answer: acceptor
10) Laboratory fermentation tests often include a pH indicator because many bacteria produce __________ as they ferment carbohydrates.
Answer: acids
11) The __________ generate amino acids from carbohydrate precursors and glutamic acid.
Answer: transaminases
12) A(n) __________ is a collection of pigments such as chlorophyll that are used to absorb light in the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
Answer: photosystem
13) Waste products such as sulfur are produced by __________ photosynthetic bacteria as they obtain electrons for noncyclic photophosphorylation. `
Answer: anoxygenic
14) Enzymes increase the rate of reaction by lowering the __________ energy.
Answer: activation
15) During electron transport in chloroplast thylakoids, protons are pumped outside the thylakoid into a space called the __________.
Answer: stroma