World History/ Unit 1 Study Guide/Mayor
Terms in this set (124)
the highest class in certain societies, those holding heredity titles or offices
someone or something having power, authority, or influences' a master or ruler
political or social order that developed during the Middle Ages when royal government were no longer able to defend their subjects; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
under feudalism, a man who served a lord in a military capacity
under feudalism, a member of the heavy armored cavalry
under feudalism, a grant of land made to a vassal; the vassal held political authority within his fief
under feudalism, the unwritten rules that determined the relationship between a lord and his vassal
in medieval Europe, a peasant legally bound to the land who had to provide labor services, pay rents, and be subjects to the lord's control
a wealthy, powerful landowner
in medieval Europe, an agricultural estate that the lord ran and peasants worked
the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
a charter of liberties to which the English barons forced King John to give his assent in June 1215 at Runnymede; a document constituting a fundamental guarantee of rights and privileges.
the practice by which secular rulers both chose nominees to church offices and gave then the symbols of their office
concordat of worms
was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V on September 23, 1122 near the city of Worms
a decree by the pope that forbade priests from giving the sacraments of the Church to the people
a Christian rite
is a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Spanish priest Saint Dominic de Guzmán
the denial of basic church doctrines
created by the Church, also called "Holy Office," to deal with heretics
a person acknowledges as holy or virtuous and typically regarded as being in Heaven after death
bones or other objects connected with saints; considered to be worthy of worship by the faithful
military expeditions carried out by European Christians in the Middle Ages to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims
an unbeliever; a term applied to the Muslims during the crusades
the study of religion and God
a medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason
the language of everyday speech in a particular region
hostility toward or discrimination against Jews; accused of causing the plague by poisoning town wells
in the 15th century; government in which power had been centralized under a King or Queen, i.e., France, England, and Spain
an annual direct tax, usually on land or property
write the names and starting/ending dates of each of the three major eras of the Middle Ages history:
The Early Middle Ages: 500-1000 AD
High Middle Ages: 1000-1300 AD
Last Middle Ages: 1300-1500 AD
How did the collapse of central authority in Europe after the fall of the Roman empire lead to the start of feudalism? (In other words, why did feudalism start in the first place?)
The people of western Europe needed a source of protection from many invading threats with order. As a result, they invented a system in which people of higher classes provided protection for lower classes in return for their loyalty to them. This allowed people to be safe and happy with cooperation between classes.
What were two benefits of the feudal system for Europeans during the Middle Ages? What were two criticisms of the feudal system?
The people got protection from invaders and land to live and work on. The vassals of a king, who were great lords, might also have vassals who would owe them military service in return for a grant of land taken from their estates. Those vassals, in turn, might likewise have vassals. At that level, the vassals would be simple knights with barely enough land to provide them income.
List and explain at least 3 ways that feudalism is different from manorialism. List at least 3 ways that feudalism is similar to manorialism.
Feudalism- political system, land(fiefs), fief is given in exchange for swearing homage (as protection) to the lord.
Manorialism- economic system, land(manor), food services are exchanged for protection on the manor.
Both- land holding systems used in the middle ages, gave protection, determined social status of individuals,
Using at least six specific facts from class, identify and explain the factors that led to revival of trade and then the growth of cities in Europe during the High Middle Ages.
Invasions stopped which led to stability-population nearly doubles. Merchants and crafts people move and settle along trade routes and have markets which led to the revival of trade. The revival of trade led to the revival of cities of trade and manufacturing centers, then that led to new social classes development: patricians = wealthy and bourgeois = middle class. Guilds develop to direct aspects of production for each trade. The revival of trade transitions from bartering to a monetary capitalist system- invention of banking firms to manage money.
Provide an example of how one European monarch was able to centralize power and build a strong state between the years 1000 and 1300. You will need to: give the name of the monarch, the name of the region he ruled over, list at least two specific facts about what he did during his reign that allowed him to centralize power.
Philip the Fair- France
He made the monarchy stronger by expanding the royal bureaucracy.
By 1300 he made France the largest and best-governed monarchy in Europe.
List and explain two ways the Catholic Church was able to make itself so dominant in Europe by the High Middle Ages.
Power of interdict: Pope would order priests not to give sacraments.
The inquisition: office formed by Church to try and execute heretics.
List three cultural innovations of the High Middle Ages. Explain the specific effects each had on Europe.
Architecture- went from using a Romanesque style (rounded arches, windows at the top only, buttresses create thick walls along the bottom to Gothic Style (pointed arches, stained glass all over, flying buttresses)
Universities- first one established is located in Bologna, Italy. Most highly regarded subject was theology. Was influenced by scholasticism. Its chief task was to harmonize Christian teachings with the works of the Greek Philosophers.
Vernacular Literature- universal language: Latin. two most popular types: Troubadour Poetry- was chiefly the product of nobles and knights. Chanson de geste- heroic type.
List three disastrous forces that overwhelmed Europe in 14th century. Explain the specific effects each had on Europe.
Black Death- workers became more valuable so the price of labor and working conditions increased.
Great Schism- split of the papacy between Rome, Italy and Avignon, France-both rival popes denounced each other-weakened Church's authority power- encourages more people to question the power of the Church.
100 year war- new technology in advancement in war (gun powder and cannons)
What factors weakened the kingdoms in Europe after Charlemagne's death in 814?
It was divided into 3 sections. People invaded and cities were destroyed.
List the four main groups in feudal society from most powerful to least powerful:
The king - earls and barons - knights- peasants
How did the obligations of serfs differ from those of lords and knights?
The lord granted his vassal a fief, but in return the lord had to promise to protect his vassal.
Why was land the most important gift that a lord could give a vassal?
In a society with very little money, the ownership of land became the most important.
Describe the role of loyalty in feudal society:
swore an oath for their leaders and fought battles for them
What was a fief and how did it help vassals?
fief is land, and came to hold political authority within them
What is a feudal contract and what responsibilities were involved for each side?
Lord supported a vassal by defending him militarily or taking his side in dispute.
What were leaders chiefly concerned with in the Middle Ages?
Describe who the nobles were (list other names for them):
Kings, dukes, bishops counts, and barons who had large landed estates and considerable political power in society.
What kinds of power did the nobles have (list the three types):
political, economic, social
Define chivalry and identify three features of it:
the medieval knightly system with its religious, moral, and social code.
oath to defend the Church and the defenseless
treat captives as honored guests
treat aristocratic women with tenderness and respect
Describe the relationship between men and women during this time period:
Women could hols property, most remained under the control of men- of their fathers until they marry, were expected to be subservient to their husbands, but there were many strong who advised.
What were the roles of aristocratic women?
manage the estate, large numbers of officials and servants, care of financial accounts, overseeing food supply
What factors led the population to double in size between the years 1000-1300?
Europe was more settled and peaceful after the invasions of the Middle Ages had stopped. Food production after 1000 also increased because of climate changes.
What sorts of new labor-saving devices were created?
Carruca- a heavy, wheeled plow with an iron plowshare
What other change in farming practices did peasants make that allowed people to grow more crops?
The practice of rotating crops kept the soil fertile, while allowing people to plant new crops
What were serfs responsibilities?
give labor services, par rents, and be subjects to the lord's control
What were serfs restrictions?
couldn't leave the manor
What responsibilities did the lords have to their serfs?
protect, couldn't take their land
List the various characteristics of the life of peasants in Europe:
Cottages- wood frames, surrounded by sticks with spaces between filled with straw and rubble then into clay. Poorer houses consisted of one room, others had 2-3, main one for cooking, eating and other activities, and another for sleeping. Little privacy in the medieval household
How did the revival of trade change how Europeans did business?
with the growth of towns and cities
What was the bourgeoisie and what kinds of people were in it?
merchants, industrialists and professional people
Explain how the revival of trade led to the revival of cities:
towns had greatly declined in the Early Middle Ages, especially in Europe north of the Alps
How did trade led some people to have more freedoms from local lords?
right to buy and sell property, freedom from military services to the lord, a written law that guaranteed townspeople their freedom, and a right for an escaped serf to become a free person after living one year and a day in the town.
Who were the patricians and what was usually their role in medieval cities?
a wealthy powerful landowner- passed laws
Describe what medieval cities were physically like:
Surrounded by stone walls, cities were tightly filled. Narrow-winding streets, houses crowded next to each other with second and third stones built out over the streets
Describe life for women in medieval cities:
supervise the household, prepare meals, raise children, manage family's finances, often helped husband's trade. Independent lives
What is a guild, why did the first come about, and what did they control?
business associations, 1000's on- controlled: set the standards for the quality of the articles, produced and fixed the price at which finished goods could be sold, also determined the number of people who could enter a specific trade
How did the Church become involved in the feudal system? Summarize.
Chief officials of the Church, such as bishops and abbots, came to hold their offices as grants from nobles. As vassals, they were obliged to carry out feudal services, including military duties. Lords often chose their vassals from other noble families for political reasons. Thus, bishops and abbots they chose often worldly figures who cared about spiritual duties.
Why did Pope Gregory VII decide to fight this practice and what conflict came from this?
was convinced he had been chosen by God to reform the Church . Came from Henry IV
Describe the Concordat of Worms and explain why it was a turning point for the Church:
Under this agreement, a bishop in Germany was first elected by Church officials. After, the new bishop paid homage to the king as his lord. The king in return invested him with the symbols of earthly officials.
Pope Innocent III had a strong belief in papal supremacy. He used spiritual weapons like the interdict to make this happen. What was an interdict and what is a sacrament? What was the goal in using interdiction?
Was to cause the people under interdiction, who were deprived of the comforts of religion, to extend pressure against their ruler.
How the Cistercian Order was founded:
In 1098 by a group of monks who were unhappy with the lack of discipline at their own Benedictine monastery
What types of women were joining convents at this time?
Female intellectuals, nuns
Who was Hildegard of Bingen and was she known for?
Composer- succeeded at a time when music, especially sacred music, was almost exclusively the domain of men
Who led the Franciscans, what their goals were:
Francis of Assisi- for a return to the simplicity and poverty of the early Church missionary work
Who led the Dominicans, and what their goals were (including what heresy is):
Spanish priest Domanic de Guzmán- defend the Church teachings from heresy
What was the Inquisition?
dealt with heretics
How were people punished for confessing?
Why did people think this was an accepted practice?
Believed the only path to salvation was through the Church. To them, heresy was a crime against God and humanity. So using force to save souls was the right thing to do.
List some examples of saints:
Jesus' apostles, Mary and numerous local saints of special significance to a single area
Why are relics considered to be significant?
Were considered worthy of worship because they were believed to provide a link between the earthly world and God.
List the places that Medieval Christians would take pilgrimages to:
Holy Shrine, Holy City of Jerusalem, Rome, Spanish town of Santiago de Compostela, tomb of the apostle Jesus
The text describes several different motivations behind the Crusades. List them here:
How many early Crusades were there? What was their common factor?
3- all going to Jerusalem or "Holy Land"
Were the later Crusades successful?
___________________________________________________ benefited the most from the Crusades due to increased trade with the Eastern world.
Led to widespread attacks on __________________ because Christians believed they were responsible for Jesus's death.
Helped to break down the political system of _____________________________ because nobles sold their land to join armies to fight the Crusades.
As nobles lost power, the kings created stronger __________________ governments.
Paved the way for the development of _________________________________. The three strongest ones that emerged in Europe were Spain, England, and France.
In what style were churches built in during the eleventh and twelfth centuries? What were these churches like inside?
Romanesque style- dark
What was the name of the new style of architecture that developed?
What two innovations made this possible?
replacement of the round barrel vault with a combination of ribbed vaults and pointed arches and flying buttresses
What did these new style churches have that the old style could not?
Flying buttresses made it possible to distribute the weight of the churches vaulted ceilings outward and down. This eliminated the heavy walls needed in Romanesque to hold the weight the massive barrel vaults. Gothic- built with thin walls with stained glass window
Where were the first universities established?
How did scholasticism influence theology?
its chief task was to harmonize Christian teachings with the works of the Greek philosophers
What was the universal language used in the Church and schools?
What were two popular types of vernacular literature in the twelfth century, and what were they about?
Troubadour Poetry- was chiefly the product of nobles and knights
Chanson de geste- heroic type
What happened in Europe that led to chronic malnutrition and in turn higher susceptibility to disease?
The Great Famine
What was the most common form of the Black Death? How did it spread?
Bubonic Plague. Rats infested with fleas carrying deadly bacterium
When and how did the plague first get to Europe?
What path did the plague usually follow?
About how much of the European population was killed by it? Where did it hit hardest?
75 million, 1/3- Italy's crowded cities
What is anti-semitism? How did the plague lead to this?
hostility toward or discrimination against Jews; accused of causing plague by poisoning wells
_________________ declined, and a shortage of workers caused a dramatic rise in the price of _____________________
Lower demand for _________________, resulting in falling prices
Freedom from ______________________ (since lords now had to pay more for labor)
When was the height of the Church's power? When did they start facing problems?
in the 1200's, in the 1300's
Where is Avignon? From what years did the popes live there instead of Rome?
Southern France, from 1305-1377
List two reasons why the popes living in Avignon were criticized:
the splendor, perceiving the disastrous decline in papal prestige
Summarize what caused the Great Schism:
Gregory XI died soon after his return to Rome. People elected new pope, so there were 2 popes.
The Great Schism divided Europe. Describe each "side" of the schism:
France and its allies supported the pope in Avignon and England and its allies supported the pope in Rome
How did the Great Schism damage the Church?
the pope was believed to be the true leader of Christendom when each line of the popes denounced the other as the Antichrist, people's faith in both the papacy and the Church were undermined
Describe the state of the Church by the early 1400's:
had lost much of its political power, no longer supreracy of the state
What event sparked the Hundred Years' War? When?
Edward declared war on Philip in 1337
Why was the Hundred Years' War a turning point in warfare?
peasant foot soldiers, not knights, won the chief battles of the war
What was Joan of Arc's role in the Hundred Years' War?
was a major general in the French army
Who won the Hundred Years' War? When did it end?
England in 1415
What effects did the Hundred Years' War have on France?
developed a strong degree of French national feeling toward a common enemy
How did a tallie help King Louis XI strengthen the monarchy?
gave him a regular source of income
What effects did the Hundred Years' War have on England?
the cost of the war and losses in man power strained the economy
What did Henry VII do to create a strong royal government?
ended the wars of the nobles by abolishing their private armies, also very thrifty, but not overburdening the nobles and the middle class with taxes
What actions did Ferdinand and Isabella take to strengthen royal control in Spain?
believed religious unity was necessary for political unity, pursuing a policy of strict conformity to Catholicism
How was central and Eastern Europe different from France, England, and Spain? Why?
didn't develop a strong monarchical authority