Supporters of the Constitution labeled themselves as this. It is a term that oponents of centralization had once used to describe themsleves, thus implying that they were less committed to a "nationalist" government than in fact they were. They had the support of Washington, Franklin, two of the most eminent men in America, and the ablest political philosophers of their time, like Hamilton, Madison, and Jay. Those three men, under the joint pseudonym "Publius", wrote a series of essays, that were widely published in newspapers throughout the nation, explaining the meaning and virtues of the Constitution. These essays were later issued as a book and are known today as The Federalist Papers. When he arrived in Paris as the new American minister, the French government refused him. In an effort to stabalize relations, Adams appointed a bipartisan commision to negotiate with France. When they arrived in Paris in 1797, three agents of the French foreign minister, Prince Talleyrand, demanded a loan for France and a bribe for French officials before any negotiations could begin. He replied saying "No! No! Not a sixpence!" When Adams heard of this incident, he sent a message to congress telling them to prepare for war, but before he sent the commissioners' report he changed the names of the three French agents to X, Y, and Z. This report, after published, quickly became known as the "XYZ affair." This provoked widespread outrage toward France and a strong support for the Federalists' response. For nearly two years, 1798-99, the United State found itself in an undeclared war with France.