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22 terms

Chapter 2O Vocabulary

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Due Process
(law) the administration of justice according to established rules and principles
Substantive Due Process
Constitutional requirement that governments act reasonably and that the substance of the laws themselves be fair and reasonable; limits what a government may do.
Police Power
state power to enact laws promoting health, safety, and morals
Search Warrant
a warrant authorizing law enforcement officials to search for objects or people involved in the commission of a crime and to produce them in court
Procedural Due Process
Constitutional requirement that governments proceed by proper methods; limits how government may exercise power.
Involuntary Servitude
forced labor
Discrimination
unfair treatment of a person or group on the basis of prejudice
Writs Of Assistance
legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled
Probable Cause
(law) evidence sufficient to warrant an arrest or search and seizure
Exclusionary Rule
a rule that provides that otherwise admissible evidence cannot be used in a criminal trial if it was the result of illegal police conduct
Writ Of Habeas Corpus
a writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge
Bill Of Attainder
a legislative act finding a person guilty of treason or felony without a trial
Expost Facto Law
a law applied retroactively to punish acts that were not crimes before its passage or that were not crimes before its passage or that raises the grade of an offense, or that renders an act punishable in a more severe manner that it was when committed.
Grand Jury
a jury to inquire in accusations of crime and to evaluate the grounds for indictments
Indictment
an accusation of wrongdoing
Double Jeopardy
the prosecution of a defendant for a criminal offense for which he has already been tried
Bench Trial
a trial in which the judge alone hears the case
Miranda Rule
the rule that police (when interrogating you after an arrest) are obliged to warn you that anything you say may be used as evidence and to read you your constitutional rights (the right to a lawyer and the right to remain silent until advised by a lawyer)
Bail
the legal system that allows an accused person to be temporarily released from custody (usually on condition that a sum of money guarantees their appearance at trial)
Preventive Detention
a law which allows federal judges to order that an accused felon be held, without bail, when there is good reason to believe that he or she will commit yet another serious crime before trial
Capitol Punishment
the death penalty
Treason
an act of deliberate betrayal