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Chapter 1: Psychology's Roots, Big Ideas, and Critical Thinking Tools
Terms in this set (57)
How has psychology's focus changed over time?
The focus started as "Magellans of the mind" and had very few women involved. Eventually evolved to modern psychology, focused on behavior AND mental processes.
What are psychology's current perspectives?
Neuroscience, Evolutionary, Behavior Genetics, Psychodynamic, Behavioral, Cognitive, Social-cultural.
What are some current subfields of psychology?
Biological, cognitive, clinical, developmental, social, personality, legal/forensic, counseling, Industrial-organizational, Cognitive neuroscience, and developmental.
What four big ideas run throughout this book?
Critical thinking, biophysical approach, two-track mind (dual-processing capacity), exploring human strengths.
How does our everyday thinking sometimes lead us to the wrong conclusion?
Common flaws in intuitive thinking include: hindsight bias, overconfidence, and perceiving patterns in random events.
What are the three key elements of the scientific attitude, and how do they support scientific inquiry?
CURIOSITY (A passion to explore and understand without misleading or being misled) , SKEPTICISM
( not cynical, but not gullible either), and HUMILITY (An awareness that we can make mistakes, and a willingness to be surprised and follow new roads.
How do psychological theories guide scientific research?
By organizing isolated facts, a theory simplifies. Linking facts to underlying principles, a theory connects the dots and offers useful summaries. A clear picture emerges.
How do scientists use case studies?
They look to methods beyond the case study to uncover general truths.
How do scientists use naturalists observations?
Helps them describe behavior, and the descriptions can be revealing.
How do scientists use surveys to observe and describe behavior?
They use them to observe behavior by random sampling a representative sample of people. They describe behavior by saying if things correlate. Surveys can show how one trait or behavior is related to another. Describing behavior is the first step toward predicting it.
Why is random sampling important?
By random sampling, you get a more accurate picture of a group's experiences and attitudes.
What are positive correlations?
A correlation that indicates a direct relationship. Two things increase or decrease together.
What are negative correlations?
A correlation that indicates a reverse relationship: As one thing increases, the other decreases.
How can correlations lead to prediction, but not cause-effect explanation?
Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship, but it does not prove causation.
How do experiments clarify or reveal cause-effect relationships?
With experiments, researchers can focus on the possible effects of one or more factors by manipulating factors of interest and by holding a constant.
How do simplified laboratory conditions help us understand general principles of behavior?
They create a mini-environment, which imitates and controls features of everyday life. Instead of focusing on a particular behavior, they focus on the general principles of an experiment.
How do psychologists study animals?
While following society guidelines, they measure the animal in different settings under different conditions.
What ethical guidelines safeguard human and animal research participants?
By using society guidelines (Housing under reasonably natural living conditions, companions for social animals), and The APA ethics code (Obtain participant's consent, protect them from harm/ discomfort, keep information confidential, and fully debrief participants after experiments).
How do personal values influence psychologists' research and application?
Values affect what they study, how they study it, and how they interpret results.
Does psychology aim to manipulate people?
Psychology aims to enlighten, not to manipulate, but any knowledge can be used for good or evil.
How can psychological principles help you learn and remember?
Repeated self-testing, rehearsal of previously studied material help a lot. The SQ3R (Survey, Question, Read, Recite, Review) method, and by using four additional study tips: Distributing study time, Learning to think critically, Processing information actively, and Overlearning can be used.
The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most scientists agree with the first part, but not the second.
Emphasizes the growth potential of healthy people.
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with mental activity (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
The science of behavior and mental processes.
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, uncovers hidden values, weighs evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Integrates three levels of analysis: biological, psychosocial, and social-cultural. Together offer the most complete picture.
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and handed down from one generation to the next.
The age-old controversy over the relative influence of genes and experience in the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's psychological science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture.
The principle that, at the same time, our mind processes information on separate conscious and unconscious tracks.
The scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive.
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we could have predicted it. (AKA the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
An explanation using principles that organize observations and predict behaviors or events.
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory.
A carefully worded statement of the exact procedures (operations) used in a research study. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
A descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
A descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to change or control the situation.
A descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of that group.
All those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn. (Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population)
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
A measure of the extent to which two events vary together, and thus of how well either one predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from-1 to +1, with 0 indicating no relationship.
A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two factors. The slope of the dots suggests the strength of the correlation (with little scatter indicating high correlation).
A method in which researchers vary one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable).
Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing any differences between the groups.
In an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
In an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment; the control group serves as a comparison with the experimental group for judging the effect of the treatment.
An inactive substance or condition that is sometimes given to those in a control group in place of the treatment given to the experimental group.
A procedure in which participants and research staff are ignorant (blind) about who has received the treatment or a placebo.
Results caused by expectations alone.
In an experiment, the factor that is manipulated; the variable whose affect is being studied.
In an experiment, the factor that is measured; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated.
In an experiment, a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect.
Giving people enough information about a study to enable them to decide whether they wish to participate.
After an experiment ends, explaining to the participants the study's purpose and any deceptions researchers used.
Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information. Also sometimes called the retrieval practice effect or test-enhanced learning.
A study method incorporating five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Retrieve, Review.
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