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28 terms

Sociology Final ch.6

STUDY
PLAY
group
two or more people come together
social group
a number of people who have a common identity, some feeling of unity, and certain common goals and shared norms
social aggregate
people who temporarily happen to be in physical proximity to each other but share little else
primary groups
interaction among members who have an emotional investment in one another and in a situation, who know one another intimately, and who interact as total individuals rather than through specialized roles
secondary group
characterized by much less intimacy among its members. It usually has specific goals, is formally organized, and is impersonal
leader
someone who occupies a central role or position of dominance and influences in a group
instrumental leadership
in which a leader actively proposes tasks and plans to guide the group toward achieving its goals
expressive leadership
in which a leader works to keep relations among group members harmonious and moral high
reference group
a group or social category that an individual uses to help define beliefs, attitudes, and values and to guide behavior
small group
many kinds of social groups, such as families, peer groups, and work groups, that actually meet together and contain few enough members so that all members know one another
dyad
contains only two member
triad
the addition of a third member
subgroups
splinter groups within the larger group
associations
purposefully created special-intest groups that have clearly defined goals and official ways of doing things
formal structure
planned highly institutionalized, and clearly defied statuses and role relationships
informal structure
networks of people who help one another by bending rules and taking procedural shortcuts
gemeinschaft
(rural areas) relationships and intimate, cooperative, and personal/exchange of goods is based on reciprocity and barter, and people look out for the well being of the group as a whole
gesellschaft
(urban society) relationships are impersonal and independent. People look out for their own interests, good are bought and sold, and formal contracts govern economic exchanges
Émile Durkheim
devised ideas about mechanical and organic solidarity
collective conscience
a system of fundamental beliefs and values
social solidarity
emerges from the people's commitment and conformity to the society's collective conscience
mechanically integrated society
a society's collective conscience is strong and there is a great commitment to that collective conscience-common goals and values/personal involvement in community
organically integrated society
social solidarity depends on he cooperation of individuals in many positions who perform specialized tasks-formal and functionally determined
bureaucracy
Robert K. Merton defined this as a formal, rationally organized social structure clearly defined patterns of activity in which, ideally, every series of actions is functionally related to the purposes of the organization
ideal type
Max Weber's model of bureaucracy is this-a simplified, exaggerated model of reality used to illustrate a concept
oligarchy
Robert Michels' bureaucracy is this-under which organizations that were originally idealistic and democratic eventually come to be dominated by a small self-serving group of people who achieved positions of power and responsibility/small groups given responsibility of making decisions
social institutions
the ordered social relationships that grow out of the values, norms, statuses, and roles that organize the activities that fulfill society's fundamental needs
social organization
the relativity stable pattern of social relationships among individuals and groups in society