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The process thru which a sentencing authority imposes a lawful punishment or other sanction on a person convicted of violating the criminal law
A model of criminal sentencing that holds that criminal offenders deserve the punishment they receive at the hands of the state and that suggests that punishments should be appropriate to the type and severity of crime committed
The act of taking revenge on a criminal perpetrator; the most punishment-oriented of all sentencing goals, retribution clams that we are justified in punishing offenders b/c they deserve it
A goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent others from committing crimes similar to the one for which an offender is being sentenced
A goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent a particular offender from engaging in repeat criminality
A goal of criminal sentencing that seeks to prevent others from committing crimes similar to the one for which a particular offender is being sentenced by making an example of the person sentenced
The attempt to reform a criminal offender; also, the state in which a reformed offender is said to be
A sentencing model that builds on restitution and community participation in an attempt to make the victim "whole again"
The use of imprisonment or other means to reduce the likelihood that an offender will be capable of committing future offenses
A person sentenced under the provisions of a statute declaring that those who are convicted of a given offense and are shown to have previously been convicted of another specified offense(s) shall receive a more severe penalty than that for the current offense alone
Under federal sentencing guidelines, a person who (1) is at least 18 yrs. of age at the time of the most recent offense, (2) is convicted of a felony that is either a crime of violence or a controlled substance offense, and (3) has at least two prior felony convictions of either a crime of violence or a controlled substance offense
Statutory provisions that mandate lengthy prison terms for criminal offenders convicted of a third violent crime or felony
A sentencing strategy that imprisons or otherwise removes from society a select group of offenders, especially those considered to be most dangerous
A relatively unspecific term of incarceration stated as a minimum and maximum time to be served (such as a term of imprisonment of "from one to ten years")
One of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense, and served in sequence with the other sentences
One of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense, and to be served simultaneously
A fixed term of incarceration specified by law; also called presumptive or fixed sentence
A sentencing principle that holds that the severity of sanctions should bear a direct relationship to the seriousness of the crime committed
A sentencing principle, based on concerns with social equality, that holds that similar crimes should be punished with the same degree of severity, regardless of the social or personal characteristics of the offenders
A sentencing principle that objectively counts an offender's criminal history in sentencing decisions
A circumstance relating to the commission of a crime that causes its gravity to be greater than that of the avg instance of the given type of offense; also, an element of an offense or of an offender's background that could result in a harsher sentence under the determinate sentencing model than would otherwise be called for by sentencing guidelines
A circumstance surrounding the commission of a crime that does not in law justify or excuse the act but that in fairness may be considered as reducing the blameworthiness of the offender; also, an element of an offense or offender's background that could result in a lesser sentence under the determinate sentencing model than would otherwise be called for by sentencing guidelines
Truth in sentencing
"A close correspondence btwn the sentence imposed upon those sent to prison and the time actually served prior to prison release"
The process of negotiating an agreement among the defendant, the prosecutor, and the court as to what an appropriate plea and associated sentence should be in a given case
A sentence of imprisonment that is suspended; also, the conditional freedom granted by a judicial officer to an adjudicated or adjudged adult or juvenile offender, as long as the person meets certain conditions of behavior
A criminal offense in which the defendant's conduct was motivated by hatred, bias, or prejudice, based on the actual or perceived race, color, religion, nat'l origin, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation of another individual or group of individuals; also called bias crime
The use of split sentencing, shock probation and parole, home confinement, shock incarceration, and community service in lieu of other, more traditional, sanctions, such as imprisonment and fines,; intermediate sanctions are becoming increasingly popular as prisons become more crowded; also called alternative sanctions
A sentence explicitly requiring the convicted person to serve a period of confinement in a local, state, or federal facility, followed by a period of probation
The practice of sentencing offenders to prison, allowing them to apply for probationary release, and granting release in surprise fashion; offenders who receive shock probation may not be aware that they will be released on probation and may expect to spend much longer tie behind bars
A sentencing option that makes use of "boot camp"-type prisons in order to impress on convicted offenders the realities of prison life
A sentence that requires a convicted offender to serve weekends (or other specified periods of time) in a confinement facility (usually a jail), while undergoing probation supervision in the community
A sentencing alternative that requires offenders to spend at least part of their time working for a community agency
A form of probation supervision involving frequent face-to-face contacts btwn the probationary client and probation officers
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