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what form of torture is unexpectedly bad?

solitary confinement

extensive periods of isolation can induce:

delirium, paranoia, hallucination, agitation, impulsive violence

ordinary people who are socially isolated are more likely to become:

depressed, ill, die prematurely

feeling isolated is as bad for your health as what?

being obese or smoking

what's the most social species on the planet?

human beings

social psychology

the study of the causes and consequences of sociality

social behavior

how people interact with each other

social influence

how people change each other

social cognition

how people understand each other

being social is a strategy for:

surviving and reproducing

ultra social means what?

the species forms societies in which large numbers of individuals divide labor and cooperate for mutual benefit

what are the four species that are ultra social?

hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps), termtes, naked mole rats and humans

of the four ultra social species humans are the only one that...

has groups that consists of unrelated individuals

we are so good at reproducing because?

we are ultra social

one very different behaviors happen to be two solutions to one problem?

hurting and helping


behavior whose purpose is to harm another

frustration-agression hypothesis

animals aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated

is the frustration-agression hypothesis right?

some argue that it is INCOMPLETE

ex. of frustration agression hyp.

chip wants banana (goal) but pelican about to take it (frustration) so chip threatens pelican with fist (agression)

the real cause of aggression may be

negative affect

the inability to reach a goal is one thing that brings about

negative affect

acts of agression are more likely to occur on...

hot days when people are irritated and uncomfortable

what two factors play a role in determining who will regress?

biology and culture

the single best predictor of agression is


young men are responsible for about ? of murders and ? of violent crimes in the U.S.

90% and 80%

is male aggressiveness merely a product of socialization?


agression is strongly correlated with what hormone?


is testosterone higher in younger men than older men and violent criminals vs. nonviolent criminals?


testosterone seems to make people:

concerned with their status, powerful, and confident in their ability to prevail

what lowers peoples sensitivity to signs of threat?


three quarters of all murders are classified as

"status competitions" or "contests to save face"

men with ? are prone to agression

unrealistically high self esteem

womens aggression is likely to be more ?


womens agression is often focussed on

attaining or protecting a resource RATHER THAN status

women are MUCH less likely than men to aggress...

without provocation or to aggress in ways that cause physical injury

women are only SLIGHTLY less likely than men to ?

aggress when provoked or to aggress in ways that cause psychological injury

women may even be more likely than men to aggress by causing ?

social harm such as ostracizing others

aggression varies with both

time and geography

in the U.S. aggression is more common where?

in the south, men are taught to react aggressively

does watching violent tv shows/video games make people more aggressive and cooperative?



behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit

is cooperation risky?


the prisoner's dilemma

if you trust your friend and refuse to confess, and if your friend trusts you and refuses to confess, you will both get a light sentence. BUT if you trust your friend and then your friend double-crosses you, your friend gets to o home and you spend 30 years in jail

the prisoner's dilemma mirrors the

risks and benefits of cooperation in everyday life. ex. TAXES

people often want most that the people around them have what quality?


are people good at spotting cheaters?


people have a uniquely powerful capacity to ? that surpasses their capacity for ?

detect cheaters, logical reasoning in general

ultimatum game

one person divides money into two parts, offers one to another, if the decider rejects the offer, both players get nothing and game over

deciders typically reject offers that they consider unfair because

they'd rather get nothing than get cheated

people will pay to ?

punish someone who has treated them unfairly

cooperation requires that we ?

take a risk by benefiting those who have not yet benefited us and then TRUSTING them to do the same


a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others

people in groups tend to be

especially nice to each other


a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership


a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership

one of the defining characteristics of a group is that:

members tend to be positively prejudices toward other members and to discriminate in their favor

even when people are randomly assigned to completely meaningless groups such as "group x" and "group y"

they will discriminate positively towards the members in their group

is cooperation within a group less risky?


if groups have benefits they also have


often, when groups try to make decisions together

they do WORSE than if one person tried to make the decision

groups often give too little weight to ? and too much wight to ?

members who are experts (the professor), members who happen to be high in status or especially talkative (the mayor), ex. schoolboard

members of groups like to maintain ? and therefore ?

harmony, reluctant to "rock the boat"

in certain tasks individuals can

outperform groups by a lot

groups often do terrible things that they would never do alone such as

lynching, rioting, gang-raping

two reasons groups will do things that individuals will not do:

deindividuation, diffusion of responsibility


when immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values

people are most likely to consider their personal values when ?

their attention is focused on themselves

being assembled in groups draws our attention to ?

others and away from ourselves. THEREFORE more likely to ADOPT group's values

diffusion of responsibility

individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way

one of the best predictors of a person's well being is

the quality and extent of their social relationships and group memberships

people who are excluded from groups are typically:

anxious, lonely, depressed and at increased risk for illness and premature death

often, people describe themselves by listing

the groups of which they are members


behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself

any animal that promotes the survival of its relatives is actually

promoting the survival of its own genes

kin selection

the process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives

is cooperating with relatives altruistic?

NO because of kin selection

reciprocal altruism

behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits wil be returned in the future

reciprocal altruism is merely

cooperation extended over long periods of time

while other animals are never truly altruistic,

humans sometimes are

examples of altruism

anonymous donations to charity, tips to waiters, holding the door for others, 9/11 water-borne evacuation

do people mate randomly?

NO, they SELECT their sexual partners

are women more selective than men?


reasons that women are more selective:

1. biology: sex = more costly (risk getting pregnant)
2. culture: reputational costs of sex are much higher (socially acceptable for men to be promiscuous than women)

when do women become less selective?

when cultures lower the costs of sex by providing access to effective birth control, promoting the financial independence of women, adopting communal styles of child-rearing

men become more selective (every bit as much as women) when?

they are choosing a long-term mate

biology makes sex

a riskier proposition for women than for men, but cultures can exaggerate, equalize or even reverse those risks

the riskier sex is:

the more selective people tend to be

attraction is divided into these three factors:

situational, physical and psychological

proximity provides the opportunity for attraction but it also provides

the motivation: people work especially hard to like those with whom they expect to have interaction

what is the main situational factor?


mere exposure effect

the tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking

the fact that exposure leads to liking may explain...

why college students who were randomly assigned to a seat during a brief psychology experiment were especially likely to be friends with the person they sate next to an entire year later

are some places and times better for attraction than others?

YES, suspension bridge, males mistook physiological arousal of fear for attraction

what are the among the best predictors of how many responses a personal ad receives?

a man's height and a woman's weight

appearance is important in


beautiful people have

more friends, more dates, more sex and more fun, even earn more MONEY!

we tend to think that beautiful people have

superior personal qualities

attractive people tend to have better social skills because ?

they have more friends and more opportunity for social interaction

mothers are more affectionate and playful when ?

their children are attractive than unattractive

which gender is more likely to acknowledge that appearance influences people's potential partners?


standards of beauty can

vary across time and culture

common standards of beauty:

1. body shape
2. symmetry
3. age

body shape

attractive male bodies = inverted triangle (broad shoulders with narrow hips)
attractive female bodies = hourglass (broad shoulders and hips with narrow waist)

"perfect hourglass"

waist is 70% of the hips


most attractive = bilaterally symmetrical (when left half is mirror image of right half)

faces are considered especially beautiful when their features approximate

the AVERAGE of the human population


1. female faces more attractive when have immature features: large eyes, high eyebrows and small chin = "baby-faced"
2. male faces considered more attractive when they have mature features

nature has designed us to be attracted to people who have

good genes and will be good parents

body shape and natural selection:

testosterone causes "inverted triangle," estrogen causes "hourglasses"

men high in testosterone tend to be

socially dominant and therefore have more resources to devote to their offspring

women high in estrogen tend to be

especially fertile and potentially have more offspring to make use of those resources

body shape is an indicator of

male dominance and female fertility

symmetry and averageness are signs of

genetic health

women can discriminate symmetrical and asymmetrical men

by smell

women's preference for symmetry is especially pronounced when?

they are ovulating

younger women are generally more fertile than older women thus

a youthful appearance is a signal of a woman's ability to bear children

older men generally have more resources than younger men thus

a mature appearance is a signal of a man's ability to raise children

in general, women prefer ? and men prefer ?

older men, younger women

most people tend to approach, date and marry someone who is:

about as attractive as they are

once people begin interacting they

quickly move beyond appearances

inner qualities

people's personalities, points of view, attitudes, beliefs, values, ambitions, and abilities

which inner qualities are high on everyone's list?

intelligence, sense of humor, sensitivity, ambition

we are most attracted to people who are

generally similar to us on most psychological dimensions (education, religious backgrounds, ethnicities, SES, personality)

the ONLY factor for which the majority of people have a consistent preference for dissimilarity is ?


why is similarity attractive?

1. easy to get along with people who share similar beliefs
2. we feel more confident that our beliefs are right if someone else has them too
3. we can expect that someone will like us for our beliefs (since they are the same as their's) and being liked is a powerful source of attraction

when it comes to friends and lovers extraordinary people

can threaten our self-esteem and make us feel nervous about our own competence

what is one reason that people have romantic, long-term relationships?

babies! born stupid so require years of intense care

the probability for marrying by the age of 40 is ? for men and ? for women

81% and 86%

what is the main reason people marry?


what is a main reason for divorce?

couples don't always have a clear understanding of what love is

two basic kinds of love:

passionate love and companionate love

passionate love

an experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy and intense sexual attraction

companionate love

an experience involving affection, trust and concern for a partner's well-being

which type of love is what brings people together?

passionate, it has a rapid onset, reaches its peak quickly and begins to diminish within just a few months

which type of love keeps people together?

companionate love, it takes some time to get started, grows slowly, and need never stop growing

the first kind of love we experience in a relationship is ? and then later we experience ?

passionate, companionate

what may be a benefit of arranged marriage?

parents are less likely to pick partners on the basis of passionate love and more likely to pick them on the basis of companionate love

social exchange

the hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits

a relationship that provides an acceptable level of benefits at a reasonable cost will ?

be maintained and one that doesn't won't

comparison level

the cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship

a cost-benefit ratio varies on ?

the situation, might be acceptable for two people stranded on an island but not for two people in a large city

cost-benefit ratio seems favorable when we feel...

that it is the best we can do

most people seem to prefer equity, which is

a state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of two partners are roughly equal

after people have poured significant resources into their relationships they are more willing to

settle for less favorable cost-benefit ratios. HENCE why people are more likely to end new marriages than old ones

two ways to get scarce resources are

aggression and cooperation

aggression often results from

negative affect

the likelihood that someone will aggress when they feel negative affect is determined by both

biological factors and cultural factors

one strategy for reducing the risks of cooperation is

to form groups whose members are biased in favor of each other

biology and culture tend to make the costs of reproduction higher for ?

women than men, hence why women are choosier

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