ordinary people who are socially isolated are more likely to become:
depressed, ill, die prematurely
feeling isolated is as bad for your health as what?
being obese or smoking
what's the most social species on the planet?
the study of the causes and consequences of sociality
how people interact with each other
how people change each other
how people understand each other
being social is a strategy for:
surviving and reproducing
ultra social means what?
the species forms societies in which large numbers of individuals divide labor and cooperate for mutual benefit
what are the four species that are ultra social?
hymenoptera (ants, bees, wasps), termtes, naked mole rats and humans
of the four ultra social species humans are the only one that...
has groups that consists of unrelated individuals
we are so good at reproducing because?
we are ultra social
one very different behaviors happen to be two solutions to one problem?
hurting and helping
behavior whose purpose is to harm another
animals aggress when and only when their goals are frustrated
is the frustration-agression hypothesis right?
some argue that it is INCOMPLETE
ex. of frustration agression hyp.
chip wants banana (goal) but pelican about to take it (frustration) so chip threatens pelican with fist (agression)
the real cause of aggression may be
the inability to reach a goal is one thing that brings about
acts of agression are more likely to occur on...
hot days when people are irritated and uncomfortable
what two factors play a role in determining who will regress?
biology and culture
the single best predictor of agression is
young men are responsible for about ? of murders and ? of violent crimes in the U.S.
90% and 80%
is male aggressiveness merely a product of socialization?
agression is strongly correlated with what hormone?
is testosterone higher in younger men than older men and violent criminals vs. nonviolent criminals?
testosterone seems to make people:
concerned with their status, powerful, and confident in their ability to prevail
what lowers peoples sensitivity to signs of threat?
three quarters of all murders are classified as
"status competitions" or "contests to save face"
men with ? are prone to agression
unrealistically high self esteem
womens aggression is likely to be more ?
womens agression is often focussed on
attaining or protecting a resource RATHER THAN status
women are MUCH less likely than men to aggress...
without provocation or to aggress in ways that cause physical injury
women are only SLIGHTLY less likely than men to ?
aggress when provoked or to aggress in ways that cause psychological injury
women may even be more likely than men to aggress by causing ?
social harm such as ostracizing others
aggression varies with both
time and geography
in the U.S. aggression is more common where?
in the south, men are taught to react aggressively
does watching violent tv shows/video games make people more aggressive and cooperative?
behavior by two or more individuals that leads to mutual benefit
is cooperation risky?
the prisoner's dilemma
if you trust your friend and refuse to confess, and if your friend trusts you and refuses to confess, you will both get a light sentence. BUT if you trust your friend and then your friend double-crosses you, your friend gets to o home and you spend 30 years in jail
the prisoner's dilemma mirrors the
risks and benefits of cooperation in everyday life. ex. TAXES
people often want most that the people around them have what quality?
are people good at spotting cheaters?
people have a uniquely powerful capacity to ? that surpasses their capacity for ?
detect cheaters, logical reasoning in general
one person divides money into two parts, offers one to another, if the decider rejects the offer, both players get nothing and game over
deciders typically reject offers that they consider unfair because
they'd rather get nothing than get cheated
people will pay to ?
punish someone who has treated them unfairly
cooperation requires that we ?
take a risk by benefiting those who have not yet benefited us and then TRUSTING them to do the same
a collection of people who have something in common that distinguishes them from others
people in groups tend to be
especially nice to each other
a positive or negative evaluation of another person based on their group membership
a positive or negative behavior toward another person based on their group membership
one of the defining characteristics of a group is that:
members tend to be positively prejudices toward other members and to discriminate in their favor
even when people are randomly assigned to completely meaningless groups such as "group x" and "group y"
they will discriminate positively towards the members in their group
is cooperation within a group less risky?
if groups have benefits they also have
often, when groups try to make decisions together
they do WORSE than if one person tried to make the decision
groups often give too little weight to ? and too much wight to ?
members who are experts (the professor), members who happen to be high in status or especially talkative (the mayor), ex. schoolboard
members of groups like to maintain ? and therefore ?
harmony, reluctant to "rock the boat"
in certain tasks individuals can
outperform groups by a lot
groups often do terrible things that they would never do alone such as
lynching, rioting, gang-raping
two reasons groups will do things that individuals will not do:
deindividuation, diffusion of responsibility
when immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values
people are most likely to consider their personal values when ?
their attention is focused on themselves
being assembled in groups draws our attention to ?
others and away from ourselves. THEREFORE more likely to ADOPT group's values
diffusion of responsibility
individuals feel diminished responsibility for their actions because they are surrounded by others who are acting the same way
one of the best predictors of a person's well being is
the quality and extent of their social relationships and group memberships
people who are excluded from groups are typically:
anxious, lonely, depressed and at increased risk for illness and premature death
often, people describe themselves by listing
the groups of which they are members
behavior that benefits another without benefiting oneself
any animal that promotes the survival of its relatives is actually
promoting the survival of its own genes
the process by which evolution selects for individuals who cooperate with their relatives
is cooperating with relatives altruistic?
NO because of kin selection
behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits wil be returned in the future
reciprocal altruism is merely
cooperation extended over long periods of time
while other animals are never truly altruistic,
humans sometimes are
examples of altruism
anonymous donations to charity, tips to waiters, holding the door for others, 9/11 water-borne evacuation
do people mate randomly?
NO, they SELECT their sexual partners
are women more selective than men?
reasons that women are more selective:
1. biology: sex = more costly (risk getting pregnant) 2. culture: reputational costs of sex are much higher (socially acceptable for men to be promiscuous than women)
when do women become less selective?
when cultures lower the costs of sex by providing access to effective birth control, promoting the financial independence of women, adopting communal styles of child-rearing
men become more selective (every bit as much as women) when?
they are choosing a long-term mate
biology makes sex
a riskier proposition for women than for men, but cultures can exaggerate, equalize or even reverse those risks
the riskier sex is:
the more selective people tend to be
attraction is divided into these three factors:
situational, physical and psychological
proximity provides the opportunity for attraction but it also provides
the motivation: people work especially hard to like those with whom they expect to have interaction
what is the main situational factor?
mere exposure effect
the tendency for the frequency of exposure to a stimulus to increase liking
the fact that exposure leads to liking may explain...
why college students who were randomly assigned to a seat during a brief psychology experiment were especially likely to be friends with the person they sate next to an entire year later
are some places and times better for attraction than others?
YES, suspension bridge, males mistook physiological arousal of fear for attraction
what are the among the best predictors of how many responses a personal ad receives?
a man's height and a woman's weight
appearance is important in
beautiful people have
more friends, more dates, more sex and more fun, even earn more MONEY!
we tend to think that beautiful people have
superior personal qualities
attractive people tend to have better social skills because ?
they have more friends and more opportunity for social interaction
mothers are more affectionate and playful when ?
their children are attractive than unattractive
which gender is more likely to acknowledge that appearance influences people's potential partners?
standards of beauty can
vary across time and culture
common standards of beauty:
1. body shape 2. symmetry 3. age
attractive male bodies = inverted triangle (broad shoulders with narrow hips) attractive female bodies = hourglass (broad shoulders and hips with narrow waist)
waist is 70% of the hips
most attractive = bilaterally symmetrical (when left half is mirror image of right half)
faces are considered especially beautiful when their features approximate
the AVERAGE of the human population
1. female faces more attractive when have immature features: large eyes, high eyebrows and small chin = "baby-faced" 2. male faces considered more attractive when they have mature features
nature has designed us to be attracted to people who have
socially dominant and therefore have more resources to devote to their offspring
women high in estrogen tend to be
especially fertile and potentially have more offspring to make use of those resources
body shape is an indicator of
male dominance and female fertility
symmetry and averageness are signs of
women can discriminate symmetrical and asymmetrical men
women's preference for symmetry is especially pronounced when?
they are ovulating
younger women are generally more fertile than older women thus
a youthful appearance is a signal of a woman's ability to bear children
older men generally have more resources than younger men thus
a mature appearance is a signal of a man's ability to raise children
in general, women prefer ? and men prefer ?
older men, younger women
most people tend to approach, date and marry someone who is:
about as attractive as they are
once people begin interacting they
quickly move beyond appearances
people's personalities, points of view, attitudes, beliefs, values, ambitions, and abilities
which inner qualities are high on everyone's list?
intelligence, sense of humor, sensitivity, ambition
we are most attracted to people who are
generally similar to us on most psychological dimensions (education, religious backgrounds, ethnicities, SES, personality)
the ONLY factor for which the majority of people have a consistent preference for dissimilarity is ?
why is similarity attractive?
1. easy to get along with people who share similar beliefs 2. we feel more confident that our beliefs are right if someone else has them too 3. we can expect that someone will like us for our beliefs (since they are the same as their's) and being liked is a powerful source of attraction
when it comes to friends and lovers extraordinary people
can threaten our self-esteem and make us feel nervous about our own competence
what is one reason that people have romantic, long-term relationships?
babies! born stupid so require years of intense care
the probability for marrying by the age of 40 is ? for men and ? for women
81% and 86%
what is the main reason people marry?
what is a main reason for divorce?
couples don't always have a clear understanding of what love is
two basic kinds of love:
passionate love and companionate love
an experience involving feelings of euphoria, intimacy and intense sexual attraction
an experience involving affection, trust and concern for a partner's well-being
which type of love is what brings people together?
passionate, it has a rapid onset, reaches its peak quickly and begins to diminish within just a few months
which type of love keeps people together?
companionate love, it takes some time to get started, grows slowly, and need never stop growing
the first kind of love we experience in a relationship is ? and then later we experience ?
what may be a benefit of arranged marriage?
parents are less likely to pick partners on the basis of passionate love and more likely to pick them on the basis of companionate love
the hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits
a relationship that provides an acceptable level of benefits at a reasonable cost will ?
be maintained and one that doesn't won't
the cost-benefit ratio that people believe they deserve or could attain in another relationship
a cost-benefit ratio varies on ?
the situation, might be acceptable for two people stranded on an island but not for two people in a large city
cost-benefit ratio seems favorable when we feel...
that it is the best we can do
most people seem to prefer equity, which is
a state of affairs in which the cost-benefit ratios of two partners are roughly equal
after people have poured significant resources into their relationships they are more willing to
settle for less favorable cost-benefit ratios. HENCE why people are more likely to end new marriages than old ones
two ways to get scarce resources are
aggression and cooperation
aggression often results from
the likelihood that someone will aggress when they feel negative affect is determined by both
biological factors and cultural factors
one strategy for reducing the risks of cooperation is
to form groups whose members are biased in favor of each other
biology and culture tend to make the costs of reproduction higher for ?