examines the ways in which behavior is adaptive, how behavior varies, how it evolves
optimal foraging theory
The basis for analyzing behavior as a compromise of feeding costs versus feeding benefits, anticipating that animals will attempt to maximize energy obtained as a function of time and/or eneergy spent
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
A limited phase in an individual animal's development when learning of particular behaviors can take place.
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response
The scientific study of cognition; the study of the connection between data processing by nervous systems and animal behavior.
a locomotor response toward or away from an external stimulus by a motile (and usually simple) organism
The regular back-and-forth movement of animals between two geographic areas at particular times of the year.
A type of behavior involving a contest of some kind that determines which competitor gains access to some resource, such as food or mates.
What each sex invests-in terms of time, energy, survival risks, and forgone opportunities-to produce and nurture offspring.
refers to a social group that includes one adult male, several adult females, and their offspring
The principle that for natural selection to favor an altruistic act, the benefit to the recipient, devalued by the coefficient of relatedness, must exceed the cost to the altruist.
coefficient of relatedness
The probability that a particular gene present in one individual will also be inherited from a common parent or ancestor in a second individual.
the idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one's close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes