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43 terms

Ch 51 Behavioral ecology

campbell
STUDY
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behavior
the way an organism reacts to changes in its internal condition or external environment
ethology
the branch of zoology that studies the behavior of animals in their natural habitats
fixed action pattern
AKA FAP, innate behavior that occurs as an unchangeable sequence of actions
sign stimulus
an external sensory stimulus that triggers a fixed action pattern
behavioral ecology
examines the ways in which behavior is adaptive, how behavior varies, how it evolves
foraging
the act of searching for food and provisions
optimal foraging theory
The basis for analyzing behavior as a compromise of feeding costs versus feeding benefits, anticipating that animals will attempt to maximize energy obtained as a function of time and/or eneergy spent
learning
a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
maturation
the process of an individual organism growing organically
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
sensitive period
A limited phase in an individual animal's development when learning of particular behaviors can take place.
associative learning
learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning).
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
operant conditioning
conditioning in which an operant response is brought under stimulus control by virtue of presenting reinforcement contingent upon the occurrence of the operant response
cognition
the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning
cognitive ethology
The scientific study of cognition; the study of the connection between data processing by nervous systems and animal behavior.
kinesis
A change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus.
taxis
a locomotor response toward or away from an external stimulus by a motile (and usually simple) organism
landmarks
A point of reference for orientation during navigation
cognitive maps
mental representations of how a physical space is organized
migrations
The regular back-and-forth movement of animals between two geographic areas at particular times of the year.
social behavior
Any kind of interaction between two or more animals, usually of the same species.
agonistic behavior
A type of behavior involving a contest of some kind that determines which competitor gains access to some resource, such as food or mates.
reconciliation behavior
usually animals in permanent social groups will reconcile after a conflict
ritual
a ceremonial act
dominance hierarchy
ranking of individuals in a group based on aggressive behavior
territory
any area that an animal defends against other animals
courtship
when an animal sends out stimuli in order to attract a member of the opposite sex
parental investment
What each sex invests-in terms of time, energy, survival risks, and forgone opportunities-to produce and nurture offspring.
promiscuity
each sex has two or more mates with no pair bonds.
monogamous
a mating relationship wherein one male and one female mate only with each other
polygamous
a type of relationship in which an individual of one sex mates with several of the other
polygynous
refers to a social group that includes one adult male, several adult females, and their offspring
polyandrous
mating system in which one female mates with multiple males
signal
communicate silently and non-verbally by signals or signs
communication
The exchange of information between organisms
pheromones
odorless chemicals that serve as social signals to members of one's species
altruism
the quality of unselfish concern for the welfare of others
Hamilton's rule
The principle that for natural selection to favor an altruistic act, the benefit to the recipient, devalued by the coefficient of relatedness, must exceed the cost to the altruist.
coefficient of relatedness
The probability that a particular gene present in one individual will also be inherited from a common parent or ancestor in a second individual.
kin selection
the idea that evolution has selected altruism toward one's close relatives to enhance the survival of mutually shared genes
reciprocal altruism
behavior that benefits another with the expectation that those benefits will be returned in the future