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viability (hours) of ovum


number of sperm ejected during ejaculation

300 million

number of sperm that reach ampulla of fallopian tube


term for penetration of the egg membrane


# of hours before capacitation can occur


window of fertilization

48 hours prior to ovulation - 14 hours post ovulation

enzymes found in acrosome of sperm

hyaluronidase and acrosin

description of fast block reaction

Na+ inflow into egg causes depolarization, repulsion of other sperm

description of slow block reaction

cortical granules create fertilization membrane

term for embryo/fetus + extraembryonic membranes


weeks of 1st trimester


weeks of 2nd trimester


weeks of 3rd trimester


term for cells of developing embryo


term for cell division of developing embryo


term for a solid ball of cells


term for ball of cells with a cavity


portion of blastocyst that forms the placenta


portion of the trophoblast that remains as individual cells


portion of the trophoblast that grows into the endometrium, becomes a single mass


hormone produced by the trophoblast


action of HCG

stimulates corpus luteum --> progesterone + estrogen --> suppresses menstruation

inner cell mast of blastocyst


weeks during which embryogenesis occurs


length of embryo at 2 weeks

2 mm

length of embryo at 8 weeks

3 cm

term for conceptus at the end of 8 weeks


3 primary germ layers


structures produced by the ectoderm

integument, nervous tissue, lens

structures produced by the mesoderm

dermis, muscles, blood, skeleton

structures produced by the endoderm

mucosa of GI tract, respiratory tract

term for the development of internal organs during embryogenesis


antibody type passed through the placenta to developing fetus


4 embryonic membranes

yolk sac

4 functions of the amnion

freedom of development
symmetrical development
constant pressure and temperature

3 functions of the yolk sac

first blood cells
origin of gametes
forms part of midgut

function of the allantois

contributes to the umbilical cord

function of the chorion

forms fetal part of the placenta

3 sources of prenatal nutrition

uterine milk
trophoblastic nutrition
placental nutrtion

source of uterine milk

glycogen rich secretion from uterine tubes and endometrial glands

source of trophoblastic nutrition

digestion of endometrial cells by syncytiotrophoblast

hormone that promotes glycogen, amino acid, and lipid storage by endometrial cells


weeks that compose the fetal stage of development

week 9-birth

number of arteries and veins in umbilical cord

2 arteries, 1 vein

vessel that bypasses liver in developing fetus

ductus venosus

adult structure formed from ductus venosus

ligamentus venosum

opening between right and left atrium in fetus

foramen ovale

adult structure present in heart formed from foramen ovale

fossa ovalis

vessel that connects pulmonary trunk to aorta in fetus

ductus arteriosus

adult structure pressent between pulmonary trunk and aorta formed from ductus arteriosus

ligamentum arteriosum

term for child weeks 1-6


week of CNS development

week 4

week of eye formation

week 8

week of sex determination

week 12

week eyes become anterior

week 16

week lanugo appears

week 20

term for fine hair on the fetus


term for waxy secretion on the fetus

vernix caseosa

term for twitch/movement of the fetus


week surfactant is produced in the fetus

week 24

week eyes open

week 28

week twins are often born

week 32

week lanugo is shed

week 36

week and day of heart development

week 4, day 22

week of digital ray development

week 8

week of blood cell formation

week 8

week eyes form laterally

week 12

week the fetus begins to swallow amniotic fluid

week 12

week vernix caseosa appears

week 20

week twitch begins

week 20

week baby assumes vertex position

week 28

week testes descend in male

week 28

result of premature birth if born before 7 months, no surfactant present

respiratory distress syndrome

result of premature birth if born before 7 months due to poor hypothalamus development

no thermoregulation

organ that underperforms in premature infants


term for abnormalities present at birth

congenital anomalies

causes of congenital anomalies

chemicals, teratogens, viruses, bacteria, nondisjunction

two ways to detect nondisjunction before birth

chorionic villus sampling

common name for trisomy 21

down syndrome

term for egg removal


term for ovary removal


term for uterine tube removal


term for uterus removal


term for testes removal


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