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84 terms

Chapter 29: Human Development and Aging

STUDY
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viability (hours) of ovum
12-24
number of sperm ejected during ejaculation
300 million
number of sperm that reach ampulla of fallopian tube
2000-3000
term for penetration of the egg membrane
capacitation
# of hours before capacitation can occur
10
window of fertilization
48 hours prior to ovulation - 14 hours post ovulation
enzymes found in acrosome of sperm
hyaluronidase and acrosin
description of fast block reaction
Na+ inflow into egg causes depolarization, repulsion of other sperm
description of slow block reaction
cortical granules create fertilization membrane
term for embryo/fetus + extraembryonic membranes
conceptus
weeks of 1st trimester
1-12
weeks of 2nd trimester
13-24
weeks of 3rd trimester
25-delivery
term for cells of developing embryo
blastomeres
term for cell division of developing embryo
cleavage
term for a solid ball of cells
morula
term for ball of cells with a cavity
blastocyst
portion of blastocyst that forms the placenta
trophoblast
portion of the trophoblast that remains as individual cells
cytotrophoblast
portion of the trophoblast that grows into the endometrium, becomes a single mass
syncytiotrophoblast
hormone produced by the trophoblast
HCG
action of HCG
stimulates corpus luteum --> progesterone + estrogen --> suppresses menstruation
inner cell mast of blastocyst
embryoblast
weeks during which embryogenesis occurs
2-8
length of embryo at 2 weeks
2 mm
length of embryo at 8 weeks
3 cm
term for conceptus at the end of 8 weeks
fetus
3 primary germ layers
ectoderm
mesoderm
endoderm
structures produced by the ectoderm
integument, nervous tissue, lens
structures produced by the mesoderm
dermis, muscles, blood, skeleton
structures produced by the endoderm
mucosa of GI tract, respiratory tract
term for the development of internal organs during embryogenesis
organogenesis
antibody type passed through the placenta to developing fetus
IgG
4 embryonic membranes
amnion
yolk sac
allantois
chorion
4 functions of the amnion
protection
freedom of development
symmetrical development
constant pressure and temperature
3 functions of the yolk sac
first blood cells
origin of gametes
forms part of midgut
function of the allantois
contributes to the umbilical cord
function of the chorion
forms fetal part of the placenta
3 sources of prenatal nutrition
uterine milk
trophoblastic nutrition
placental nutrtion
source of uterine milk
glycogen rich secretion from uterine tubes and endometrial glands
source of trophoblastic nutrition
digestion of endometrial cells by syncytiotrophoblast
hormone that promotes glycogen, amino acid, and lipid storage by endometrial cells
progesterone
weeks that compose the fetal stage of development
week 9-birth
number of arteries and veins in umbilical cord
2 arteries, 1 vein
vessel that bypasses liver in developing fetus
ductus venosus
adult structure formed from ductus venosus
ligamentus venosum
opening between right and left atrium in fetus
foramen ovale
adult structure present in heart formed from foramen ovale
fossa ovalis
vessel that connects pulmonary trunk to aorta in fetus
ductus arteriosus
adult structure pressent between pulmonary trunk and aorta formed from ductus arteriosus
ligamentum arteriosum
term for child weeks 1-6
neonate
week of CNS development
week 4
week of eye formation
week 8
week of sex determination
week 12
week eyes become anterior
week 16
week lanugo appears
week 20
term for fine hair on the fetus
lanugo
term for waxy secretion on the fetus
vernix caseosa
term for twitch/movement of the fetus
quickening
week surfactant is produced in the fetus
week 24
week eyes open
week 28
week twins are often born
week 32
week lanugo is shed
week 36
week and day of heart development
week 4, day 22
week of digital ray development
week 8
week of blood cell formation
week 8
week eyes form laterally
week 12
week the fetus begins to swallow amniotic fluid
week 12
week vernix caseosa appears
week 20
week twitch begins
week 20
week baby assumes vertex position
week 28
week testes descend in male
week 28
result of premature birth if born before 7 months, no surfactant present
respiratory distress syndrome
result of premature birth if born before 7 months due to poor hypothalamus development
no thermoregulation
organ that underperforms in premature infants
liver
term for abnormalities present at birth
congenital anomalies
causes of congenital anomalies
chemicals, teratogens, viruses, bacteria, nondisjunction
two ways to detect nondisjunction before birth
amniocentesis
chorionic villus sampling
common name for trisomy 21
down syndrome
term for egg removal
oophorectomy
term for ovary removal
ovariectomy
term for uterine tube removal
salpingectomy
term for uterus removal
hysterectomy
term for testes removal
orchidectomy