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Chapter 5- A Nation Divided
Terms in this set (46)
Who is elected 16th president of the U.S.?
Why are Southerners concerned about Lincoln's election?
Southerners feared Constitutional amendment ending slavery altogether
secession from the Union was the ONLY answer for SC
secession should only be a LAST resort
SC should only secede if other Southern states do so emphasized the need to cooperate with other Southern slave states
wanted to REMAIN in the Union
believed Constitution protected SC's rights
small in number; most Southern Unionists did not have slaves
US government should have more power than individual states
What causes the meeting to move from Columbia to Charleston?
Rumors of smallpox outbreak in Columbia led them to adjourn to Charleston
where there was a greater support for secession
What withdrew SC from the
Ordinance of Secession
What was the reaction of the other southern slave-holding states when SC decided to secede?
Six other states join SC and secede (TX, LA, MS, AL, GA, & FL)
What do the seceding states decide to call their provisional government?
Confederate States of America
Who becomes president of this provisional government?
Why did Confederate General P.G.T. Beauregard bombard Ft. Sumter?
to stop it from being controlled by Union forces--Confederate victory
Summarize the Union military strategy during the Civil War.
General Scott's Plan (Anaconda Plan)
Naval blockade of all Southern ports (keep out imports--and eliminate export cotton)
Split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River--capture port at New Orleans
Capture Confederate capital at Richmond, VA
Summarize the Confederate strategy.
Main Strategy: A defensive strategy - wear down the northern army. The
Confederate Army need to repel the Union invasion.
Summarize and classify the advantages and disadvantages of the Union and Confederacy during the Civil War.
Union- 22 million people
An army & a navy
22,000 miles of railroad track
Stronger economy--more factories, workers, money
Confederacy- Determined to defend homeland and to preserve Southern way of life
Better trained and more experienced leaders (7 military colleges in the South-
Home field advantage
What was a key reason that the Union army captured Port Royal?
The Union now has a base from which to set up its naval blockade
Which SC city feared attack after the fall of Port Royal?
A great fire destroys 540 acres in Charleston
Citizens fear a Union attack after the fall of Port Royal-
How did the blockade impact people living in SC?
prevents the Confederacy from receiving much-needed military supplies
Summarize the importance of blockade runners to the Confederacy?
slipped past Union ships and moved trade goods in and out of Charleston Harbor
How does Robert Smalls gain freedom for himself and for his family?
while the white crew is sleeping ashore, he disguises himself as the captain--pretends to take ship out for patrol
replaces Confederate flag with white bed sheet to signal surrender
escapes to Union side
What was the Union plan for taking over Charleston?
Union military leaders wanted to bombard the city until it surrendered.
Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry
Second attempt on Battery Wagner (July 1863)
The first all black volunteer infantry regiment, commanded by Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, a young white officer, fought a hand-to-hand battle to lead the charge on Battery Wagner and suffered heavy losses.
The battle proved to skeptics in the North that
black soldiers could fight loyally and bravely.
Black recruitment in the North increased giving
the Union a numbers advantage.
Along with the bombardment on Battery Wagner the
Union began to bombard Fort Sumter for two months
until it was in ruins. Fort Sumter did not surrender.
What was the purpose of the Hunley?
Confederate leaders want to break through the Union blockade
Southern businessmen finance the development of a submarine
Built the Hunley
Bull Run July 21, 1861 Manassas, VA
What was the purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation? Did it free all of the slaves? Which slaves did it propose to free?
Only freed slaves in the Confederate states that remained outside of Union control (not yet been captured by Union army)
Add: along with preserving the Union, slavery becomes a cause for fighting)
Add: Increases number of black Union soldiers
Add: Lincoln did not want to lose support
of border states by freeing slaves in these
states (DE, KY, MD,MO which were slave states that had not seceded)
Describe General William T. Sherman's new strategy. What was the goal of this strategy?
The goal was to completely destroy the South's supplies and morale and force the South into unconditional surrender--break their will to fight.
Although Sherman's intent was to destroy only buildings and factories of military value, he looked the other way as his troops burned and looted homes, killed livestock, and terrorized civilians.
After Sherman succeeded in his March to the Sea and captured Savannah, GA, what was his plan?
To try and confuse the Confederate leaders Sherman divided his army in two parts pretending to head for Augusta and Charleston.
Confederate General Beauregard separates his own forces to defend these cities and isn't prepared when Sherman reunites his forces and heads to Columbia
Union soldiers are especially brutal in SC as they wanted to bring the war to the capital of the state where the war began.
What happened when Sherman reached Columbia?
Gen. Wade Hampton III and soldiers leave
Columbia before Sherman's army arrives.
They hope Sherman will spare the city like
they did Savannah.
The night before they left there is
looting of stores. The cotton is
moved into the streets and there
are discussions about burning
it to keep it away from the Union.
Who or what is to blame for the burning of Columbia?
The city was in ruins.
458 buildings were destroyed.
No civilian lives were lost.
Historians debate to this day as to who
was responsible for the burning of Columbia.
Sherman does not officially order the burning of
Columbia, but fires break out all over the city.
Although Sherman was ultimately blamed, no one knows for sure who was responsible.
Confederates that deserted the city
What was happening in Charleston while Columbia was burning?
While Columbia burned,
Confederate troops withdrew from Charleston and its
During the night and the following morning,
deadly fires and explosions.
List and describe the major events of the "Final Days".
The tide of the war tilts toward the Union.
The Confederates are on the defensive.
Both sides are trying to wear down the
Grant had Lee on the run in Virginia.
Once Richmond falls to the Union Lee
retreats and realizes he cannot run forever. April 9, 1865 - General Lee surrendered
to General Grant at Appomattox Court
House in Virginia.
Why did the Confederate Army enact conscription (draft) laws? Who was required to
sign up for the draft? Were there any exceptions? Explain.
20 Slave Exception (planters could hire a substitute to fight in their place)
In what ways was the Civil War difficult on Confederate women?
tend to the farms, manage plantations
While the war was certainly hard on women, assess the ways in which it would ultimately change roles of women for the better.
managed families, plantations, businesses
others worked as untrained nurses
Why were there shortages and high prices in the South? How did people of the Confederacy react to these challenges?
basic items difficult to get (cloth, thread, needles, coffee, sugar, flour) prices for these goods increased dramatically
food shortages led to inflation
List three ways that young boys served in the Civil War. How were children impacted when the war was over?
drummer boys in both the Union and Confederate armies, powder monkeys (carried gunpowder to sailors manning cannons on warships), and flag bearers
Summarize the cost of war in SC in terms of economy, infrastructure, loss of life, and morale.
SC's plantation economy devastated - elite planters lost slave labor and plantations
Emancipation Proclamation (freed slaves) alone reduced the state's income by half
Where does the war officially end
The war officially ends at Appomattox, VA on April 9th, 1865 when Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders to Union General Ulysses S. Grant
to withdraw from or vacate a place or area
an armored wooden ship
a military tactic that seeks to completely destroy an enemys supplies and morale to bring about an unconditional surrender
a mandatory military service
a soldier who runs away from his or her military duty
a former slave
a general increase in prices
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