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A figure of speech in which an object or animal is given human characteristics, feelings, thoughts, or attitudes.

- Oreo, milk's favorite cookie.
- Drawing a sun with a smiley face.


A figure of speech that is not intended to be taken literally.

- It is raining cats and dogs.
- Get all your ducks in a row!
- I'm all ears!


A word that has the opposite meaning of another word.

- hot and cold
- tall and short
- fast and slow


A word having the same or almost the same meaning as some other word.

- nice and kind
- funny and humorous




A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them.

- Denver is to Colorado as Olympia is to Washington
- Apple is to Fruit as Carrot is to Vegetable


Repeating the same consonant sound at the beginning of each (or almost all) words in a series of words.

- Sally Sold Seashells by the Seashore
- Peter Piper Picked a Peck of Pickled Peppers

main idea

The gist of a passage, central thought; the chief topic of a passage expressed or implied in a word or phrase; a statement in sentence form which gives the stated or implied major topic.

Assessment Example: What is the main idea of the story?


A topic; a major idea broad enough to cover the entire scope of a literary work. The theme may be stated or implied; clues to the theme may be made concrete through images, characterization, and action of the text.

Assessment Example: The selection shows bravery. Provide two details from the selection that supports this idea.

summary/ summarize

A synthesis of the important ideas in a text presented in a condensed form to determine what is important in the text. Summaries do not include students' opinion of the reading.

Assessment Example: Write a summary of the section "Carl Starts a Business". Include three main events from the section in your answer.


Definition: To understand something not directly stated in the text by using past experience and knowledge combined with the text.

Simple Definition: To read between the lines.

Assessment Example: What is the most likely reason that Tameka creates art? Provide two details from the selection in your answer.


Definition: The reasoning involved in drawing a conclusion or making a logical judgment on the basis of indirect evidence and prior conclusions rather than direct evidence from the text.

Simple Definition: A conclusion not directly provided by evidence, but able to be drawn from the facts at hand.

Assessment Example: Based on the information in the selection, what inference can the reader make about flying squirrels?


Definition: To foresee what might happen in a text based on a reader's background knowledge or schema.

Simple Definition: An educated guess.

Assessment Example: Predict what will most likely happen if the flying squirrels moved their home.


Definition: The arrangement or ordering of information, content, or ideas; chronological.

Assessment Example: What happens right before the vase breaks? OR Write, in order, three steps taken to make Lizzy a home.


Definition: A figure of speech that compares two things without using the words like or as and is used in place of a more literal description.

Example: His room was a pigpen.


Definition: A figure of speech comparing two unlike things using the words like or as.

- He was as fast as a cheetah.
- "Good coffee is like friendship: rich and warm and strong."


Definition: A title, brief explanation, or description accompanying an illustration or picture.

Assessment Example: According to the caption, which statement is true?


Definition: The title, sub-title or topic at the top or beginning of a section of text.

Assessment Example: Which heading could the author have used this paragraph?

text feature

Definition: A characteristic of a particular type of text such as chapter titles, sub-heading and bold faced words created to assist the reader in finding and understanding information.

Assessment Examples:
- According to the map, which statement is true?
- Use information from the selection to complete this timeline.


Definition: The state or quality of being similar; resemblance or likeness.

Assessment Example: According to the selection, what is one similarity between Tameka and Harold? Provide information from the selection in your answer.


Definition: The quality or condition of being unlike or dissimilar.

Assessment Example: Which sentence tells how Tameka and Harold are different?


Definition: To examine in order to observe or discover similarities or differences.

Assessment Example: Which two ideas are compared in the story?


Definition: A person or thing that makes something happen or exist, or is responsible for something that happens.

Assessment Example: Use information from the story to write a cause for the given effect.


Defintion: The outcome or direct result of an action caused by someone or something.

Assessement Example: Use information from the story to write the effect for the given cause.

solution/ solve

Definition: The method or process of solving a problem.

Assessment Example: When Toby realizes he forgot his lunch how does he solve the problem.

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