the lymphatic system & body defenses

what is the basic difference in the innate and adaptive system
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what is the second line of defense and on what do they relycells and chemicals/ phagocytes, killer cells, inflammatory response, feverwhat are phagocytes how do they work with lysosomeskiller cells/ fuse with lysosomesneutrophils are the phagocytes thatfirst to arrive, most numerousmacrophages are the phagocytes thatlargest phagocyteswhat is a lysomeenzyme- containing vacuole, phagocytes put the foreign thing in the lysosome, lysosomes destroy foreignwhat are NK cells able to dokill cancer cellswhat is perforina chemical released by NK cells that punch holes (perforate) in membrane of target cellwhat is the inflammatory responsenonspecific trigger when tissue is ingured (ex:being slapped)what are the four most common indicators of an inflammatory responseredness, heat, swelling, painwhat is the purpose of histamine and kininsactivate pain neutrons, attract WBCs to the areawhat is chemotaxisprocess where the cells are following a chemical gradientwhat are the functions of the inflammatory responseprevents spread of damaging agents, disposes of debris, sets stage for repairwhat is diapedesissqueezing through the capillary wallswhat is pusdead neutrohpils and pathogens (WBCs)how do antimicrobial proteins enhance the innate defensesattackng microogranisms OR hindering them from reproducitnghow are complement proteins activated and how does this tie in with the complement fixationwhen they are fixed on a foreign subject/ occurs when the proteins bind to sugars of antibodieswhat happens in a MAC attack(membrane attack completes) produces holes in the foreign cells surfacehow do interferons save the lives of unaffected cellsinterfere with the viruses ability to multiply within healthy cellswhat is the purpose of fever in the immune systema response to invading microorganisms/ abnormally high temperaturewhat are pyrogenschemicals secreted by WBCs exposed to foreign substances in the body (pyrogens cause an increase in out temperature)where does the virus landon throat cellswhat did producers liken the knobs of the virus tokeysthe cell welcomes the virus by forming a welcoming committee what does this membrane/ welcoming committee dopulls down into the cellonce the virus gets inside the cell, the membrane disperses and the virus bursts what happens nextthe virus lyses produce more virusesthese parts of the virus go into which part of the cellnucleus to produce more copieswhat is the purpose of the immune system: to keep out... if they come in...shady things (proteins, viruses, bacteria); kill themfirst line of defense is made to: keep ___________ what does this do ?these things out; skin, mucous membranefirst line of defense: another defense is the ___________acidic skin secretion/ acid lysozmesfirst line of defense: stomach with an _____________ environmentacidicfirst line of defense: both of these are _____________ defensesfirst linewhat do these two defenses have in commonboth on the outside/ exteriorsecond line of defense: ___________ response brings fluid and fighters to... the byproduct is your body gets...inflammatory; the sight of pathogens/ the fight; inflamedsecond line of defense: phagocytes- a class of cell that can eat up... it has receptors that respond to...pathogens; proteins of foreign pathogenswhat are the symptoms of the inflammatory responseredness, swelling, pain, heatwhat triggers the inflammatory responsewhen pathogen passes first line of defensehow are messages sentcells release chemokines (small particles) to send messageswhat are cytokines? chemicals that initiate....signalcytokines: increased permeability of capillaries which allows for...chemicals like histamine to leak through and allow neutrophils to kill pathogenscytokines: vasodilation. what does that do? why is it helpful?histamine make capillaries larger; this causes swelling and leaky capillariescytokines: if you have leaky capillaries your blood cells can move into the tissue and do whatRBCs can gather and capillary walls allow chemicals and WBCs to transferSurface membrane barrier consisitng of the skin and _______, defensive cells, such as ______ _____ ___ and phagocytes, and a whole deluge of ________ are the 3 major elements of the body's nonspecific defense system.mucosa; natural killer cells; chemicalsLysozyme is found in the body secretions called _____ and ______.tears salivaFluids with an acid pH are found in the _______ and ______ _______ tract.stomach female reproductiveSebum is a product of the _____ glands and acts at the surface of the skin.sebaceousMucus is produced by mucus-secreting glands found in the resp and _____ system mucosae.digestiveComplement is a system of plasma _____ that circulate in the blood in an inactive form.proteinComplement is _______ when it becomes attached to the surface of foreign cells.activatedOne result of this complement fixation is that ______ appear in the membrane of the foreign cell.holes or lesionsThis allows _____ to rush in, which causes _____ of the foreign cell.H2O lysishave antimicrobial activitylysozyme and sebumprovide mechanical barriersmucosae and skinprovide chemical barrieracids, lysozyme, mucus, protein digesting enzymes and sebumentaps micoorganisms entering the respiratry passagesmucousbarriers that cover body surfaces and the cells and chemicals that act on the initial battle fronts to protect the body from pathogens/anything that doesn't belongmechanicalanything foreign will beattackedskin and mucus membranesunbrokenfirst line of defense: unbroken skin mucous membranes-acidic skin secretions -hydrochloric acid i stomach -lysoZYMES in salvia and lacrimal fluid (tears in the lacrimal gland) (under tongue) (fighting bacteria)cavity of respiratory, urinary, and reproductivemucosaesecond line of defense: cells and chemicals-phagocytes -natural killer cells -chemical substances that kill pathogens -feverlargest phagocyte (called monocytes) clean up crewmacrophagesfirst to arrive, most numbersneutrophilsuse lysoSOMESmacrophages & neutophilskills cancer cells and your own cell when it is taken over by a virus; self cell infected by a virusNK cellsare called natural killers cuz they don't need to recognize a specific antigen before taking action and they target tumor cell and protect against a wide variety of infections microbes, not phagocytes, use perforinsNK cellsperforate the cell and allow fluid to come in and then it LYSE and is goneperforinshurts, redness, send blood, gets warm, swellinginflammatory responsewhat is the purpose of going into the nucleusto produce more copiesin tears arent to harmlysozymeswhat does histamine & kinins causeblood vessels dilate, capillaries become leaky; activate pain receptors; attack phagocytes and WBCs to the area of injury(blue light special) call WBCs to area; prevent spread of damaging agents; disposes of cell debris & pathogals; set the stage for repairchemotaxissqueeze through capillary wallsneutrophilsfollow the neutrophils and become macrophages as the inflammatory response declines and then they clean upmonocytesmixture of dead or dying neutrophilspusare used to attack or hinder reproduction of pathogensantimicrobial proteinprotein bind to sugar or proteins on foreign cells surfacecomplement fixationproduce lesions, complete with holes, in the foreign cells surface allowing water to come inMAC attackprevent virusinterferonsis a system in response to invading microorganisms; it can rest upwardfeverchemicals secreted that cause increase in body temperature (response team)pyrogensaccounts for redness and heat in an inflamed areaincreased blood flow to an areainflammatory chemical released by injured cellshistaminecellular migration directed by a chemical gradientchemotaxisphagocytic offspring of monocytesmacrophagesleukocytes pass through the wall of a capillarydiapedesisfirst phagocytes to migrate into the injured areaneutrophilsis normal response to pyrogens; reduces the availability of iron and zinc required for bacterial proliferation; increased metabolic ratefever