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AP Exam Prep: Laws and Orders - Post 1877
Laws, orders, resolutions, bills, rules, proclamations which became norms for the emerging nation. What was the historical background which led to the legislation? What was the impact of that legislation on America?
Terms in this set (70)
Act Establishing Yellowstone National Park, 1872
The creation of the first national park marks a growing appreciation for nature and conservation.
Agricultural Adjustment Act, 1932
Restricted farm production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop production and thereby raise prices.
Americans with Disabilities Act, 1990
A law passed that requires employers and public facilities to make "reasonable accommodations" for people with disabilities and prohibits discrimination against these individuals in employment.
Bland-Allison Act , 1878
Required the U.S. Treasury to buy a certain amount of silver and put it into circulation as silver dollars.
Carey Act, 1894
It distributed federal land to the states on the condition that it be irrigated and settled
Civil Rights Act, 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Dawes [Severalty] Act, 1887
Dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. Attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men.
"Don't Ask, Don't Tell" Presidential Proclamation, 1993
Economic Opportunity Act, 1964
Central to Johnson's Great Society campaign and its War on Poverty. Created anti-poverty programs including job training (Job Corps).
Elkins Act, 1903
Provided for the regulation of interstate railroads. The act forbade rebates or other rate reductions to shipping companies. Railroads were not allowed to offer rates different from the published rates.
Emergency Quota Act, 1921
European immigrants were restricted to a quota set at 3% of people of their nation living in the US in 1910.
Employment Act, 1946
Made it government policy to "promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power," and created the Council of Economic Advisors to provide the president with data to make that policy a reality
Espionage Act, 1917
Provided severe penalties for persons found guilty of aiding the enemy or refusal to serve in the US military.
Executive Order 8802, 1941
Prohibited employment discrimination in defense jobs; established Fair Employment Practices Commission to monitor compliance; significant shift in public policy towards equal opportunity for blacks.
Executive Order 9066, 1942
Order of President Franklin D. Roosevelt authorizing the War Department to remove Japanese "enemy aliens" to isolated internment camps. Immigrants and citizens alike were sent away.
Executive Order 9981, 1948
Establishes equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services for people of all race, religions, or national origins. Desegregation the armed forces.
Executive Order 10730, 1957
Federal Emergency Relief Act
The first direct-relief operation under the New Deal; it provided money for food and other necessities for the unemployed.
Federal Reserve Act, 1913
Established a national banking system for the first time since the 1830s; designed to combat the "money trust," it created 12 regional banks that regulated interest rates, money supply, and provided an elastic credit system throughout the country.
Force Acts, 1870
Banned the use of terror, force or bribery to prevent someone from voting because of their race. Other laws banned the KKK entirely and brought forth military help to enforce these laws.
Fordney-McCumber Tariff, 1922
Raised tariff from 27% to 35% we because didn't want Europe to flood American markets with cheap goods after war. Became a problem since Europe needed to sell goods to U.S. to get money back to pay debts.
Created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) for guaranteeing individual bank deposits
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
Hatch Act, 1906
Federal statute barring federal employees from active participation in certain kinds of politics and protecting them from being fired on partisan grounds.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff, 1930
Sharp increase of tariff rates. Hoover thought this would alleviate the depression, but economists blame this for deepening the depression. Highest import tax in history in attempt to protect domestic industries from foreign imports
Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, 2010
Imposed financial penalties for employers who do not offer group healthcare plans.
Hepburn Act, 1906
Laws that gave the government the authority to set railroad rates and maximum prices for ferries, bridge tools, and oil pipelines.
Indian Reorganization Act, 1934
Nicknamed the "Indian New Deal", it encouraged tribes to establish local self-government and to preserve native culture. Nearly two hundred tribes established self-government under the terms of the act. Reversed the Dawes Act.
Interstate Commerce Act, 1887
Prohibited rebates and pools required railroads to publish rates forbade discriminatin against shippers and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line
Justices Reorganization Act, 1937
A legislative initiative proposed by U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt to add more justices to the U.S. Supreme Court. Roosevelt's purpose was to obtain favorable rulings regarding New Deal legislation that had been previously ruled unconstitutional. The central and most controversial provision of the bill would have granted the President power to appoint an additional Justice to the U.S. Supreme Court, up to a maximum of six, for every sitting member over the age of 70 years and 6 months.
Keating-Owen Child Labor Act, 1916
First federal act regulating and limiting child labor
Lend-Lease Act, 1941
President to offer military supplies to nations "vital to the defense of the US"; ended US neutrality (economic war against Germany); Hitler began to sink American ships (limited scale)
McCarran Internal Security Act, 1950
Required the registration of Communist organizations with the United States Attorney General and established the Subversive Activities Control Board to investigate persons suspected of engaging in subversive activities or otherwise promoting the establishment of a "totalitarian dictatorship," fascist or communist.
McCarran-Walter Act, 1952
Limited immigration based on ethnicity, but made allowances in the quotas for persons displaced by WWII and allowed increased immigration of European refugees. Tried to keep people from Communist countries from coming to the U.S. People suspected of being Communists could be refused entry or deported.
Meat Inspection Act, 1906
Passed largely in reaction to Upton Sinclair's The Jungle, the law set strict standards of cleanliness in the meatpacking industry
National Defense Education Act, 1958
Allowed use of federal funding to stimulate nationwide educational performance in science and mathematics in response of the Soviet satellite Sputnik.
National Industrial Recovery Act, 1933
Created the NRA which was authorized to draw up a code of fair competition in each major industry. It also granted workers the right to organize and bargain collectively. This act was later declared unconstitutional.
National Interstate and Defense Highway Act, 1956
.Federal Government initiated a massive highway building project that results in interstate highway system, also a defense measure to rapidly move the military; made suburbia more attractive
National Labor Relations Act, 1935
AKA, the Wagner Act, defined unfair labor practices and protected unions against coercive measures such as blacklisting. Reasserted the right of labor to engage in self-organization and to bargain collectively.
National Origins Act, 1921
Limited the number of immigrants from any country to 3 percent of the foriegn- born persons of that nationality living in the U.S
National Security Act, 1947
Created the Department of Defense, which was housed in the Pentagon and headed by a new cabinet position, the Secretary of Defense, under which served civilian secretaries of the army, navy, and air force and created the National Security Council (NSC) to advise the president on security matters and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to coordinate the government's foreign fact-gathering (spying)
Naval Act of 1900
Authorized large increase in ships ordered to be built, beginning of powerful navy and American imperialism.
Neutrality Act of 1935
Made it illegal for Americans to sell arms to any country at war
Neutrality Act of 1939
Act that allowed nations at war to buy goods and arms in the United States if they paid cash and carried the merchandise on their own ships
Newlands Reclamation Act, 1902
Its goal was to turn arid land into productive family farms through irrigation, established the Reclamation Bureau within the Department of the Interior and provided federal funding for dam and canal projects
"No Child Left Behind" Act, 2001
States must adopt education accountability standards
States must annually test students
Sanctions against schools that fail to meet adequate yearly progress
Occupational Safety and Health Act, 1970
Created an administration which ensures a safe and healthful workplace for all employees. The law was developed to ensure job safety and health standards for employees, maintain a reporting system for job related injuries and illness, reduce hazards in the workplace, and conduct audits to ensure compliance with the Act.
Oriental Exclusion Act, 1882
Pendleton Civil Service Act, 1883
Authorized a bipartisan civil service commision to make appointments to federal jobs through the merit system on the basis of preformance on an examintaion
Pure Food and Drug Act, 1906
Established a regulatory division to oversees package labeling, ingredient listing, and advertising for food and drugs
Refugee Act, 1980
Created a seperate status for refugees so that they would not be grouped with other immigrants. Particularly impacted refugees from Cuba and Southeast Asia.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation, 1931
Set up to bail out banks and railroads in the hope that if the big entities could withstand depression, it would keep the smaller businesses from crumbling. Total failure and Hoover loses face with American public. Criticized because didn't help the poor.
Revenue Act of 1935
This act raised taxes on corporations and the wealthy to appeal to the majority of the people who believed the inequity in society was causing economic imbalance
Revenue Act of 1942
Effort to increase tax revenues to cover the cost of WWII by adding additional graduated steps to the income tax and lowering the threshold at which lower income earners began to pay tax.
Sedition Act, 1917
Federal law passed shortly after entering World War I which made it a crime for a person: " to convey information with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces of the United States or to promote the success of its enemies".
Selective Service Act, 1940
Provided for the registration of all American men between ages 21 and 35 and for the training of 1.2 million troops in just one year. First peacetime draft in U.S. history.
Servicemen's Readjustment Act, 1944
Better known as the GI Bill, it paid for returning soldiers to go back to school, and guaranteed loans for veterans to buy homes or property
Sherman Antitrust Act, 1890
A federal law that committed the American government to opposing monopolies, it prohibits contracts, combinations and conspiracies in restraint of trade. Weak and poorly worded.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act, 1890
While not authorizing the free and unlimited coinage of silver that the Free Silver supporters wanted, it increased the amount of silver the government was required to purchase every month. It backfired because people exchanged their silver notes for gold dollars, depleting the governments gold reserves. Led to the panic of 1893
Smith Act, 1940
This act made it illegal to advocate or teach the overthrow of the government by force or to belong to an organization with this objective. Communism was seen to teach such a cause, as well as Fascism and Naziism
Smith-Connally Act, 1943
Passed amidst worries about the effects that labor strikes would have on war production, this law allowed the federal government to seize and operate plants threatened by labor disputes. It also criminalized strike action against government-run companies.
Social Security Act, 1935
Set up a pension system for retires, established unemployment insurance, and created insurance for victims of work-related accidents.
Social Security Act, 1965
Created Medicare and Mediacaid for all citizens over that age of 65 and qualifing families in need of assistance.
Taft-Hartley Act, 1947
Also called the Labor Management Relations Act. This act was Congress' response to the abuse of power by labor. Outlawed closed shops; prohibited unions' unfair labor practices, and forced unions to bargain in good faith.
Tax Reform Act of 1986
Simplified the income tax code, broadened the tax base and eliminate dmany tax shelters and other preferences.
Tennessee Valley Act, 1933
Authorized the building of dams to control flooding and generate electric power.
United States Patriot Act, 2001
Following 9/11 gave law enforcement broader powers in monitoring possible terrorist activities.
Volstead Act, 1920
Provided for the enforcement of the 18th Amendment (Prohibition)
Voting Rights Act, 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage. Eliminated literacy and other tests as requirements for voting
War Powers Act, 1973
Set a sixty day limit on the presidential commitment of troops to hostilities abroad without Congressional approval. A response to LBJ's Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
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