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340 terms

Sociology Final

STUDY
PLAY
All except one of the following are included in culture. Which one should not be included?
reproduction
___________ is/are essential in developing culture.
Language
Symbolic interaction theory addresses:
the subjective meaning of human acts and the processes through which people come to develop and communicate shared meanings.
Herbert Spencer believed that societies evolved from lower to higher forms because as generations pass, the most capable and intelligent members of society prosper while the less capable die out. What term did Spencer use to describe this process?
the survival of the fittest
A teenager's parents divorce and as a result neither parent has much time to spend with her. She has the freedom to do whatever she wants, whenever she wants, with little regulations. Unable to cope with the many changes, she takes her own life. This is _______ suicide.
anomic.
Karl Marx maintained that ____________ was the driving force that let to social change.
class conflict
Leon is visiting Napel and is feeling disoriented and unable to depend on his taken-for-granted assumptions about life. This sense of disorientation is an example of ______________.
culture shock
What sociological concept explains why natives in remote South American jungles can be found using metal cooking pots and Americans can be found eating Chinese food in Chicago?
cultural diffusion
Consequences of social structures that are neither intended nor recognized are referred to by sociologists as:
latent functions or dysfunctions
Americans cherish the ideal that anyone can rise from the bottom of society to its very top. What value identified by Robin Williams is illustrated by this belief?
individualism
Norms with moral or religious significance that are thought to be important to society are known as:
mores
The focus of sociology is on:
the systematic study of human groups
Which term describes a group that has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time their values and norms reflect the dominant culture of their society?
subculture
What is the term used to describe feelings of disorientation and confusion when encountering values, behaviors, and expectations totally different from those to which one is accustomed?
culture shock
What is another name for the research method that is referred to as "participant observation" ?
fieldwork
Macrosociology is NOT associated with which of the following?
symbolic interaction theory
Which of the following refers to the use of one's own culture as a yard stick to evaluate another culture?
Ethnocentrism.
Recently, Marie went on a tour of the Arab countries. At the end of the tour, she wanted to offer a gift to her Arab tour guide. Marie offered the gift with her left hand as her right hand was full at the time. She did not understand why the guide appeared to be offended with her. This is an example of _____________.
necessity to learn the gestures of a culture
Which of the following is an example of a hypothesis?
You can catch more files with honey than you can with vinegar.
Ethnocentrism:
is a natural and in some ways desirable product of growing up in a culture.
The founder of sociology was:
Auguste Comte
The ability to see the intimate realitites of our own lives in the context of common social structures is what C. Wright Mills refers to as:
the sociological imagination
What sociological concept is illustrated by the adoption of Western dress and culture in Japan, the presence of McDonald's restaurants in Moscow and Hong Kong, and Chinese restaurants in Chicago and Manhattan?
cultural leveling
What is the American core value that pervades U.S. life and is underscored by the American revolution?
freedom
What form of the nonmaterial culture is illustrated by shaking one's head left and right to mean "no" and up and down to mean "yes"?
gestures
_________ are considered useful shorthand ways to convey messages without using words.
Gestures
In the month of December, many Jewish families celebrate Chanukah, the "festival of light," during which special foods are served and families engage in ritual activity unique to their religious faith. In this context, members of the Jewish faith represent a ________.
subculture
When American servicemen occupied Japan following World War II, the Japanese watched the Americans playing baseball, appreciated the sport, and adopted it themselves. Today, baseball is one of the most popular sports in Japan. This adoption of baseball by the Japanese is an example of ________.
cultural diffusion
The principle "survival of the fittest" is attributed to
Herber Spencer
What is a system of symbols that can be strung together in an infinite number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought?
language
In a four-square block section of midtown Manhattan, it is possible to purchase a bagel with cream cheese, eat stir-fried vegetables prepared in a wok, or dine on raw fish in a sushi bar. What does this range of culinary possibilities illustrate?
cultural diffusion
According to C.. Wright Mills, the difficulties that John and Mary experience in their marriage represent a personal trouble. The fact that nearly 1 marriage out of every 2 marriages ends in divorce, however, is:
a public issue
Who was the first African American to earn a doctoral degree from Harvard University?
W. E. B. DuBois
When sociologists use the phrase the culture within us, what do they mean?
Shared and learned ways of believing and doing become taken-for-granted assumptions.
Jane Addams is remembered for
founding Hull House
Which of the following are a society's rules of behavior?
Norms.
In American society, the commandment "Thou shalt not murder" belongs to which category?
mores.
Who was the 20th century sociologist who dismissed the organic analogy of society but maintained the essence of functionalism using the terms functions and dysfunctions to describe the consequences of people's actions?
Robert Merton
What social scientist proposed that societies evolve from a lower, barbaric form to a higher, civilized form in a process he called social Darwinism?
Herbert Spencer
What term describes a society which is made up of many different religious, racial and ethnic groups?
a pluralistic society
Which term is used to describe a group's way of thinking, gestures, language, values and social norms?
nonmaterial culture
Based on Emile Durkheim's research on suicide, which of the following individuals would be the greatest suicide risk?
Herbert, a single Protestant man living in the city
Sanctions refer to:
rewards for conformity and punishments for nonconformity.
Language, beliefs, values, behaviors, and material objects make up a _____________.
culture
Which of the following is true regarding the relationship between norms and laws?
Not all norms are supported by law and not all laws are supported by norms.
The argument that all other institutional arrangements in society arise out of economic relationships is known as
economic determinism.
When gathering data, the cause is known as the _________ and the effect is known as the ___________.
independent variable; dependent variable
Research undertaken on running a brothel, rioters, and the homeless is most likely to use which research strategy?
participant observation
According to ______________, class conflict is the key to human history.
Karl Marx
Merton used the term, __________, to refer to the intended consequences of people's actions
manifest functions
Which of the following is NOT one of the three steps in Cooley's "looking glass self" theory:
we can see ourselves exactly as others see us
What term describes people who share a culture and territory?
society
The position that an individual occupies is called his or her:
status
Being a mother is no guarantee that a woman will fulfill the duties and obligations associated with motherhood. This illustrates that:
people occupy statuses, but play roles
What is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors called?
resocialization
What is the stage in the life course where individuals begin to reorient their thinking from the time since birth to the time left to live?
the later middle years
Efforts to manage the impressions that others receive of us are called:
impression management
According to George Herbert Mead, how does a child learn to take the role of others?
through play and social interaction
Which of the following is least representative of activity that would take place in a biotech society?
the mass production of industrial goods and conspicuous consumption
The family, religion, school & peers, mass media, neighborhood, and workplace are:
agents of socialization
Which is NOT true about anticipatory socialization?
usually possible to fully prepare in advance for new roles.
To show ourselves as adept role players and to gain recognition from others, we often use _________ or two or more people working together to make certain a performance goes off as planned.
teamwork
Hilda is studying at the library. She has placed her coat on the chair next to her and has spread books in front of the other chairs. Hilda is trying to extend her___________ so others do not invade it.
personal space
Joshua would like to sleep but he knows that he should get up and go to class. He gets up, starts to get ready, decides today's lecture is not really that important, and crawls back into bed. He has followed his:
I.
As children, boys usually receive trucks, sporting equipment, and action toys. Girls receive stuffed animals and gifts that are more passive. Overall, what do sociologists call this sex-based criteria for the gifts children receive?
gender socialization
Those expectations that define appropriate or inappropriate behavior for the occupant of a status are:
roles.
What conclusion did Harry and Margaret Harlow reach following their research efforts with monkeys?
Infant-mother bonding is the result of intimate physical contact.
Mead's term for role players with whom we have close personal relationships is:
significant others.
The image we have of ourselves based upon how we imagine others to view us is called:
looking glass self.
The idea of everyone having the same basic rights because they are born in a country is termed ___________ citizenship.
universal
Schools are principally responsible for what type of socialization that is needed for future roles?
anticipatory socialization
Role learning that programs individuals for roles they are likely to assume in the future is known as:
anticipatory socialization
Large numbers of people who have similar amounts of income and education and who work at jobs that are roughly comparable in prestige are members of a social ________.
class
According to Mead, role taking begins when:
we learn the rights and duties associated with being a child in our family.
Statuses that we inherit at birth or receive that are related to the life course are termed _______ statuses.
ascribed
What term can be substituted for the term "operational" in Piaget's four-stage model, from the sensorimotor stage to the formal operational stage?
reasoning skills
A status that is optional, one that we can reach(or fail to reach) on the basis of our own efforts is called:
an achieved status
Devlin's parents are important influences on Devlin's life. Mead would use the term ___________ to refer to Devlin's parents.
significant others
Which of the following media least qualifies as being a form of mass media?
academic journals
What was the first nation to enter the fourth social revolution?
United States
In Mead's theory, the "I" is
the spontaneous, creative part of the shelf.
What event ushered in the biotech society?
Crick and Watson identified the double-helix structure of DNA in 1953.
Professionals such as medical doctors and lawyers make it a point to have their offices appear neat and well organized. They are showing a concern for their:
front stage.
What are the behaviors, obligations, and privileges attached to a position a person occupies in life?
roles
Although Meagan is working in Pittsburgh, which is a dedicated Steeler football city, she always paints her fingernails deep purple and always wears a pin representing the Minnesota Vikings . What term describes what Meagan's deep purple fingernails and pin represent?
It is Meagan's personal identity kit.
Madeleine's position as president of the local university overshadows her work as a wife, mother, and volunteer for the Salvation Army. In view of this, university president is Madeleine's ________.
master status
What is an ascribed status?
A status that is inherited or involuntarily applied to an individual.
The Amish provide a good example of ___________ community.
Gemeinschaft
What term describes a position in life that one does not choose, but is awarded at birth or is related to the life course?
ascribed status
The level of sociological analysis that places emphasis on social interaction is:
microsociology.
Lateesha's father has her work part-time in the family store. "It will help you when you take over the business," he tells her. This is an example of:
anticipatory socialization
Family, religion, education, economics and politics are examples of
social institutions
Facilites in which all aspects of life are strictly controlled for the purpose of radical resocializations are called:
total institutions
Jimmy has just joined a fraternity. As part of his initiation, he has been forced to strip naked and roll in a tub of mud. After the "mud bath" the fraternity brothers greeted Jimmy as a full brother and equal. What is another name for this rite of passage that Jimmy has just experienced?
a degradation ceremony
The significance of the first social revolution, the domestication of plants and animals, is that these changes set the stage for__________.
greater social inequality
When did the first social revolution occur?
approximately 10,000 years ago
According to Charles Horton Cooley, how do we develop our self concept?
Our self concept develops from interaction with others
Dramaturgy, an approach developed by symbolic interactionists, can best be described
An approach to analyzing social life in terms of the stage
Which sociologist developed the concept of looking-glass self?
Charles Horton Cooley
The ultimate back stage for most people is:
home
A complex organization with a hierarchy of authority and structure, rules and procedures is called
a bureaucracy
Groups in which the relationship is primarily impersonal and instrumental are known as
secondary groups
Emile Durkheim stated several reasons why deviance was actually functional for society. Which of the following was not one of them
One deviant act leads to another which increases social solidarity.
Al Capone, "Lucky" Luciano, John Gotti, and other heads of organized crime fall under which mode of adaptation?
innovator
Norm violations that exceed the tolerance level of the community and result in negative sanctions are:
deviance.
Which theory assumes that the higher rate of crime among the lower class is because of economic competition and inequality in society?
conflict theory
Which scientist would address the cause of deviance as being based on genetic predisposition and causes within the individual?
a sociobiologist
Structural-functional theory takes the position that:
law benefits society by helping to maintain order.
As a group becomes larger
the intensity decreases and the stability increases
Based on their relationship to sociological theory, which of the following theories of deviance least belongs with the other three?
The Theory of Differential Association
Max Weber included all of the following as characteristics of bureaucracy EXCEPT:
career advancement based on personality and individualism
Just going through the motions would be an illustration of which form of Merton's Strain Theory?
ritualism.
A complex organization characterized by explicit rules and hierarchial authority structure designed to maximize efficiency is known as a(n):
bureaucracy.
As group size increases it is less and less likely individuals will come forward to complete group tasks needing done unless specifically assigned to do so. What term describes this phenomenon of group dynamics?
diffusion of responsibility
_________ theory is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate ways of achieving them.
Merton's Strain
The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of __________ theory.
labeling
Crimes committed by respectable people of high social status in the course of their occupations are known as:
white-collar crimes
Conflict theorists point out that the class differentials in crime rates develop partly because:
law enforcement discriminates more heavilhy against the poor
Which sociologist described primary groups as "the springs of life"?
Charles Horton Cooley
In bureaucracies, what term refers to rules and procedures that defy all logic?
red tape
________ are the category most likely to be able to successfully clain the sick role.
People in positions of power.
The crime with the highest recidivism rate is ________ and the crime with the lowest recidivism rate is ________.
stealing cars; murder
Since Frank graduated from high school he has held only seasonal and part-time jobs. Because he has few marketable skills he is the first to be laid off when he finds what may be a more permanent position. In view of this, how would a conflict theorist categorize Frank?
Frank is a member of the marginal working class
_________ groups are large, anonymous, formal, and impersonal.
Secondary
Alan, a 14-year-old boy, finds himself in a situation where he can steal a digital watch from a store. he decided against the theft because he fears what others will think of him if they knew. In theis situation, Alan conforms to society's values because of:
informal social controls
Which sociological perspective is most aligned with the relativity of deviance?
symbolic interactionist
Who is the psychiatrist who denounced the medicalization of deviance and proclaimed "mental illnesses are neither mental nor illnesses....they are problem behaviors"?
Thomas Szasz
Aggregates and groups:
differ in that people in groups feel a sense of idenity with one another while people in aggregates do not.
As a part of his court martial, Captain Savage was publicly stripped of his rank insignia, the buttons of his uniform were ripped off, and he was banished from the cavalry. What did this ritual following a court martial represent?
a degradation ceremony
Which of the following is NOT an example of a complex organization?
the population of China
Based on Merton's strain theory, drug addicts, alcoholics, the homeless, and others who have dropped out of the pursuit of success are engaged in which mode of adaptation?
retreatism
Who was the sociologist responsible for explaining the groupthink phenomenon?
Irving Janis
Individuals who share similar characteristics but do not interact would be an example of a(n)
category.
The army, the post office, colleges and General Motors:
are bureacracies
On the first Friday of every month Joseph stalks elderly women as they find a bank to cash their social security checks. After they leave the bank he snatches their purses, taking the cash. When asked by a fellow thug if he ever had second thoughts about stealing from the elderly, Joseph responded, "Never...these old biddies have money to burn...they'll never miss it. Besides, all they need to do is call the social security office and tell them what happened and they'll send them another check." Albeit the error of Joseph's reasoning, what technique of neutralization is Joseph utilizing to maintain a positive self-image?
denial of injury
This theory posits that internal and external constraints keep people from being deviant:
control theory
According to strain theory, the solution to deviance is to:
make it easier to reach societal goals through acceptable means.
Which leadership style will most likely result in a high degree of internal solidarity among employees?
authoritarian
Who was the "stigma master" who applied a typology of characteristics that discredit people from full social acceptance?
Erving Goffman
The BEST example of a primary group is:
a family
The links we have among other people, even friends of friends are called ________.
social networks
Frankie and Johnny enjoy hiding in the park and attacking gays who may be walking home from a local bar that caters to the gay community. They feel this is appropriate behavior because the Bible condemns homosexuality and gays should be punished. In view of this, which technique of neutralization are Frankie and Johnny employing to maintain a positive self-image?
denial of victim
What are the unwritten, taken-for-granted "rules" that underlie our everyday lives, such as not yelling "fire" in a crowded classroom or movie theater?
background assumptions
According to Structural Stain Theories, deviance occurs when:
people cannot reach the acceptable goals of society through acceptable means.
What is the classification of homicide that involves the killing of several victims in three or more separate events?
serial murder
When Corrinda's friends wouldn't talk to her because she tattled to the teacher about them, they were using________.
a negative sanction
What sociological term best describes lovers, cult members, and members of a combat infantry platoon?
a primary group
There are 35 cars backed up at the intersection because of an accident. Which sociological term best describes these 35 drivers?
an aggregate
Who was the sociologist who developed the Theory of Differential Association?
Edwin Sutherland
Young people are more likely to be deviant than older people because:
they do not have as much to lose by being deviant, like a career or credit rating.
Which of the following theories sees inequality as unnecessary but likely to remain because the powerful control the resources necessary to eliminate social inequality?
confict
Since 1940, the gap between the rich and the poor has
remained about the same.
What would Marx call the shared identity members of the working class have for doing "real work" in relation to their position in the means of production?
class consciousness
Compartive studies of the occupational prestige scale show that:
there is a great deal of similarity in the rankings of occupations across nations and across time.
Workers in the maquiladoras along the United States and Mexican border make $10 a day which is only a fraction of what American workers were paid to do the same work. Why is it unlikely, however, that the Mexican workers will go on strike to demand better wages?
Workers in other nations are eager to do the work for only a dollar or two a day.
What is it called when the same numbers of people move up and down the social class ladder, such that, on balance, the social class system shows little change?
exchange mobility
Weber's three dimensions of social stratification included all but which of the following:
education.
What technique does Christian Solidarity International (CSI) utilize in response to slavery in areas of northern Africa including the Sudan?
CSI utilizes Arab "retrievers" who go to Sudan to either abduct or buy slaves.
A small group of people for whom poverty persists year after year and across generations is referred to as:
the underclass
The ability to control someone's behavior even against his or her will is:
power.
Social ___________ is a system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige.
stratification
How many classes exist in Erik Wright's modified Marxian model of social class?
four
The theoretical position that holds that inequality is both necessary and justifiable comes from:
structural functional theory
On the average, how long does an American family remain in poverty?
a year or less
The "culture of poverty" theory refers to a culture that:
perpetuates poverty from one generation to the next
Most poor families are in poverty
for one year or less.
Jocko is a drug dealer who makes well over a million dollars a year. He lives in a magnificent home and has a "squad" of other dealers and gang members who support and protect him. In view of this, which of the following is the best description of Jocko based on middle-class standards?
Jocko is status inconsistent because his prestige score as a drug dealer is not consistent with his rank in property and power
Bruce owns about 3,000 acres of prime farmland, is one of the wealthiest men in the county, and enjoys a great deal of prestige in his community. In view of this, how would sociologists describe Bruce as it pertains to social class?
Bruce is status consistent because of his high ranking in the two dimensions.
Which measure of social class ranks people on income, education, occupation, or some combination?
socioeconomic status
Based on the author's account of the relationship between physical health and social class, which of the following statements would be most accurate?
There is an inverse relationship between social class and physical health.
Which set of characteristics is most applicable in describing the poor?
rural location, white, high school drop-out, mother head of household
What is the trend in U.S. society whereby poor families have become increasingly headed by women?
the feminization of poverty
Sally is employed as a computer programmer for the Ellis Corporation. She has a savings account of $15,000 and owns a few shares of Ellis stock. She thinks of herself as an investor rather than as a worker. How would Marx assess Sally's reasoning?
Sally is experiencing false consciousness
Two of the strongest factors in poverity is race/ethnicity and education. The other major predictor of families living in poverity is__________.
the sex of the head of the household
________ mobility refers to the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next.
Intergenerational.
Who does the author cite as being "the wealthiest person in the world"?
Bill Gates (Microsoft Corporation
During the Great Depression thousands of people changed social class unexpectedly and usually in a downward spiral. What type of mobility did this event illustrate?
structural mobility
The former Soviet Union and the nations of the former Communist Bloc comprise:
the developing nations
In democracies, what are the two methods used by the ruling elite to control information?
technology and the selective release of information
According to Weber, social class is actually made up of three components:_____________.
property, power, and prestige
In distribution of scarce resources, caste systems rely on ________ statuses and class systems rely on _______ statuses.
ascribed; achieved
_______ stress that features of a society can explain poverty in a society.
Sociologists
What are the two most striking characteristics of the British class system?
language and education
Which theoretical perspective states that inequality is necessary to the stability of society?
structural functional
The belief that the lack of economic development in Least Industrialized Nations is caused by the Industrailized Nations dominating the world economy is referred to as:
dependency theory
Which is true about inequality in the distribution of household income in the U.S.?
It has increased slightly in the last 35 years
What is the underlying basis of India's caste system?
religion
In the United States, slavery was replaced by
a racial caste system
What was the primary purpose behind colonialism as it was practiced during the 18th and 19th centuries by the nations of Europe?
to establish economic colonies and exploit the people and resources
Wealth includes:
all of the above
Which economist proposed that the Least Industrialized Nations were held back from developing a more productive economy by a culture of poverty?
John Kenneth Galbraith
A basic difference between class and caste stratification is that
social mobility is possible in class system but not in caste system
The dimension of social class having to do with social honor expressed as life-style is called:
status.
In the three-world model, what quality distinguishes a First World nation?
a capitalist economy
Which of the following theories sees inequality as unnecessary but likely to remain because the powerful control the resources necessary to eliminate social inequality?
confict
According to the functionalist theory as proposed by Davis and Moore, which of the following factors is a reason social stratification is universal?
All societies have positions of differing importance that must be filled.
Who was the sociologist who proposed every society is stratified by power to ensure that society's work gets done, which he documented in his book The Ruling Class?
Gaetano Mosca
Which of the following events is responsible for creating extensive economic ties among the world's nations?
the globalization of capitalism
Kevin's father is an executive in a business firm. Kevin recently flunked out of the prestigious college that his parents had sent him to and has taken a job at the local cable company installing cable lines. This is an example of __________ mobility.
downward
What term would Karl Marx use to describe the DuPonts, Vanderbilts, Rockefellers, and other major industrialists in American history?
bourgeoisie
Structural Functionalism explains racial and ethnic inequality as contributing to stability and harmony of society because:
it provides a socially accepted way for people to release their frustrations, hostility and aggression over their lack of achieving their goals.
___________ is an attitude or prejudging, usually in a negative way.
Prejudice
An irrational negative attitude held about a category of people is known as:
prejudice.
The life expectancy of men born in the year 2010 is approximately ________ and the life expectancy of women born that year is approximately ________.
76; 81
Which European nation provides the best example of multiculturalism?
Switzerland
Social Security arose out of the conflict over
the Townsend Plan
Alyssa has worked for 10 years in a major publishing company. She has not been promised to any executive position even though she has directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion illustrates___________.
the glass ceiling
The fact that 80 percent of engineering degrees are awarded to men while nearly 90 percent of library science degrees are awarded to women illustrates what concept?
gender tracking
The rapid explosion of the number of old people in the US has been referred to as the
graying of America.
Conflict theory sees retirement for the elderly as
an economic issue of competition between the younger generation and the older generation.
In addition to testosterone levels, what other variable did the Vietnam veterans study examine as the possible cause of aggressive male behavior?
social class
Sex refers to ___________ characteristics, while gender refers to ________________ characteristics.
biological; social
The increasing proportion of older people in the United States has been referred to as the _____________
graying of America
Which nation is the least race-conscious and permits a wide range of latitude in classifying a person "white" or "black" with seven terms to describe race?
Brazil
Informal discrimination that serves as an invisible barrier to women's promotions in traditional male careers is known as:
the glass ceiling
Who was the sociologist who defined minority groups as people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination?
Louis Wirth
Which theory of aging suggests people adjust to old age by maintaining ties with their past?
continuity theory
Which of the following helps explain the differences in life expectancy between men and women?
men's risker lifestyle.
Who are the American volunteers concerned with illegal immigration who patrol the Mexican-United States border in Arizona?
the Minutemen
This term refers to the normative dispositions and behaviors that cultures assign to each sex:
gender.
What was the result of the remarks made by the President of Harvard University suggesting women had inborn characteristics making them less competitive than men in fields such as engineering?
The President resigned his position after being chastised by his faculty and staff.
George is a clerk in a hardware store. When an African American comes into the store, George provides closer monitoring because he believes that African Americans will steal his merchandise. What term most applies to the unequal treatment that George applies to African Americans who are actually customers?
discrimination
In their analysis of aging, symbolic interactionists focus on:
the changing meaning of being old.
Etnocentrism enhances the potential for
prejudice attitudes and discrimination
Conflict theorists argue that some form of conflict seems inevitable between the elderly and the young because
the number of people who collect Social Security is growing
The concept of sex is used to refer to which of the following?
male/female
What do sociologists call a tendency for people to interpret labels in a particular way while the same labels lead them to be blind to the messages they actually convey?
selective perception
What is the number of workers required to support one dependent member of society called?
dependency ratio
When sociologists examine racial categories they focus on
differences in physical traits that have been given social importance or social recognition.
The phrase "split labor market" refers to a situation in which:
there is one labor market for white males and one for women and other minorites.
What was the major difference between the half-million Cubans who fled Castro's rise to power in 1959 and the 100,000 "boat people" who fled Cuba in 1980?
The 1980 group was less educated and lower class.
Which of the following provides health care for the elderly?
medicare
What percent of those over 65 live below the poverty line?
10%
What were the goals of the second wave of the women's movement that began in the 1960s?
The goals are broad ranging from raising women's pay to changing policies on violence against women.
Disengagement theory and activity theory
both focus on how retirees adjust to their retiremant
What is the method of intergroup relations that allows the minority group to adopt the dominant group's patterns in their own way and at their own speed?
permissible assimilation
Disengagement theory is based on the ________ perspective.
functionalist
In India, what is the practice of suttee?
The burning of the living widow during cremation with her dead husband.
In today's age what is the primary reason kidnapped Vietnamese women are brought to China?
They are sold as brides due to a shortage of women created by the "one couple, one child" policy.
Although the media refers to Tiger Woods as an African American, as a boy he used the term "Cablinasian." What racial and national identities are included in being a "Cablinasian"?
Thai, Chinese, Native American, African American, Caucasian
During the 1960s Rena took a bus tour of the Southern states. Whenever the passsengers stopped for meals or to stay overnight in a hotel, the white passengers ate at separate restaurants and slept at separate hotels than the African American passengers. This practice is an example of ____________.
segregation
Juan, a Hispanic, and Harold, a white male, have each applied for a home mortgage at the local bank. Juan's loan was turned down while Harold's loan was given to him. In comparing their credit history, both men had good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of __________ against Juan.
institutional discrimination
From which nation do the greatest number of Latinos in the United States trace their heritage?
Mexico
Which ethnic group is most likely to live in poverty?
Native American
What is the current life span, based on the age reached by a French woman who died in 1997?
122
What term did the Serbs use when they massacred the Muslims in Bosnia simply because of their religious affiliation?
ethnic cleansing
Sexism refers to:
the belief that men and women have biologically different capacities and that they form a legitimate basis for unequal treatment.
A dominant group refers to a group in a society that_________.
have the greatest power, more privileges, and highest social status
How do symbolic interactionists believe that the social value of the elderly in America changed when the economy shifted from being based on agriculture to industry?
It decreased
The process by which a minority group is absorbed into the mainstream culture is known as:
assimilation.
Mills used the term ___________ to refer to those who rule in the U.S.
power elite
Maximillian is disenchanted with the American political system. He feels the "one man one vote" philosophy is a facade and that his vote means virtually nothing and will just bring "more of the same." Based on this information, diagnose Maximillian's condition.
Maximillian is suffering from voter apathy
What term did sociologist William Domhoff use to refer to the power elite?
the ruling class
In which society did power shift from the heads of families and clans to a ruling elite which resulted in greater inequality?
the agricultural society
Postindustrial society is characterized by the growth of:
service industries.
At the last shareholder meeting of the Arrowhead Corporation the stockholders of the corporation refused to rubberstamp the CEO's recommendations. How is this refusal characterized in the world of business?
The stockholders are staging a stockholders' revolt
Decision making power based on an individual's perceived extraordinary personal characteristics is:
charismatic authority
In the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections more men voted Republican while more women voted Democrat. What is the term used to describe this trend?
the political gender gap
What term describes people who think alike on a particular issue and who can be mobilized for political action?
special-interest group
Carol tells her mother that it is her sister's turn to mow the lawn because she mowed it last week. This is an example of which type of authority?
rational-legal
What is the routinization of charisma?
the transition of authority from a charismatic leader to either traditional or rational-legal authority
American government is based on ______ authority.
rational-legal
What event ushered in the biotech society?
The deciphering of the human genome system
When did the first noticeable conditions of social inequality occur in human societies?
When surplus was generated
Which of the following types of government does Hitler's Nazi Germany and Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq best illustrate?
totalitarianism
Max Weber referred to legitimate power as__________
authority
______ is one type of coercion used by the state.
Taxation
Decision making power based on the sanctity of time-honored routines is:
traditional authority
One of the essential characteristics of socialism is
central planning
In which society did trading centers first develop that turned into cities?
the agricultural society
What are the three characteristics of socialism?
central economic planning, public ownership of the means of production, no profit
What is an economic system called that is designed to eliminate competition by selling goods at predetermined prices regardless of the demand for the product, or the cost to make it?
socialism
Charles says to his son: "We agreed to take turns mowing the lawn, and this week it is your turn." Charles is using:
rational-legal authority
What was necessary for conspicuous consumption to become a fundamental part of society's orientation to life?
Surpluses had to grow to greater amounts and availability
In the United States what is the diffusion among many different organizations including conservatives and liberals and special interest groups that prohibits any one group from gaining total control?
pluralism
Who was the sociologist who analyzed the use of power by the state and suggested that "violence is theultimate foundation of any political order" ?
Peter Berger
The current form of capitalism in the U.S. is ___________ capitalism
welfare (or state)
During the Vietnam War and currently in the Middle East, members of the weaker political movement enlist young men and women to strap explosives to their bodies and detonate them in the presence of police officers, in mosques, at funerals, and anywhere the act shocks people worldwide and captures headlines. What is such a tactic called?
suicide terrorism
John F. Kennedy had a combination of ideal types of leadership. Although he was the President of the United States, he also inspired people to get involved with their country's programs through his inspirational speeches. President Kennedy is an example of combining which two sources of authority?
charismatic and rational-legal
In what form of government would someone find an "electronic town meeting" taking place?
representative democracy
A government in which power is held by a small group or clique of individuals us a(n)
oligarchy
What is a form of capitalism that exists in a society when market forces are able to operate without government interference?
laissez-faire capitalism
Which of the following U.S. citizens would be most likely to vote in a presidential election?
George, age 54, investment banker
Mother Teresa had decision making power based on:
charismatic authority.
How would sociologists describe an economy that generates very little surplus food and material property?
It is a subsistence economy.
What is the key factor on which representative democracy is based?
citizenship
What is the relationship between the level of industrialization and the level of traditional authority?
As the level of industrialization increases, the level of traditional authority decreases.
Which of the following is the best description of an economy?
It is a system of producing and distributing goods and services.
Captialism is an economic system that is focused on:
competiton.
What is another term that would describe bureaucratic authority?
rational-legal authority
Approximately what is the percentage and number of mixed marriages in the United States based on differences in race?
7 percent or over 4 million couples
Jane is getting married in the spring and is worried that her chances of getting divorced are extremely likely given the high divorce rate in the U.S. On the other hand, what reason can Jane use to discount the statistics related to divorce?
Overall statistics on divorce have nothing to do with any one individual marriage.
The use of educational credentials to measure an individual's worth is called:
credentialism.
Approximately what percentage of students with disabilities attend school in regular classrooms?
50%
What were the two major goals for instituting public education in America during the 1800s?
It was to produce more educated workers and "Americanize" immigrants.
Why do functionalists argue that the incest taboo is a norm necessary for proper family development?
It facilitates the socialization of children and it avoids role confusion.
Who was the sociologist who addressed the concept of the self-fulfilling prophecy?
Robert Merton
What is the basis for the distinct framework for Asian family life that includes humanism, collectivity, self-discipline, and respect for elders?
Confucian values
What was the first nation to legalize same-sex marriages?
Denmark
In the Least Industrialized Nations, who is most likely to participate in a formal education program beyond the first couple of grades?
Primarily the wealthy because of the relative high cost of education in these nations.
Sociologists define religion as:
a system of beliefs and practices related to sacred things that unites people in a moral community.
Which statement is most accurate on how parents of different social classes rear their children?
Middle class parents think of their children as in need of significant nurturing.
The crescent moon and stars are to Muslims as ________ is to the Jews.
the Star of David
Christians who have undergone a life-transforming religious experience so radical they feel they have become new people are said to have experienced which of the following events?
They are born again
Most families in which both parents work rely on ____________ for childcare
daycare
Of the following concepts, which of the following is the best example of exogamy?
The incest taboo prohibits close relatives from marrying one another.
In Moronica the government subsidizes the one major religion. To be elected to political office, the constitution of Moronica requires the candidate to be a member of the Church of Moronica. Based on this, which type of religious group applies best to describe the Church of Moronica?
It is an ecclesia
Yoko attends grade school in Japan. What would be the central theme of all of her classes?
solidarity with the group and team effort
What is the process of determining which people will enter what occupations through tracking and placing select students in "ability groups" and "advanced" classes?
gatekeeping
Which of the following trends is less likely to occur in respect to marriage?
Births to single women are likely to decrease
What term did sociologist Randall Collins apply to industrialized nations due to their tendency to use diplomas and degrees as sorting devices?
credential societies
What is the primary purpose sociologists study religion?
To study the role religion plays in people's lives
In Japan, why are children from the richer families more likely to be admitted to college even though competition is rigid and there are a limited number of openings each year?
Parents spend more for tutors to prepare their children for the college entrance exam.
In the United States today, one-third of all entering college freshmen have an overall high school grade point average of A- or higher, twice what it was in 1970. What is the reason for this increase in students with high grades?
Teachers have inflated grades
What do the Crusades to control the Holy Land, the burning of witches at the stake, and sacrifice of virgins by the Aztecs illustrate about religion?
They are all examples of how religion can be dysfunctional
Frank, Jim, Martha, and Louise occupy the same apartment, share routine chores such as cooking, cleaning and laundry, and each contributes a share of their earnings to pay utilities and food costs.Which term most applies to the relationship between Frank, Jim, Martha, and Louise?
Frank, Jim, Martha, and Louise are a household
Marianne and her children live in a neighborhood where all the families share their resources when someone needs help. The neighbors also consider themselves to be an extended family. What term do sociologists use to describe these survival mechanisms?
fictive kin
Which sociological perspective stresses the teachings of religion help people adjust to life's problems and provide guidelines for daily life?
the functionalist perspective
John and Diane proudly consider themselves as DINKS. Put another way, what is the distinguishing feature of being a DINK?
They are married, both are working, and they have no kids by choice.
What is the primary reason many employers rely on diplomas and degrees as sorting devices to choose employees?
Employers do not know potential employees, and diplomas and degrees serve as sorting devices.
What term describes a family in which grandparents, parents, children, and grandchildren live under one roof?
the extended family
Which of the following serves as the best example of a ritual?
praying before meals
In India, about 95 percent of the marriages are arranged by the parents; in the United States, most marriages are based on individual choice. Which statement best explains these differences in marriage practices?
A society's marriage practices match societal values and patterns of stratification
For both single mothers and married couples, what is the most common source of childcare for mothers who work outside the home?
organized childcare facilities
Studies show that young adults are leaving the parental home:
and then about one half return
Who were the three sociologists known for advocating social placement as a part of the educational system as being functional for society?
Talcott Parsons, Kingsley Davis, Wilbert Moore
Which of the following statements is least accurate regarding family and marriage?
Characteristics of marriage are the same in industrial and traditional societies
In home schooling, who serves as the primary teacher of the child?
the mother of the child being home schooled
Which sociological perspective takes the position that we create our own worlds, including marriage? This implies that to have a good marriage, it is essential for people to perceive that a good marriage is possible and worth working toward achieving.
symbolic interactionist
What did Murray Strauss conclude based on his research on battering in marital relationships?
Husbands and wives are about equally likely to attack one another.
What is the name of a society in which a man has more than one wife?
polygynous
Renee has difficulty in reading and writing. However, despite her problem with reading and writing, she has been passed into the next grade every year. This is an example of ________.
social promotion
Which of the following serves as the best example of how religion promotes social change?
the Civil Rights Movement
What was the basis of antimiscegenation laws?
interracial marriage
Who published the influential book, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life in 1912 that identified the elements common to all religions?
Emile Durkheim
What is the process of passing a nation's core values from one generation to the next, such as respect for private property, individuality, and competition through the school system?
cultural transmission
What is the primary source of strain in the typical one-parent family?
poverty
The role of the school in teaching obedience and conformity is called:
the hidden curriculum
Which sociological perspective emphasizes housework as "women's work" and mowing the lawn as "men's work" in a traditional orientation toward household chores?
the symbolic interactionist perspective
Regina lives in a society in which children are related to their father's relatives, but not their mother's relatives. What type of descent system does this illustrate?
patrilineal