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1. Sancerre AOC
2. Pouilly-Fume AOC

Name the two important AOC's from the Central Vineyards for this course.

Black fruit, cassis, bell pepper, cigar box, eucalyptus.

Describe the nose of Cabernet Sauvignon.

A fortified wine. Spirit is added to the wine 1/2 way through the fermentation to kill the yeast.

What is port?

A spirit is added to stop fermentation.

What is fortification?

Bulgaria, China, South Africa

Cabernet Sauvignon is the most planted grape in which countries?

The Vosges mountains to the west and the Rhine River to the east

What are the borders of Alsace?

French wine laws came about due to the affects of vine disease in the late 1840s. Phylloxera, powdery mildew (oidium) and peronospera (downy mildew) devestated vineyards in France. Wine demand exceeded supply and fraudulent versions of wine were created and market as wine from some of the finest regions of France. Growers forced the government to intervene and develop a set of laws to regulate the use of geographical names on wine labels. Came around by the mid 1930s.

How did French Wine Laws arise?


Sweetness accentuates?

Large barrels known as foudres.

What are the blends of Southern Rhone typically matured in?

Resistant to extremes of heat and cold.

Can Cabernet Sauvignon tolerate extremes of climate?

Adds vanilla, cedar, and spice.

Oak aging adds what flavored to Cabernet Sauvignon?

Tannic wines.

Hard cheese is best served with...

use of agrichemicals
organic viticulture
biodynamic viticulture

How do they control for pests in the vineyard?

Table wine can come from anywhere. It may be perfectly drinkable stuff but it does not really do what wine is suupposed to do. It doesn't express the place fom which it comes.

Quality wine does exactly that. (Quality wine produced in a specific region QWPSR)

What is the difference between Table and Quality Wine?

Rapid chilling of the wine to remove the possibility for the development of tartrate crystals or "wine diamonds'.
After the crystals precipitate, the clear wine is drawn off.

What is cold stabilization and what does it do?

The wine has absorbed too much oxygen.
It can become discoloured.
It may smell like stale nuts and bad fruit.

Define oxidization.

1. Saignee (Portion of juice is bled off from skins. Minimal skin color for extraction)
2. Blending (Red and white wines are blended. This only happens in champagne)
Most quality roses are made Saignee method.

Name two methods of making Rose wines

Cool climate- green apple, pear, lemon, mango, flint
Vinification- nuts, popcorn, butter, cream, honey

Describe the nose of Chardonnay.

They provide tannic and acidic structure in support of Grenache's alcohol and fruit.

As part of the blends in the south, what role does Mourvedre, Cinsault and Carignan play?

Here are the most popular:
Grenanche (Red and Whitez0

How many varities are permitted in the Southern Rhone?

1. timing
2. assessing sugar levels
3. phenolic ripeness
4. harvest method - machine or manual

What must be considered before harvest?

They are located on south-facing slopes with Kimmeridgian limestone subsoils.

Where are the top vineyards in Chablis located?

Selection from the mass. This amounts to a journey through the vineyard in search of cuttings from desirable plants to propagate.

Define selection massale.

1. climate
2. soil
3. grape variety
4. viticulture
5. vinification
6. Vintage

What influences the taste of wine?

GSTC (go straight to church)
1. Clay and Flint (central vineyards)
2. Tuffeau (Chalky limestone) (Touraine)
3. Schist (Anjou-Samur)
4. Granite (Nantes)

Describe the general soil type from east to west in the Loire.

A high alcohol spirit is added to the wine.

What is a fortified wine?

The natural elements that contribute to a site
soil, climate, aspect

What is terrior?

Table wine - Vin de Table
Vin de Pays
Quality Wine - Vins Delimites de qualite Superieure
Appelation d'Origine Controlee

What are the subclasses of the two major classifications of wine in france?

Cleanses the palate.

if food coats the palate, wine

1. Delimited Areas
2. Grape varieties
3. Methods of production
4. Maxium yield
5. Alcoholic content (minimum)
6. viticulture practices

What are the six major areas of regulation in the AOC?

When two varieties of the same species of wine are crossed to make a new variety.
eg müller, pinotage

What is a cross?

1. Location- it is close enough to Paris that it regularly receives visitors from that city. The french aristocracy made much use of the region up to the time of the revolution by establishing summer homes and hunting lodges in the region.

Why has the Loire not lost its essential Frenchness experienced in Bordeaux?

1. Blanchot
2. Bougros
3. Les Clos
4. Grenouilles
5. Presuses
6. Valmur
7. Vaudesir

Name the 7 Grand Crus of Chablis

Persistence of the tasting experience in the olfactory area and mouth after swallowing. Wines can be said to have a long or short finish. Also referred to as length.

Define finish.

Moderate warm temperatures with a long growing season.
Problems- drought a potential problem as there is minimal rainfall during the growing season.
Regions- Rhone valley, Napa Valley

Describe the Mediterranean climate.
What are the potential problems with this climate?
Name 2 regions with this climate.

Wines are labelled with:
1. the vineyard name
2. grape variety
3. Alsace Grand Cru AOC

How are the Alsace Grand Crus labelled?

Melding the rootstock of vinus vinifera into the rootstock of north American vines.

What is grafting?


What type of soil is Bourgueil known for?

- 3rd most planted grape in Alsace
-pink-skinned variety that prefers mineral rich soils.
- prone to frost and coulure and notorious for its variable yields in Alsace
- in good years produces concentrated, full-bodied dry wines winth intense aromatics and thick, low-acid , alomost oily texture in the mouth

How does Gewurztraminer perform in Alsace?

Andouillettes - Strong-smelling sausages made from pig intestines and served hot or cold)
Rillettes - spreadable mixture of shredded meat, fat and spices
Terrines and Pates
White fish in beurre blanc
Tarte tatin upside-dwon apple tart

Name some of the dishes from the Loire.

Pinot Gris

Of the 4 noble varieties in Alsace, which buds first?

Cool climate- moderate straw/green
Warm climate- moderate to deep gold/yellow.

Describe the appearance of Chardonnay.

Left bank Bordeaux.

Cabernet is the main component of which wines from Bordeaux.


What soil does Pinot Noir prefer?

Deep to opaque ruby/purple

What colour is Cabernet Sauvignon?

melon de Bourgogne

What is another name for Muscadet in the Loire?

Stirring the lees in a wine while it is aging.

Define Battonage.

These are late harvest wines.
They are higher in sugar and can be vinified dry or sweet
They are also known as VTs
A portion of the berries may be affected by noble rot.

What type of wine is an Alsace Vendage Tardives AOC? How is it Vinified? What are they also known as? Are they affected by Noble Rot?

Warm with good drainage. Gravel (left bank Bordeaux). Terra Rossa limestone (Conawarra Australia). Well drained alluvial.

What type of soil does Cabernet Sauvignon prefer?

Residual sugar is sugar left in the wine after fermentation.

Define residual sugar.


What is the name of large old oak casks?

INAO- The Institut National des Appellations d'Origine et de la Qualite.

What body regulates quality wine in France?

Odium- imported from America in the late 19th century.

What is another name for Powdery Mildew?

Regional AOCs
Commune AOC
There are no Grand Cru or Premier Cru

What is the structure of the wine laws in the Rhone?

39-43 F or 3-6 C
This is considered very cold

What is the service temperature for sparkling or sweet white wines?

Lactic bactera convert malic acid to lactic acid and CO2
Ths usually occurs after alcoholic fermentation
Wine has a softer texture
Adds buttery flavours
There is not only a conversion of acid but also a reduction

What is Malolactic Fermentation?

Santa Barbara
Russian River Valley

Which region of California is known for Pinot Noir


Is Chaptilization frequently necessary in the Loire?

Phylloxera-root feeding aphid native to north America.

What happened in the late 19th century that caused the need for replanting almost all European vineyards?

Pear and floral scented
can age well

What are the qualities of Marsanne grapes?

A component in wine that leads to the mouth watering sensation.

Define acidity.


What is another name used in the Loire for Cab Franc?

Pinot Noir, Gamay
Chardonnay, Aliogote

Name the grapes of burgundy.

Regional AOC- Chotes du Rhone AOC
Cotes du Rhone-Villages AOC - A select few communes with greater Potential
Commune AOCs- 15 in the Rhone

What is the structure of the AOC for the Rhone?

1. Dormancy 2. Bud break
3. Shoot growth 4. Flowering
5. Fruit set 6. Veraison 7. Harvest.

Name the lifecycle of the grape.

Very rarely. If blended usually with Gamay and is then called passetoutgrains

Is Pinot Noir blended?

Added several times throughout the vinification
It is an anti-oxidant, a disinfectant and a preservative.

What does the additive SO2 do?

Benedictine and Cistercian monks

Name two religious orders that were prominent in the middle ages, for their written advancement of wine making and grape growing

A fatal bacterial infection native to the southern united states.

What is Pierce's Disease?

Touraine and the Central Vineyards
Typically makes zesty grass and gooseberry-scented wines.

In which regions of the Loire do we typically see Sauvignon Blanc?

Fermentation is stopped by cooling and adding sulfur to partially fermented must.

What happens in arrested fermentation.

Pinot Gris
The alternate name is Tokay d'Alsace or Tokay Pinot Gris.
This name is no longer permitted

Which grape was thought to have been brought to Alsace by a Hungarian Princess?
What was its alternate name?

They are sulfur compounds that are foul smelling.

What are mercaptans?

Syrah (probably the finest expression in France)
only red grape permitted
White grape permitted - Viognier
Blended into Syralh to lighten the structure, provide finessea and lift aromas
Can be used up to 20%in Syrah wines

What wines are permitted in the Cote Rotie?

Vouvray AOC
Chinon AOC
Bourgueil AOC

What are the three important AOCs in this course in Tourraine?

Cool temperatures
Tolerates shorter growing season.

Describe the climate Pinot noir prefers?

Mountain Slopes, flat areas, broad river valleys
low yields
Gobelet training
Hand harvesting mandated in many AOC's

What are the viticulture practices of the Southern Rhone?

Crottin de Chavignol - Cylindrical goat's cheese produced near Sancerre AOC
Selles-sur-Cher - Moldy-rinded goat's cheese form the upper Loire
Valencay - Moldy-rinded, charcoal-susted goat's cheese shaped lke a pyramid.

Name 3 of the cheeses from the Loire.

1. The Greeks (colony in what is now Marselles)
2. The Romans (many areas of the Rhone)
3. French Pope Clement V relocated the Papal home from the Vatican to Avignon (Southern Rhone city) for 69 years
4. Pope John XXII made his summer home there.

Which cultures have cultivated grapes in the Rhone?

Pale to medium garnet/ruby

What is the appearance of Pinot Noir?

Wine that has been spoiled by a tainted cork usually resulting in a musty smell or aroma.

Define corked.

A negative tasting term used to describe a fault in wine.

Define musty.

Anjou AOC
Savennieres AOC
Coteaux du Layon AOC

What are the important AOCs of Anjour-Saumur?

Due to its location near the border of Germany, Alsace at one time or another has belonged to either France or Germany thus creating its unique style.

What caused the unique style of Alsace?

Typically high trained vines due to frost. Higher vine densities are common on the slopes (hand harvesting). Lower densities on the flatlands due to machine harvesting.

How are the vines trained in Alsace?

Table wines are traditionally vinified dry
Fermentation in large neutral oak casks or stainless steel tanks
MLF traditionally blocked to preserve the aromatic flavors of the grapes grown
Oak aging v. rare.
All whites bottled in the flute d'Alsace.
Varietal wines common

What is the vinification style of Alsace?

Vitis vinifera

Phylloxera is fatal to which vines?

Roasted slope

What is the translation of Cote Rotie?

Method of mixing fermenting wine with solids. Pumping wine over the cap.

Define remontage.

1. Oak Chips
2. Oak essence

What are two oak alternatives?

Wine-maker decides the degree of pressure
Types of press: Basket Press, Pneumatic Press, Bladder Press

What types of pressing are there?

Powdery mildew. Generally very disease and pest resistant.

What is Cabernet Sauvignon susceptible to??

- Stony
- Galets (white round stones also known as pudding stones)
- Alluvial

What is the soil type of the southern Rhone?

Compact bunches, relatively thin skinned, mutates easily, moderate yields.

Describe the features of Pinot Noir grapes

The Dutch in the 17th century.

When and by who were vines brought to South Africa?

Pruning is done in the winter and spring. This is done to decrease the amount of fruit.

When and why is pruning done?

Willamette Valley

Which region of Oregon is known for Pinot Noir?

Red wine is fermented in contact with the skins and solids.
White wine is fermented without skin contact

What is different in the process of making white and red wine?

Veraison is when grapes ripen and soften, take on color. Sugars increase and acidity decreases. Occurs in August in the northern hemisphere.

What is veraison and in the northern hemisphere, when does it normally happen?

Vinifera scions which is native to North America.

Which root stock is resistant to phylloxera?

43-50 F or 6-10 C
This is considered cold.

What is the service temperature for white wines, roses, and top quality champagne?

A cutting from a desirable vine is removed and planted. This grows another vine. The new vine is a clone.

Vegetative propagation of a single parent plant.

What is cloning?

Central Otaga

Name two of New Zealand known for Pinot Noir?

Medium-High Acidity
Medium - high tannin
Medium-Full Body
Medium - High Alcohol.

Describe the palate of Cabernet Sauvignon.

In 1878 Chateau Petrus was awarded a gold medal at the Paris Exposition. This began the slow growth of the Commune AOC of Pomerol.

What wine put the AOC of Pomerol on the map?

Haut-Medoc, Pauillac, margaux

Name 3 important sub-regions of Bordeaux that produce Cabernet Sauvignon.

1. Climate
2. weather
3. Soil
4. Grape variety
5. Viticulture
6. Vinification

What are the 6 major influences on wine?

Same wine style Condrieu AOC
One of a handful of single-winery AOCs in France

What is special about Chateau Grillet AOC?

Vin delimites de Qualite Superieure (VDQS) - used historically as a stepping stone for regions awaiting promotion to full AOC status. Regulations very similar to AOC.

Appellation d'Origine Controlee (AOC or AC) - Controlled Name of Origin
Appellation d'Origin - refers to the specific place with carefully delimited boundaries to which the name applies.
controlee - refers to the set of regulations regarding gape growing and wine making which producers must follow in order to use AOC on their labels. Regulations include permitted grape varieties, minimum sugar levels at harvest and winemaking techniques.

What is differnce between the two clasifications of quality wine in France?

The mass is solids made up of skins, seeds, and stalks that sits on top of the fermenting wine. It is pushed to the top by the productio of CO2.

Define Cap.

Most often grown in Beaujolais, and Maconnais

Where is Gamay mostly grown in Burgundy?

TCA - trichloroanisole
It affects 3-7% of all wines.
It is a compound formed between cork, mold and chorine.
The cork taints the wine in the bottle. It can even come from the barrels or the building.

What is cork taint?

Abnormal fruit set. Typically caused by poor weather.

What is millerandage?

Pinot buds early and ripens early. It gives moderate yields.

When does Pinot Noir bud and ripen?

1. Buds first so requires a warm sheltered site protected from frost
2. A dark skinned mutation of Pinot Noir
3. Prefers calcium-rich soils (like Pinot Noir)but with higher nutrient levels
4. Alsatian Pinot Gris is generally dry, full-bodied and intense with aromas of pears, spices , musk and canned mushroom.

What are the qualities of Pinot Gris?

Clos Vougeot

Name two important sub regions of burgundy known for Pinot Noir.

225 liter barrel. A small barrel made from French oak.

What is a Barrique?


Is Riesling grown in any other French region?

Chardonnay is native to Burgundy. In fact there is a village in the Maconnais named Chardonnay.

What is the world's most widely planted white wine grape?

Dry with intense, grapey aromas, full body and low acidity.
In Alsace, wines made from Muscat are often served as aperitifs.

What is the aroma of Muscat?

The English in the 18th century.

When and by who were vines brought to Australia?

Considered Northern Contential.
Impacted by the Vosges Mountains which provide a rain shadow effect.
The Rhine river to the east moderates temperature and provides the misty conditions necessary for producing botrytis-affected wines.
Long sunny autmuns. Alsace receives the least amount of rain in france.

What is the climate of Alsace?

British name for red wines from Bordeaux.

Define claret.

1. Nantes - Fully Maritime
2. Anjou-Saumur - Maritime with Contental influences
3. Touraine - Continental with Maritime influences
4. Central Vineyards - Fully continental

What is the climate of the four smaller regions of the Loire?

1. Late budding
2. Late ripening
3. Performs best in sunny, sheltered settings where light, loose-textured soils are found
4. It can continue to ripenin in cool, autumn conditions (important for Botrytis and late harvest wines)

What are the qualities of Riesling grapes?

Viniflhor- the Office National Interprofessionnel des Fruits, des
Legumes and des Vins et de l'Horticulture
Until recently this was known as ONIVINS

What body regulates Table wine in France?


Sweetness reduces the perception of?

Wine making. The turning of grape juice into wine.

What is Vinification?

In a mixture of old and new wood barrels.

How is Pinot Noir aged?

Mildly tannic wine.

Soft cheese is best with?


What is the most planted red grape in Burgundy?

Chenin Blanc
Sauvignon Blanc

Name three aromatic varieties in the Loire.

Cremant d'Alsace AOC

What is sparking wine made traditional method called in Alsace

You can use cultured or wild(ambient) yeast
There are many different strains of yeast
The type of strain will affect flavour, rate of fermenatation, and other factors
Each type of yeast varies in alcohol tolerance

What are some important things to remember about yeast as it relates to wine making?


What is the only commune in Burgundy to grow Aligote

Coonawarra and McLaren Vale.

Name two notable regions of Austalia that produce Cabernet Sauvignon.

Small roundworms.

What are nematodes?


What is the soil type of the Northern Rhone?

Punching down the cap. Done with a large disc on a pole. It can be done by hand or mechanized.

What is Pigeage?

low acid
often intense aromsa

What are the qualities of Viognier?

North Coast, Napa Valley

Name the notable regions of California that produce Cabernet Sauvignon.

1. Maritime
2. Continental
3. Mediterranean

Name the 3 macroclimates

- oysters
-freshwater fish
-frog's leg

Name the main ingrediets from the Loire.

french oak- vanilla
american oak- coconut

What flavours do french oak and american oak add?

The wines of Alsace are dry whereas the wines of Germany are typically sweet.

What is the major difference between the wines of Alsace and those of Germany?


Where are quality wines made from Melon de Bourgogne made in the Loire?

It gives richness to the mid-palate.

When merlot is blended with Cabernet what does it do to the palate?

1. Waiter's corkscrew
2. Service clothes
3. Proper glassware
4. Dechanter
5. Dechanting Basket
6. Candle
7 Coaster
8. Ice bucket.

What are the 8 items required for wine service?

An impression related to the measurable residual sugar.

Define sweetness.

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