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Wine Fundamentals 1

STUDY
PLAY
1. Sancerre AOC
2. Pouilly-Fume AOC
Name the two important AOC's from the Central Vineyards for this course.
Black fruit, cassis, bell pepper, cigar box, eucalyptus.
Describe the nose of Cabernet Sauvignon.
A fortified wine. Spirit is added to the wine 1/2 way through the fermentation to kill the yeast.
What is port?
A spirit is added to stop fermentation.
What is fortification?
Bulgaria, China, South Africa
Cabernet Sauvignon is the most planted grape in which countries?
The Vosges mountains to the west and the Rhine River to the east
What are the borders of Alsace?
French wine laws came about due to the affects of vine disease in the late 1840s. Phylloxera, powdery mildew (oidium) and peronospera (downy mildew) devestated vineyards in France. Wine demand exceeded supply and fraudulent versions of wine were created and market as wine from some of the finest regions of France. Growers forced the government to intervene and develop a set of laws to regulate the use of geographical names on wine labels. Came around by the mid 1930s.
How did French Wine Laws arise?
Acidity
Sweetness accentuates?
Large barrels known as foudres.
What are the blends of Southern Rhone typically matured in?
Resistant to extremes of heat and cold.
Can Cabernet Sauvignon tolerate extremes of climate?
Adds vanilla, cedar, and spice.
Oak aging adds what flavored to Cabernet Sauvignon?
Tannic wines.
Hard cheese is best served with...
spraying
use of agrichemicals
organic viticulture
biodynamic viticulture
How do they control for pests in the vineyard?
Table wine can come from anywhere. It may be perfectly drinkable stuff but it does not really do what wine is suupposed to do. It doesn't express the place fom which it comes.

Quality wine does exactly that. (Quality wine produced in a specific region QWPSR)
What is the difference between Table and Quality Wine?
Rapid chilling of the wine to remove the possibility for the development of tartrate crystals or "wine diamonds'.
After the crystals precipitate, the clear wine is drawn off.
What is cold stabilization and what does it do?
The wine has absorbed too much oxygen.
It can become discoloured.
It may smell like stale nuts and bad fruit.
Define oxidization.
1. Saignee (Portion of juice is bled off from skins. Minimal skin color for extraction)
2. Blending (Red and white wines are blended. This only happens in champagne)
Most quality roses are made Saignee method.
Name two methods of making Rose wines
Cool climate- green apple, pear, lemon, mango, flint
Vinification- nuts, popcorn, butter, cream, honey
Describe the nose of Chardonnay.
They provide tannic and acidic structure in support of Grenache's alcohol and fruit.
As part of the blends in the south, what role does Mourvedre, Cinsault and Carignan play?
22
Here are the most popular:
Roussanne
Marsanne
Grenanche (Red and Whitez0
Syrah
Mouvedre
Carignan
Cinsault
How many varities are permitted in the Southern Rhone?
1. timing
2. assessing sugar levels
3. phenolic ripeness
4. harvest method - machine or manual
What must be considered before harvest?
They are located on south-facing slopes with Kimmeridgian limestone subsoils.
Where are the top vineyards in Chablis located?
Selection from the mass. This amounts to a journey through the vineyard in search of cuttings from desirable plants to propagate.
Define selection massale.
1. climate
2. soil
3. grape variety
4. viticulture
5. vinification
6. Vintage
What influences the taste of wine?
GSTC (go straight to church)
1. Clay and Flint (central vineyards)
2. Tuffeau (Chalky limestone) (Touraine)
3. Schist (Anjou-Samur)
4. Granite (Nantes)
Describe the general soil type from east to west in the Loire.
A high alcohol spirit is added to the wine.
What is a fortified wine?
The natural elements that contribute to a site
soil, climate, aspect
What is terrior?
Table wine - Vin de Table
Vin de Pays
Quality Wine - Vins Delimites de qualite Superieure
Appelation d'Origine Controlee
What are the subclasses of the two major classifications of wine in france?
Cleanses the palate.
if food coats the palate, wine
1. Delimited Areas
2. Grape varieties
3. Methods of production
4. Maxium yield
5. Alcoholic content (minimum)
6. viticulture practices
What are the six major areas of regulation in the AOC?
When two varieties of the same species of wine are crossed to make a new variety.
eg müller, pinotage
What is a cross?
1. Location- it is close enough to Paris that it regularly receives visitors from that city. The french aristocracy made much use of the region up to the time of the revolution by establishing summer homes and hunting lodges in the region.
Why has the Loire not lost its essential Frenchness experienced in Bordeaux?
1. Blanchot
2. Bougros
3. Les Clos
4. Grenouilles
5. Presuses
6. Valmur
7. Vaudesir
Name the 7 Grand Crus of Chablis
Persistence of the tasting experience in the olfactory area and mouth after swallowing. Wines can be said to have a long or short finish. Also referred to as length.
Define finish.
Moderate warm temperatures with a long growing season.
Problems- drought a potential problem as there is minimal rainfall during the growing season.
Regions- Rhone valley, Napa Valley
Describe the Mediterranean climate.
What are the potential problems with this climate?
Name 2 regions with this climate.
Wines are labelled with:
1. the vineyard name
2. grape variety
3. Alsace Grand Cru AOC
How are the Alsace Grand Crus labelled?
Melding the rootstock of vinus vinifera into the rootstock of north American vines.
What is grafting?
Tuffeau
What type of soil is Bourgueil known for?
- 3rd most planted grape in Alsace
-pink-skinned variety that prefers mineral rich soils.
- prone to frost and coulure and notorious for its variable yields in Alsace
- in good years produces concentrated, full-bodied dry wines winth intense aromatics and thick, low-acid , alomost oily texture in the mouth
How does Gewurztraminer perform in Alsace?
Andouillettes - Strong-smelling sausages made from pig intestines and served hot or cold)
Rillettes - spreadable mixture of shredded meat, fat and spices
Terrines and Pates
White fish in beurre blanc
Tarte tatin upside-dwon apple tart
Name some of the dishes from the Loire.
Pinot Gris
Of the 4 noble varieties in Alsace, which buds first?
Cool climate- moderate straw/green
Warm climate- moderate to deep gold/yellow.
Describe the appearance of Chardonnay.
Left bank Bordeaux.
Cabernet is the main component of which wines from Bordeaux.
Limestone
What soil does Pinot Noir prefer?
Deep to opaque ruby/purple
What colour is Cabernet Sauvignon?
melon de Bourgogne
What is another name for Muscadet in the Loire?
Stirring the lees in a wine while it is aging.
Define Battonage.
These are late harvest wines.
They are higher in sugar and can be vinified dry or sweet
They are also known as VTs
A portion of the berries may be affected by noble rot.
What type of wine is an Alsace Vendage Tardives AOC? How is it Vinified? What are they also known as? Are they affected by Noble Rot?
Warm with good drainage. Gravel (left bank Bordeaux). Terra Rossa limestone (Conawarra Australia). Well drained alluvial.
What type of soil does Cabernet Sauvignon prefer?
Residual sugar is sugar left in the wine after fermentation.
Define residual sugar.
foundres
What is the name of large old oak casks?
INAO- The Institut National des Appellations d'Origine et de la Qualite.
What body regulates quality wine in France?
Odium- imported from America in the late 19th century.
What is another name for Powdery Mildew?
Regional AOCs
Commune AOC
There are no Grand Cru or Premier Cru
What is the structure of the wine laws in the Rhone?
39-43 F or 3-6 C
This is considered very cold
What is the service temperature for sparkling or sweet white wines?
Lactic bactera convert malic acid to lactic acid and CO2
Ths usually occurs after alcoholic fermentation
Wine has a softer texture
Adds buttery flavours
There is not only a conversion of acid but also a reduction
What is Malolactic Fermentation?
Santa Barbara
Carnegie
Russian River Valley
Which region of California is known for Pinot Noir
Yes
Is Chaptilization frequently necessary in the Loire?
Phylloxera-root feeding aphid native to north America.
What happened in the late 19th century that caused the need for replanting almost all European vineyards?
Pear and floral scented
can age well
What are the qualities of Marsanne grapes?
A component in wine that leads to the mouth watering sensation.
Define acidity.
Chinon
What is another name used in the Loire for Cab Franc?
Pinot Noir, Gamay
Chardonnay, Aliogote
Name the grapes of burgundy.
Regional AOC- Chotes du Rhone AOC
Cotes du Rhone-Villages AOC - A select few communes with greater Potential
Commune AOCs- 15 in the Rhone
What is the structure of the AOC for the Rhone?
1. Dormancy 2. Bud break
3. Shoot growth 4. Flowering
5. Fruit set 6. Veraison 7. Harvest.
Name the lifecycle of the grape.
Very rarely. If blended usually with Gamay and is then called passetoutgrains
Is Pinot Noir blended?
Added several times throughout the vinification
It is an anti-oxidant, a disinfectant and a preservative.
What does the additive SO2 do?
Benedictine and Cistercian monks
Name two religious orders that were prominent in the middle ages, for their written advancement of wine making and grape growing
A fatal bacterial infection native to the southern united states.
What is Pierce's Disease?
Touraine and the Central Vineyards
Typically makes zesty grass and gooseberry-scented wines.
In which regions of the Loire do we typically see Sauvignon Blanc?
Fermentation is stopped by cooling and adding sulfur to partially fermented must.
What happens in arrested fermentation.
Pinot Gris
The alternate name is Tokay d'Alsace or Tokay Pinot Gris.
This name is no longer permitted
Which grape was thought to have been brought to Alsace by a Hungarian Princess?
What was its alternate name?
They are sulfur compounds that are foul smelling.
What are mercaptans?
Syrah (probably the finest expression in France)
only red grape permitted
White grape permitted - Viognier
Blended into Syralh to lighten the structure, provide finessea and lift aromas
Can be used up to 20%in Syrah wines
What wines are permitted in the Cote Rotie?
Vouvray AOC
Chinon AOC
Bourgueil AOC
What are the three important AOCs in this course in Tourraine?
Cool temperatures
Tolerates shorter growing season.
Describe the climate Pinot noir prefers?
Mountain Slopes, flat areas, broad river valleys
low yields
Gobelet training
Hand harvesting mandated in many AOC's
What are the viticulture practices of the Southern Rhone?
Crottin de Chavignol - Cylindrical goat's cheese produced near Sancerre AOC
Selles-sur-Cher - Moldy-rinded goat's cheese form the upper Loire
Valencay - Moldy-rinded, charcoal-susted goat's cheese shaped lke a pyramid.
Name 3 of the cheeses from the Loire.
1. The Greeks (colony in what is now Marselles)
2. The Romans (many areas of the Rhone)
3. French Pope Clement V relocated the Papal home from the Vatican to Avignon (Southern Rhone city) for 69 years
4. Pope John XXII made his summer home there.
Which cultures have cultivated grapes in the Rhone?
Pale to medium garnet/ruby
What is the appearance of Pinot Noir?
Wine that has been spoiled by a tainted cork usually resulting in a musty smell or aroma.
Define corked.
A negative tasting term used to describe a fault in wine.
Define musty.
Anjou AOC
Savennieres AOC
Coteaux du Layon AOC
What are the important AOCs of Anjour-Saumur?
Due to its location near the border of Germany, Alsace at one time or another has belonged to either France or Germany thus creating its unique style.
What caused the unique style of Alsace?
Typically high trained vines due to frost. Higher vine densities are common on the slopes (hand harvesting). Lower densities on the flatlands due to machine harvesting.
How are the vines trained in Alsace?
Table wines are traditionally vinified dry
Fermentation in large neutral oak casks or stainless steel tanks
MLF traditionally blocked to preserve the aromatic flavors of the grapes grown
Oak aging v. rare.
All whites bottled in the flute d'Alsace.
Varietal wines common
What is the vinification style of Alsace?
Vitis vinifera
Phylloxera is fatal to which vines?
Roasted slope
What is the translation of Cote Rotie?
Method of mixing fermenting wine with solids. Pumping wine over the cap.
Define remontage.
1. Oak Chips
2. Oak essence
What are two oak alternatives?
Wine-maker decides the degree of pressure
Types of press: Basket Press, Pneumatic Press, Bladder Press
What types of pressing are there?
Powdery mildew. Generally very disease and pest resistant.
What is Cabernet Sauvignon susceptible to??
- Stony
- Galets (white round stones also known as pudding stones)
- Alluvial
What is the soil type of the southern Rhone?
Compact bunches, relatively thin skinned, mutates easily, moderate yields.
Describe the features of Pinot Noir grapes
The Dutch in the 17th century.
When and by who were vines brought to South Africa?
Pruning is done in the winter and spring. This is done to decrease the amount of fruit.
When and why is pruning done?
Willamette Valley
Which region of Oregon is known for Pinot Noir?
Red wine is fermented in contact with the skins and solids.
White wine is fermented without skin contact
What is different in the process of making white and red wine?
Veraison is when grapes ripen and soften, take on color. Sugars increase and acidity decreases. Occurs in August in the northern hemisphere.
What is veraison and in the northern hemisphere, when does it normally happen?
Vinifera scions which is native to North America.
Which root stock is resistant to phylloxera?
43-50 F or 6-10 C
This is considered cold.
What is the service temperature for white wines, roses, and top quality champagne?
A cutting from a desirable vine is removed and planted. This grows another vine. The new vine is a clone.

Vegetative propagation of a single parent plant.
What is cloning?
Martinborough
Central Otaga
Name two of New Zealand known for Pinot Noir?
Medium-High Acidity
Medium - high tannin
Medium-Full Body
Medium - High Alcohol.
Describe the palate of Cabernet Sauvignon.
In 1878 Chateau Petrus was awarded a gold medal at the Paris Exposition. This began the slow growth of the Commune AOC of Pomerol.
What wine put the AOC of Pomerol on the map?
Haut-Medoc, Pauillac, margaux
Name 3 important sub-regions of Bordeaux that produce Cabernet Sauvignon.
1. Climate
2. weather
3. Soil
4. Grape variety
5. Viticulture
6. Vinification
What are the 6 major influences on wine?
Same wine style Condrieu AOC
One of a handful of single-winery AOCs in France
What is special about Chateau Grillet AOC?
Vin delimites de Qualite Superieure (VDQS) - used historically as a stepping stone for regions awaiting promotion to full AOC status. Regulations very similar to AOC.

Appellation d'Origine Controlee (AOC or AC) - Controlled Name of Origin
Appellation d'Origin - refers to the specific place with carefully delimited boundaries to which the name applies.
controlee - refers to the set of regulations regarding gape growing and wine making which producers must follow in order to use AOC on their labels. Regulations include permitted grape varieties, minimum sugar levels at harvest and winemaking techniques.
What is differnce between the two clasifications of quality wine in France?
The mass is solids made up of skins, seeds, and stalks that sits on top of the fermenting wine. It is pushed to the top by the productio of CO2.
Define Cap.
Most often grown in Beaujolais, and Maconnais
Where is Gamay mostly grown in Burgundy?
TCA - trichloroanisole
It affects 3-7% of all wines.
It is a compound formed between cork, mold and chorine.
The cork taints the wine in the bottle. It can even come from the barrels or the building.
What is cork taint?
Abnormal fruit set. Typically caused by poor weather.
What is millerandage?
Pinot buds early and ripens early. It gives moderate yields.
When does Pinot Noir bud and ripen?
1. Buds first so requires a warm sheltered site protected from frost
2. A dark skinned mutation of Pinot Noir
3. Prefers calcium-rich soils (like Pinot Noir)but with higher nutrient levels
4. Alsatian Pinot Gris is generally dry, full-bodied and intense with aromas of pears, spices , musk and canned mushroom.
What are the qualities of Pinot Gris?
Clos Vougeot
Romanee-Conti
Name two important sub regions of burgundy known for Pinot Noir.
225 liter barrel. A small barrel made from French oak.
What is a Barrique?
No
Is Riesling grown in any other French region?
Chardonnay
Chardonnay is native to Burgundy. In fact there is a village in the Maconnais named Chardonnay.
What is the world's most widely planted white wine grape?
Dry with intense, grapey aromas, full body and low acidity.
In Alsace, wines made from Muscat are often served as aperitifs.
What is the aroma of Muscat?
The English in the 18th century.
When and by who were vines brought to Australia?
Considered Northern Contential.
Impacted by the Vosges Mountains which provide a rain shadow effect.
The Rhine river to the east moderates temperature and provides the misty conditions necessary for producing botrytis-affected wines.
Long sunny autmuns. Alsace receives the least amount of rain in france.
What is the climate of Alsace?
British name for red wines from Bordeaux.
Define claret.
1. Nantes - Fully Maritime
2. Anjou-Saumur - Maritime with Contental influences
3. Touraine - Continental with Maritime influences
4. Central Vineyards - Fully continental
What is the climate of the four smaller regions of the Loire?
1. Late budding
2. Late ripening
3. Performs best in sunny, sheltered settings where light, loose-textured soils are found
4. It can continue to ripenin in cool, autumn conditions (important for Botrytis and late harvest wines)
What are the qualities of Riesling grapes?
Viniflhor- the Office National Interprofessionnel des Fruits, des
Legumes and des Vins et de l'Horticulture
Until recently this was known as ONIVINS
What body regulates Table wine in France?
Sweetness
Sweetness reduces the perception of?
Wine making. The turning of grape juice into wine.
What is Vinification?
In a mixture of old and new wood barrels.
How is Pinot Noir aged?
Mildly tannic wine.
Soft cheese is best with?
Gamay
What is the most planted red grape in Burgundy?
Muscadet
Chenin Blanc
Sauvignon Blanc
Name three aromatic varieties in the Loire.
Cremant d'Alsace AOC
What is sparking wine made traditional method called in Alsace
You can use cultured or wild(ambient) yeast
There are many different strains of yeast
The type of strain will affect flavour, rate of fermenatation, and other factors
Each type of yeast varies in alcohol tolerance
What are some important things to remember about yeast as it relates to wine making?
Bouzeron
What is the only commune in Burgundy to grow Aligote
Coonawarra and McLaren Vale.
Name two notable regions of Austalia that produce Cabernet Sauvignon.
Small roundworms.
What are nematodes?
Granite
What is the soil type of the Northern Rhone?
Punching down the cap. Done with a large disc on a pole. It can be done by hand or mechanized.
What is Pigeage?
Peach-scented
low acid
often intense aromsa
What are the qualities of Viognier?
North Coast, Napa Valley
Name the notable regions of California that produce Cabernet Sauvignon.
1. Maritime
2. Continental
3. Mediterranean
Name the 3 macroclimates
- oysters
-seafood
-freshwater fish
-game
-frog's leg
Name the main ingrediets from the Loire.
french oak- vanilla
american oak- coconut
What flavours do french oak and american oak add?
The wines of Alsace are dry whereas the wines of Germany are typically sweet.
What is the major difference between the wines of Alsace and those of Germany?
Nantais
Where are quality wines made from Melon de Bourgogne made in the Loire?
It gives richness to the mid-palate.
When merlot is blended with Cabernet what does it do to the palate?
1. Waiter's corkscrew
2. Service clothes
3. Proper glassware
4. Dechanter
5. Dechanting Basket
6. Candle
7 Coaster
8. Ice bucket.
What are the 8 items required for wine service?
An impression related to the measurable residual sugar.
Define sweetness.
1. late harvest wine
2. Botrytis affected wine
3. Arrested fermentation
Name three ways to make sweet wine.
White wines.
Wines are vinified in all styles;
-sparling
-sur lie
-sec
-demi-sec
-moelleux
-liquoreux
-botrytis-affected
Loire is famous for what wines? What styles?
The Pope's new castle.
What is the direct translation of Chateauneuf-du-Pape
Fungal diseases
Loses vibrant fruit at high temperatures.
What is Pinot Noir susceptible to?
This AOC is devoted to Chenin Blanc.
All sweetness levels are seen from dry, off-dry, sweet wines and sparkling.
What are the style of wine from Vouvray AOC?
Chenin Blanc
What white wine grape is used to make sweet wine in the Loire?
Cote Rotie AOC
Condrieu AOC
Chateau Grillet AOC
Hermitage AOC
St. Joseph AOC
Crozes-Hermitage AOC
Name the major regions of Northern Rhone.
large oak
small oak barrels
stainless steele tanks
Glass-lined concrete
Enameled concrete
Name 5 types of fermentation vessels.
Chardonnay and Pinot Meunier
In champagne Pinot Noir is blended with which grapes
1. Greet table
2. Identify host
3. Give recommendations and take order
4. Repeat wine order
5. Present the bottle with label to the host.
6. Beverage service takes place to the right of the guest.
7. Cut foil
8. Remove cork
9. Pour sample
10. Fill guests glasses (1/2 full0
11. Fill hosts glass last
12. Remove cork from table.
Name the 12 steps to service.
These wines fall under the Regional Alsace AOC
They are often branded:
Edelzwicker (noble mixture)
Gentil (genteel or nice)
Fruits de Mers ( fruits of the sea - mixed seafood)
What are some of the blended wines of Alsace labeled and under which AOC do they fall?
55-57 F or 10-14 C
This is considered cellar temperature
What is the service temperatures for chardonnay or light reds?
Traditiionally blended with Marsanne in northern Rhone
reddish-brown in colour
floral scents
some refreshing acidity
What are the qualities of Roussanne?
Merlot
What is the most planted red grape in bordeaux?
AOC covers a large area and it produces Reds, white and roses.
What style of wine is produced in Anjou AOC?
Usually small new-oak barrels
What are the Syrahs of Northern Rhone Matured in?
The must is so high in sugar that the yeast dies before all the sugar is converted to alcohol.
What happens to the yeast in late harvest and botrytis affected wines?
1. removes unwanted parts of the vine
2. sets up for training system
3. Influences yield
What does pruning do?
A unique fungal infection. It causes gray rot and noble rot.
What is Botrytis cinerea? What two conditions does it cause?
Cassis, smoke , bacon fat, raspberries adn black olives
What are the aromas of the wines from Cote Rotie?
Pourriture Noble
What is the French word for Noble Rot?
The measurement of sugar content in grape juice.
Define Must weight.
White wien-only commune
Wines exclusively produced fjorm Viognier
Dry wine with intese aromas of peach, apricot honeysuckle and sometine tropical-fruit salad
Low acidity and substantial alcohol
some producers age in new oak
short perios of skin contact
full or partial MLF
What is the wine style of Condreiu AOC?
A unique fungal infection. It causes gray rot and noble rot.
What is Botrytis cinerea? What two conditions does it cause?
The Phoenicians
Who spread wine making around Europe in 1100BC
North - Granite
South - Stoney
Gallets (white round stones aka pudding stones)
Alluvial
Describe the soil of the Northern and Southern Rhone.
Acidity and tannin
Salt neutralizes...
two different species of vines crossed to make a variety.
eg. maréchal, Foch, Seyval blanc, vidal, bacco noir
What is a hybrid?
How the grapes are sorted at the winery.
By hand or machine
Define Triage.
Yes in cooler climates.
Is chaptilization done with Pinot Noir?
Wines are sweet. Made exclusively from Chenin Blanc and may be produced fom lat -harvest or botrytis-affected fruit depending on the year.
What is the style of wines from the Coteaus du Layon?
1. Muscat Ottonel
2. Muscat Blac d'Alsace a Petits Grains.
What are the two expressions of muscat available in Alsace?
1. slope
2. Aspect
3. altitude
4. trees
5. bodies of water
6. geographical features
What factors affect specific vineyard climates?
Muscadet produces refreshing wines with apple, citrus and herb flavors.
Often aged on their lees, the wines can demonstrate distinctly yeasty, bread-like flavors.
Describe the qualties of wines made from Melon de Bourgogne in the Loire?
1. Quality Wine
2. Table Wine
What are the two major classifications of wine in France?
This condition represents difficulty at the vine's flowering stage and is typically caused by cool wet weather. Vines with this condition may drop some or all of their berries after fruit set.
What is Coulure?
Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot, Malbec.
Sauvignon Blanc, Semillion, Muscadelle.
Name the 5 red and 3 white grapes grown in Bordeaux.
Dry white wines
What type of wine is permitted to be made in Entre-Deux-Mers
North- Steep slopes, narrow river valley
low yields
vines staked against the wind
Hand harvesting for best wines

South- Mountains slopes, flat areas, broad river valleys
Low yields
Goblet training
Hand harvesting mandated by many AOCs
Describe the viticulture practices of the Northern vs. Southern Rhone.
Most tannins come from the skins, stems and seeds.
Where do the tannins come from?
1. Rose de Loire AOC for pink wines
2. Cremant de Loire AOC for traditional method sparklers

There is no regional AOC for Red or White in the Loire.
What are the regional AOC's for the Loire?
It is approximately 275 km north of Bordeaux. They are separated by the Cognac growing region.
How far is the coastal region of the Loire from Bordeaux? What separates it?
Lengthy contact with skins to extract colour and tannin.
What is important about the fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon?
95% of production in red wine
Small quatities of white, rose, sparkling and dessert
What type of wine is produced in the Rhone?
1. the Bas-Rhin (lower Rhine) most sparkling wine
2. the Haut-Rhin (Upper Rhine) more grand cru vineyard sites.
What are the two departements of Alsace?
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
What is the most common type of yeast used in wine making?
1. Humidity
2. Rain at harvest
3. Frost
4. Wind
What are the major hazards to the vine?
Pinot Noir
What is the red grape of Alsace?
Chardonnay, Pinot noir, Pinot meunier.
What three grapes are permitted to grow in Champagne?
- High Vine density
- Guyot or Cordon trained
- spraying for mildew
- machine and hand harvesting
- Different varieties harvest at different times
- top sweet wines are affected by botrytis
In the vineyard in Bordeaux what techniques are used?
Removes unwanted particles.
There are different degrees
ranges from light to sterile.
What does filtering do?
Approximately 3000 years
How long has the Rhone River valley been producing wine?
Tannin
Fat and protein reduce the perception of?
The Spainards in the1500s.
Who and when were vines brought to South America ?
1. Choucroute garni ( Sauerkraut simmered in stock and spices and then garnished with various meats such as smoked pork sausages and goose)
2. Quiche Lorraine (Egg-custard tart with bacon)
3. Fruit tarts.
Cheese - Munster
Name three of the classic dishes of Alsace.
Name a local cheese
It affects the green parts and the immature berries of the vine.
what part of the vine does Downey mildew affect?
Medium bodied reds from Cabernet Franc.
What is the style of wine produced in Chinon AOC?
Sweetness
Sugar neutralizes..
Traditionally done in open topped wood fermenters.
Pigeage for gentle color extraction.
Describe the fermentation of Pinot Noir.
red - merlot
- Cabernet Sauvignon
- Cabernet Franc
- Malbec
-Petit Verdot

white- Semillion
- Sauvignon Blanc
- Muscadelle (less than 5% of plantings)
Name the 5 red grapes and 3 white grapes of bordeaux.
Heat
Alcohol accentuates?
Manta
What is another name for the Cap?
57-64 F or 14-18 C
This is considered just below room temperature.
What is the service temperature for full bodied reds?
A white mutation of Pinot Gris. Produces soft, fruity, refreshingly acidic whites.
What is the aroma of Pinot Blanc
Alsace produces fuller wines (with exception of late harvest and botrytis affected)
Alsace ferment to dryness
Alsation Riesling typically - steely, mineral-rich aromas with lemon-lime and peach aromas.
With maturitiy will develop the signature petroleum aroma.
What are some of the differences between Rieslings from Alsace and those from Germany?
Lengthy contact with skins to extract colour and tannin.
What is important about the fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon?
Corton Grand Cru AOC
What is the largest single Grand Cru vineyard in Burgundy?
Mediterrean
Also gets the Mistral winds.
What is the climate of the southern Rhone?
1. Steep slopes, narrow river valley
2. low yields
3. Vines staked for protection against the wind
4. Hand harvesting for best wines
What is the viticulture of the northern Rhone?
Wines are made exlusively from Chenin Blanc.
intense concentrated dry white wines
Known for high acidity as well as their aging potential
What style is made in Savenniers AOC?
It is spread by the glassy-winged sharp shooter.
How is Pierce's Disease spread?
Acid can be added to either the must or the wine. Tartaric acid is used for the best wines. This technique is employed in warmer climates or vintages.
When is Acid added to a wine?
no significant water body influence
Extreme temperature variations between seasons.
Potential problems-frost, hail
Regions- Burgundy, Colombia Valley, Champagne, Rheinegau
Describe the Continental climate.
What are the potential problems in this region?
Name 4 regions with this climate
At last count approximatley 500.
Approximatley how many wines have AOC status?
Light bodied dry whites from Melon de Bourgogne
Some are done sur lie and will be labelled as such
What is the style of wine made in Muscadet Sevre et Maine AOC
Foothills - fairly thin topsoils with varied subsoils of granite, sandstone or limestone.
Flatlands - rich in organic matter formed of alluvium. Soils are typically thick and fertile
What are the soil types of Alsace?
Vin de Table - most basic category of french wine.
- rarely seen on the export market
- cannot include grape variety, geographical origin or even vintage
on the label.
Vin de Pay - translates to country wine
- develped in the 1970s
- designation designed to encourage better-quality wines from table wine producers.
- regulations around yields, permitted grape varieties, minimum potential alcohol at harvest. looser than AOC regulations.
- regulations permit geographical designation, vintage as well as grape variety on the label.
Describe the difference between the 2 classifications of table wine in France
controlling the growth of the vine
shoot thinning
training systems
maximizing sun exposure
What things are considered in canopy management?
1. water
2. skin
3. seeds
4. acids
5. sugars
6. phenolics (tannin and colour)
Name the 6 components of a grape.
Acidity
Lemon neutralizes?
4
1. Viognier
2. Marsanne
3. Roussanne
4. Syrah
How many grape varieties are permitted in Northern Rhone?
Small blue/black berries which hang in loose long bunches. Skins are thick. Pips are large. Tough stalks on grapevine.
Describe the appearance of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.
The tall, green Alsace flute.
What type of bottle is used for wines from Alsace?
1. Regional AOC - Alsace AOC
2. Better vineyard sites Alsace Grand Cru AOC
3. AOC for particualr syles of wine
- Alsace Vendage Tardives AOC
- Alsace Selection de Grains Nobles AOC
What is the AOC system in Alsace?
Wine is circulated over the cap.
What is Remontage?
Yeast + Sugar = Ethyl Alcohol, CO2 and heat
What is Alcoholic Fermentation?
Vintage is important when the climate is variable in a region. Different years will have different growing conditions thereby affecting the taste of the wine.
Why is vintage important to the taste of a wine?
The growing of grapes and the maintaining of the vineyard.
What is viticulture?
Drawing clear wine off its sediment/lees
clarification
changing containers
Define racking
Buds late. Ripen late. Naturally low yields.
When do Cabernet Sauvignon grapes bud and ripen? What are the yields?
A substance is added into the wine to accelerate the natural settling process.
The solids are precipitated out.
Helps with stabilization and clarification
Often use egg whites or bentonite
What is fining?
These are botrytis affected wines.
They are sweet, concentrated and invariably expensive.
They are often known as SGN
What type of wines are Alsace Selection de Grains Nobles AOC? What are they also known as?
South central France
Between Lyon and Avignon
The Rhone rises in the Alps passes through Lake Geneva on a westward course before turning south into the Mediterranean.
Where is the Rhone located.
Pressing happens before fermentation for white wines and after fermentation for red wines.
When does pressing happen for red and white wine?
Structured reds from Cabernet Franc.
The wines display typical aromas of raspberries and pencil shavings.
What stye of wine is Bourgueil known for?
The measurement of sugar in unfermented grape juice
Potential alcohol
Can be measured as Brix, Baume, or grams/litre
Define Must Weight.
vintage port
What type of port is never fined or filtered?
The sulfur and lees react. It smells like rotten eggs. It may be relieved with aeration.
How is hydrogen sulgide produced?
Needs a long growing season.
Does Cabernet Sauvignon require a short or long growing season.
Peronospera
fungal disease caused by excess humidity. Attacks all parts of the vine. cottony growth on underside of leaves. contolled by spraying fungicide
What is another name for Downy Mildew?
1. Stainless steel. 2. Older oak
Give two examples of neutral containers.
It provides body and ripe fruit flavours.
What role does Grenache play in blends?
A word used to define a wine at it's optimum point and readiness to drink.
Define mature.
- Crisp whites from Sauvignon Blanc.
Herbaceous and mineral notes
typically high in acid
- Small production of reds from Pinor Noir
-
What is the style of wine from Sancerre?
The Rhone river valley
Which region was the first and hardest hit by Phylloxera?
30-50 degrees north or south of the equator.
Between what two degrees of latitude is generally considered to be best for grape growing?
1. Cork
2. Composite Cork
3. Screw cap
4. plastic corks
5. glass cork
Name 5 types of closures.
Chaptilization is adding sugar to the must before fermentation.
It increases the alcohol in the finished wine.
Widely practiced in cool climates
What is Chaptilization and what does it do?
North - Defined by a signature varieyt Syrah for Red and Viognier fro white
South - Region is dominanted by blends. Dominant grape is grenache for both reds and whites.
What are the traditional vinification styles of the Northern and Southern Rhone?
Some AOCs are very large and others are very small. A very large AOC may be divided in the following way;

R- Regional AOC
D- District AOC
C- Commune AOC
S- Single vineyard AOC
How are AOC divided?
An enclosed/ walled vineyard
What is a clos?
Sugar in the grape juice plus yeast converts alcohol to carbon dioxide and sulfities.
What is fermentation?
Method of mixing fermenting wine with solids. Punching down the cap.
Define pigeage.
Wine produced from Aligote is high in acid and relatively neutral tasting.
Aligote is the traditional base for a Kir which is Aligote with a dash of Cassis
Describe the flavour of wine made from Aligote
Vinegar or nail polish smell.
Caused by the action of acetobacter on alcohol
sometimes called bottle stink
Define volatile acidity.
With the exception of the blends, producers label their wines varietally. In Alsace, varietally labeled wine must be composed 100% of the labeled variety. All standard-sized bottles must be the tall syle known as the flute.
What is different about the labels of the wines from Alsace?
Cream sauces, rich white meats, grilled meats.
What does oaky style Chardonnay pair well with?
Left Bank - deep gravel
Right Bank - Clay
sand is also found in Bordeaux
What type of soil is found on the left and right banks in Bordeaux
A fortified wine. Spirit is added at the end of fermentation after the sugars have been converted.
What is sherry?
1. vitis labrusca
2. vitis ripara
3. vitis rupestria
Name 3 north american species of grapes.
1. Harvest
2. Triage
3. Crushing/Destemming
4. Pressing
5. Clarification and/correction of the juice
6. Alcoholic Fermentation
7. Malolactic Fermentation
8. Blending
9. Maturation (Elevage)
10. Clarification
11. Cold Stabilization
12 Bottling
What are the 12 steps to white wine making?
Medium acidity, moderate to high alcohol, med-full bodied, rarely produced in a sweet style.
Describe the palate of Chardonnay.
Wood
Stainless steel
Amount of aging required (may be governed by law)
What are some factors to be considered in aging?
Malevolent form of Botrytis Cinerea. Attacks grape clusters. detracts from wine quality.
What is grey rot?
Makes white wines from Bone-dry to Syrupy sweet to sparkling.
Some sweet wines are produced from botrytis affected berries.
Chenin Blanc is early budding and late ripening
What types of wine are made from Chenin Blanc in the Loire?
Calcium Carbonate is used to decrease acidity. It is employed in cooler climates/vintages.
What does adding Calcium carbonate do to wine?
Muscadet de Sevre et Maine AOC
What are the important AOC of Nantais?
Allowing the wine to rest in contact with the lees
What is the definition of sur lie?
Flint-like or gunpowder-like white wines from Sauvignon Blanc.
What is the style of wine from Pouilly-Fume AOC?
Lead by Baron Le Roy de Boiseaumarie of Chateau Fortia
The directives of the group were:
- definition of the production area
- the type of grape varieties that could be used in the wine
- minimum potentail alcohol levels at harvest
- restrictions on methods of grape growing
-restrictions on methods of winemaking
Who lead and what was the purpose of the committee of producers that was formed in the Rhone in the 1920s?
1. type of container
2. type of wood
3. size
4. age of wood
5. origin of the wood
6. level of toast
cooper
What factors must we consinder when aging in wood?
Pineau de la Loire
What is another name for Chenin Blanc in the Loire?
- medium-bodied
- moderate acid
- moderate tannin
- ruby colored

In youth flavours of raspberry, strawberry, and cherry
wih age mushroon, underbrush and underwear
Describe a classic Burgundian Pinot Noir
It starts in the Cevennes Mountains in south-central France to the Bay of Biscay in the northwest. The river travels north and then westward from the city of Orleans.
The vineyards of the Loire are located primarily along the westward flowing section of the river.
What is the Route of the Loire River?
Chinon
What is another name used in the Loire for Cabernet Franc?
1. Riesling
2. Pinot Gris
3. Gewurztraminer
4. Muscat
What are the 4 permitted grapes of the Alsace Grand Cru wines?
1. Reisling
2. Pinot Gris
3. Gewurztraminer
4. Muscat
What grapes are permitted in the Alsace Vendage Tardives AOC and the Alsace Selection de Grains Nobles AOC?
Continential
Strong winds called the Mistral
What is the climate of the Northern Rhone?
Raw oysters, light white fish
What does unoaked Chardonnay pair well with?
The addition of sugar to the must in order to raise potential alcohol level.
Define chaptilization.
Unfermented grape juice is added to dry wine.
Also called sussueserve
What is back-sweetening?
1. Sauvignon Blanc
2. Chenin Blanc (Pineau de la Loire)
3. Muscadet (Melon de Bourgogne)
4. Cabernet Franc
5. Grolleau
What are the 5 grape varities of the Loire?
1. Harvest
2. Triage
3. Crushing/Destemming
4. Correction of Must
5. Alcoholic Fermentation
6. Pressing
7. Malolactic Fermentation
8. Blending
9. Maturation (elevate)
10. Clarification
11. Cold Stabilization
12. Bottling
What are the 12 Steps to Red wine making?
1. Make a red wine and a white wine then mix them. (only done in champagne)
2. Leave the skins on for just a short period of time during the fermentation.
How do you make a rose?
Buds late. Ripen late. Naturally low yields.
When do Cabernet Sauvignon grapes bud and ripen? What are the yields?
1. Proximity to a large body of H2O
2. Moderates temperature
3. Long growing season
Problems- Rain and humidity
Regions - Bordeaux, Wilamette valley, Rias Baixas, Puget sound oregon
Describe the Maritime macroclimate
What are the porential problems with this climate?
Name 3 regions that possess this climate
1. central vineyards
2. Touraine
3. Anjou-saumur
4. Nantais
Name the four smaller regions of the Loire from east to west.
Burgundy
In what region of France is Pinot Noir grown?
Unfermented grape juice.
Define Must.
Heavy Fatty red meats
Beef
Lamb
Strong Cheese (aged cheddar)
bitter chocolate
What foods do you pair with Cabernet Saivignon?
1. free from vibrations
2. constant temperature
3. 55 F or 13 C
4. 75% humidity
What are the ideal conditions for long term cellaring?
1962. This is due to historical reasons not the quality of the wine production
When was the appellation system begun in Alsace
Primary smells found in young wines.
Define aroma.