Name the two important AOC's from the Central Vineyards for this course.
Black fruit, cassis, bell pepper, cigar box, eucalyptus.
Describe the nose of Cabernet Sauvignon.
A fortified wine. Spirit is added to the wine 1/2 way through the fermentation to kill the yeast.
What is port?
A spirit is added to stop fermentation.
What is fortification?
Bulgaria, China, South Africa
Cabernet Sauvignon is the most planted grape in which countries?
The Vosges mountains to the west and the Rhine River to the east
What are the borders of Alsace?
French wine laws came about due to the affects of vine disease in the late 1840s. Phylloxera, powdery mildew (oidium) and peronospera (downy mildew) devestated vineyards in France. Wine demand exceeded supply and fraudulent versions of wine were created and market as wine from some of the finest regions of France. Growers forced the government to intervene and develop a set of laws to regulate the use of geographical names on wine labels. Came around by the mid 1930s.
How did French Wine Laws arise?
Large barrels known as foudres.
What are the blends of Southern Rhone typically matured in?
Resistant to extremes of heat and cold.
Can Cabernet Sauvignon tolerate extremes of climate?
Adds vanilla, cedar, and spice.
Oak aging adds what flavored to Cabernet Sauvignon?
Hard cheese is best served with...
spraying use of agrichemicals organic viticulture biodynamic viticulture
How do they control for pests in the vineyard?
Table wine can come from anywhere. It may be perfectly drinkable stuff but it does not really do what wine is suupposed to do. It doesn't express the place fom which it comes.
Quality wine does exactly that. (Quality wine produced in a specific region QWPSR)
What is the difference between Table and Quality Wine?
Rapid chilling of the wine to remove the possibility for the development of tartrate crystals or "wine diamonds'. After the crystals precipitate, the clear wine is drawn off.
What is cold stabilization and what does it do?
The wine has absorbed too much oxygen. It can become discoloured. It may smell like stale nuts and bad fruit.
1. Saignee (Portion of juice is bled off from skins. Minimal skin color for extraction) 2. Blending (Red and white wines are blended. This only happens in champagne) Most quality roses are made Saignee method.
Describe the general soil type from east to west in the Loire.
A high alcohol spirit is added to the wine.
What is a fortified wine?
The natural elements that contribute to a site soil, climate, aspect
What is terrior?
Table wine - Vin de Table Vin de Pays Quality Wine - Vins Delimites de qualite Superieure Appelation d'Origine Controlee
What are the subclasses of the two major classifications of wine in france?
Cleanses the palate.
if food coats the palate, wine
1. Delimited Areas 2. Grape varieties 3. Methods of production 4. Maxium yield 5. Alcoholic content (minimum) 6. viticulture practices
What are the six major areas of regulation in the AOC?
When two varieties of the same species of wine are crossed to make a new variety. eg müller, pinotage
What is a cross?
1. Location- it is close enough to Paris that it regularly receives visitors from that city. The french aristocracy made much use of the region up to the time of the revolution by establishing summer homes and hunting lodges in the region.
Why has the Loire not lost its essential Frenchness experienced in Bordeaux?
Persistence of the tasting experience in the olfactory area and mouth after swallowing. Wines can be said to have a long or short finish. Also referred to as length.
Moderate warm temperatures with a long growing season. Problems- drought a potential problem as there is minimal rainfall during the growing season. Regions- Rhone valley, Napa Valley
Describe the Mediterranean climate. What are the potential problems with this climate? Name 2 regions with this climate.
Wines are labelled with: 1. the vineyard name 2. grape variety 3. Alsace Grand Cru AOC
How are the Alsace Grand Crus labelled?
Melding the rootstock of vinus vinifera into the rootstock of north American vines.
What is grafting?
What type of soil is Bourgueil known for?
- 3rd most planted grape in Alsace -pink-skinned variety that prefers mineral rich soils. - prone to frost and coulure and notorious for its variable yields in Alsace - in good years produces concentrated, full-bodied dry wines winth intense aromatics and thick, low-acid , alomost oily texture in the mouth
How does Gewurztraminer perform in Alsace?
Andouillettes - Strong-smelling sausages made from pig intestines and served hot or cold) Rillettes - spreadable mixture of shredded meat, fat and spices Terrines and Pates White fish in beurre blanc Tarte tatin upside-dwon apple tart
Name some of the dishes from the Loire.
Of the 4 noble varieties in Alsace, which buds first?
Cool climate- moderate straw/green Warm climate- moderate to deep gold/yellow.
Describe the appearance of Chardonnay.
Left bank Bordeaux.
Cabernet is the main component of which wines from Bordeaux.
What soil does Pinot Noir prefer?
Deep to opaque ruby/purple
What colour is Cabernet Sauvignon?
melon de Bourgogne
What is another name for Muscadet in the Loire?
Stirring the lees in a wine while it is aging.
These are late harvest wines. They are higher in sugar and can be vinified dry or sweet They are also known as VTs A portion of the berries may be affected by noble rot.
What type of wine is an Alsace Vendage Tardives AOC? How is it Vinified? What are they also known as? Are they affected by Noble Rot?
Warm with good drainage. Gravel (left bank Bordeaux). Terra Rossa limestone (Conawarra Australia). Well drained alluvial.
What type of soil does Cabernet Sauvignon prefer?
Residual sugar is sugar left in the wine after fermentation.
Define residual sugar.
What is the name of large old oak casks?
INAO- The Institut National des Appellations d'Origine et de la Qualite.
What body regulates quality wine in France?
Odium- imported from America in the late 19th century.
What is another name for Powdery Mildew?
Regional AOCs Commune AOC There are no Grand Cru or Premier Cru
What is the structure of the wine laws in the Rhone?
39-43 F or 3-6 C This is considered very cold
What is the service temperature for sparkling or sweet white wines?
Lactic bactera convert malic acid to lactic acid and CO2 Ths usually occurs after alcoholic fermentation Wine has a softer texture Adds buttery flavours There is not only a conversion of acid but also a reduction
What is Malolactic Fermentation?
Santa Barbara Carnegie Russian River Valley
Which region of California is known for Pinot Noir
Is Chaptilization frequently necessary in the Loire?
Phylloxera-root feeding aphid native to north America.
What happened in the late 19th century that caused the need for replanting almost all European vineyards?
Pear and floral scented can age well
What are the qualities of Marsanne grapes?
A component in wine that leads to the mouth watering sensation.
What is another name used in the Loire for Cab Franc?
Pinot Noir, Gamay Chardonnay, Aliogote
Name the grapes of burgundy.
Regional AOC- Chotes du Rhone AOC Cotes du Rhone-Villages AOC - A select few communes with greater Potential Commune AOCs- 15 in the Rhone
What is the structure of the AOC for the Rhone?
1. Dormancy 2. Bud break 3. Shoot growth 4. Flowering 5. Fruit set 6. Veraison 7. Harvest.
Name the lifecycle of the grape.
Very rarely. If blended usually with Gamay and is then called passetoutgrains
Is Pinot Noir blended?
Added several times throughout the vinification It is an anti-oxidant, a disinfectant and a preservative.
What does the additive SO2 do?
Benedictine and Cistercian monks
Name two religious orders that were prominent in the middle ages, for their written advancement of wine making and grape growing
A fatal bacterial infection native to the southern united states.
What is Pierce's Disease?
Touraine and the Central Vineyards Typically makes zesty grass and gooseberry-scented wines.
In which regions of the Loire do we typically see Sauvignon Blanc?
Fermentation is stopped by cooling and adding sulfur to partially fermented must.
What happens in arrested fermentation.
Pinot Gris The alternate name is Tokay d'Alsace or Tokay Pinot Gris. This name is no longer permitted
Which grape was thought to have been brought to Alsace by a Hungarian Princess? What was its alternate name?
They are sulfur compounds that are foul smelling.
What are mercaptans?
Syrah (probably the finest expression in France) only red grape permitted White grape permitted - Viognier Blended into Syralh to lighten the structure, provide finessea and lift aromas Can be used up to 20%in Syrah wines
What wines are permitted in the Cote Rotie?
Vouvray AOC Chinon AOC Bourgueil AOC
What are the three important AOCs in this course in Tourraine?
Mountain Slopes, flat areas, broad river valleys low yields Gobelet training Hand harvesting mandated in many AOC's
What are the viticulture practices of the Southern Rhone?
Crottin de Chavignol - Cylindrical goat's cheese produced near Sancerre AOC Selles-sur-Cher - Moldy-rinded goat's cheese form the upper Loire Valencay - Moldy-rinded, charcoal-susted goat's cheese shaped lke a pyramid.
Name 3 of the cheeses from the Loire.
1. The Greeks (colony in what is now Marselles) 2. The Romans (many areas of the Rhone) 3. French Pope Clement V relocated the Papal home from the Vatican to Avignon (Southern Rhone city) for 69 years 4. Pope John XXII made his summer home there.
Which cultures have cultivated grapes in the Rhone?
Pale to medium garnet/ruby
What is the appearance of Pinot Noir?
Wine that has been spoiled by a tainted cork usually resulting in a musty smell or aroma.
A negative tasting term used to describe a fault in wine.
Anjou AOC Savennieres AOC Coteaux du Layon AOC
What are the important AOCs of Anjour-Saumur?
Due to its location near the border of Germany, Alsace at one time or another has belonged to either France or Germany thus creating its unique style.
What caused the unique style of Alsace?
Typically high trained vines due to frost. Higher vine densities are common on the slopes (hand harvesting). Lower densities on the flatlands due to machine harvesting.
How are the vines trained in Alsace?
Table wines are traditionally vinified dry Fermentation in large neutral oak casks or stainless steel tanks MLF traditionally blocked to preserve the aromatic flavors of the grapes grown Oak aging v. rare. All whites bottled in the flute d'Alsace. Varietal wines common
What is the vinification style of Alsace?
Phylloxera is fatal to which vines?
What is the translation of Cote Rotie?
Method of mixing fermenting wine with solids. Pumping wine over the cap.
1. Oak Chips 2. Oak essence
What are two oak alternatives?
Wine-maker decides the degree of pressure Types of press: Basket Press, Pneumatic Press, Bladder Press
What types of pressing are there?
Powdery mildew. Generally very disease and pest resistant.
What is Cabernet Sauvignon susceptible to??
- Stony - Galets (white round stones also known as pudding stones) - Alluvial
Same wine style Condrieu AOC One of a handful of single-winery AOCs in France
What is special about Chateau Grillet AOC?
Vin delimites de Qualite Superieure (VDQS) - used historically as a stepping stone for regions awaiting promotion to full AOC status. Regulations very similar to AOC.
Appellation d'Origine Controlee (AOC or AC) - Controlled Name of Origin Appellation d'Origin - refers to the specific place with carefully delimited boundaries to which the name applies. controlee - refers to the set of regulations regarding gape growing and wine making which producers must follow in order to use AOC on their labels. Regulations include permitted grape varieties, minimum sugar levels at harvest and winemaking techniques.
What is differnce between the two clasifications of quality wine in France?
The mass is solids made up of skins, seeds, and stalks that sits on top of the fermenting wine. It is pushed to the top by the productio of CO2.
Most often grown in Beaujolais, and Maconnais
Where is Gamay mostly grown in Burgundy?
TCA - trichloroanisole It affects 3-7% of all wines. It is a compound formed between cork, mold and chorine. The cork taints the wine in the bottle. It can even come from the barrels or the building.
What is cork taint?
Abnormal fruit set. Typically caused by poor weather.
What is millerandage?
Pinot buds early and ripens early. It gives moderate yields.
When does Pinot Noir bud and ripen?
1. Buds first so requires a warm sheltered site protected from frost 2. A dark skinned mutation of Pinot Noir 3. Prefers calcium-rich soils (like Pinot Noir)but with higher nutrient levels 4. Alsatian Pinot Gris is generally dry, full-bodied and intense with aromas of pears, spices , musk and canned mushroom.
What are the qualities of Pinot Gris?
Clos Vougeot Romanee-Conti
Name two important sub regions of burgundy known for Pinot Noir.
225 liter barrel. A small barrel made from French oak.
What is a Barrique?
Is Riesling grown in any other French region?
Chardonnay Chardonnay is native to Burgundy. In fact there is a village in the Maconnais named Chardonnay.
What is the world's most widely planted white wine grape?
Dry with intense, grapey aromas, full body and low acidity. In Alsace, wines made from Muscat are often served as aperitifs.
What is the aroma of Muscat?
The English in the 18th century.
When and by who were vines brought to Australia?
Considered Northern Contential. Impacted by the Vosges Mountains which provide a rain shadow effect. The Rhine river to the east moderates temperature and provides the misty conditions necessary for producing botrytis-affected wines. Long sunny autmuns. Alsace receives the least amount of rain in france.
What is the climate of Alsace?
British name for red wines from Bordeaux.
1. Nantes - Fully Maritime 2. Anjou-Saumur - Maritime with Contental influences 3. Touraine - Continental with Maritime influences 4. Central Vineyards - Fully continental
What is the climate of the four smaller regions of the Loire?
1. Late budding 2. Late ripening 3. Performs best in sunny, sheltered settings where light, loose-textured soils are found 4. It can continue to ripenin in cool, autumn conditions (important for Botrytis and late harvest wines)
What are the qualities of Riesling grapes?
Viniflhor- the Office National Interprofessionnel des Fruits, des Legumes and des Vins et de l'Horticulture Until recently this was known as ONIVINS
What body regulates Table wine in France?
Sweetness reduces the perception of?
Wine making. The turning of grape juice into wine.
What is Vinification?
In a mixture of old and new wood barrels.
How is Pinot Noir aged?
Mildly tannic wine.
Soft cheese is best with?
What is the most planted red grape in Burgundy?
Muscadet Chenin Blanc Sauvignon Blanc
Name three aromatic varieties in the Loire.
Cremant d'Alsace AOC
What is sparking wine made traditional method called in Alsace
You can use cultured or wild(ambient) yeast There are many different strains of yeast The type of strain will affect flavour, rate of fermenatation, and other factors Each type of yeast varies in alcohol tolerance
What are some important things to remember about yeast as it relates to wine making?
What is the only commune in Burgundy to grow Aligote
Coonawarra and McLaren Vale.
Name two notable regions of Austalia that produce Cabernet Sauvignon.
What are nematodes?
What is the soil type of the Northern Rhone?
Punching down the cap. Done with a large disc on a pole. It can be done by hand or mechanized.
What is Pigeage?
Peach-scented low acid often intense aromsa
What are the qualities of Viognier?
North Coast, Napa Valley
Name the notable regions of California that produce Cabernet Sauvignon.
1. Maritime 2. Continental 3. Mediterranean
Name the 3 macroclimates
- oysters -seafood -freshwater fish -game -frog's leg
Name the main ingrediets from the Loire.
french oak- vanilla american oak- coconut
What flavours do french oak and american oak add?
The wines of Alsace are dry whereas the wines of Germany are typically sweet.
What is the major difference between the wines of Alsace and those of Germany?
Where are quality wines made from Melon de Bourgogne made in the Loire?
It gives richness to the mid-palate.
When merlot is blended with Cabernet what does it do to the palate?
White wines. Wines are vinified in all styles; -sparling -sur lie -sec -demi-sec -moelleux -liquoreux -botrytis-affected
Loire is famous for what wines? What styles?
The Pope's new castle.
What is the direct translation of Chateauneuf-du-Pape
Fungal diseases Loses vibrant fruit at high temperatures.
What is Pinot Noir susceptible to?
This AOC is devoted to Chenin Blanc. All sweetness levels are seen from dry, off-dry, sweet wines and sparkling.
What are the style of wine from Vouvray AOC?
What white wine grape is used to make sweet wine in the Loire?
Cote Rotie AOC Condrieu AOC Chateau Grillet AOC Hermitage AOC St. Joseph AOC Crozes-Hermitage AOC
Name the major regions of Northern Rhone.
large oak small oak barrels stainless steele tanks Glass-lined concrete Enameled concrete
Name 5 types of fermentation vessels.
Chardonnay and Pinot Meunier
In champagne Pinot Noir is blended with which grapes
1. Greet table 2. Identify host 3. Give recommendations and take order 4. Repeat wine order 5. Present the bottle with label to the host. 6. Beverage service takes place to the right of the guest. 7. Cut foil 8. Remove cork 9. Pour sample 10. Fill guests glasses (1/2 full0 11. Fill hosts glass last 12. Remove cork from table.
Name the 12 steps to service.
These wines fall under the Regional Alsace AOC They are often branded: Edelzwicker (noble mixture) Gentil (genteel or nice) Fruits de Mers ( fruits of the sea - mixed seafood)
What are some of the blended wines of Alsace labeled and under which AOC do they fall?
55-57 F or 10-14 C This is considered cellar temperature
What is the service temperatures for chardonnay or light reds?
Traditiionally blended with Marsanne in northern Rhone reddish-brown in colour floral scents some refreshing acidity
What are the qualities of Roussanne?
What is the most planted red grape in bordeaux?
AOC covers a large area and it produces Reds, white and roses.
What style of wine is produced in Anjou AOC?
Usually small new-oak barrels
What are the Syrahs of Northern Rhone Matured in?
The must is so high in sugar that the yeast dies before all the sugar is converted to alcohol.
What happens to the yeast in late harvest and botrytis affected wines?
1. removes unwanted parts of the vine 2. sets up for training system 3. Influences yield
What does pruning do?
A unique fungal infection. It causes gray rot and noble rot.
What is Botrytis cinerea? What two conditions does it cause?
Cassis, smoke , bacon fat, raspberries adn black olives
What are the aromas of the wines from Cote Rotie?
What is the French word for Noble Rot?
The measurement of sugar content in grape juice.
Define Must weight.
White wien-only commune Wines exclusively produced fjorm Viognier Dry wine with intese aromas of peach, apricot honeysuckle and sometine tropical-fruit salad Low acidity and substantial alcohol some producers age in new oak short perios of skin contact full or partial MLF
What is the wine style of Condreiu AOC?
A unique fungal infection. It causes gray rot and noble rot.
What is Botrytis cinerea? What two conditions does it cause?
Who spread wine making around Europe in 1100BC
North - Granite South - Stoney Gallets (white round stones aka pudding stones) Alluvial
Describe the soil of the Northern and Southern Rhone.
Acidity and tannin
two different species of vines crossed to make a variety. eg. maréchal, Foch, Seyval blanc, vidal, bacco noir
What is a hybrid?
How the grapes are sorted at the winery. By hand or machine
Yes in cooler climates.
Is chaptilization done with Pinot Noir?
Wines are sweet. Made exclusively from Chenin Blanc and may be produced fom lat -harvest or botrytis-affected fruit depending on the year.
What is the style of wines from the Coteaus du Layon?
1. Muscat Ottonel 2. Muscat Blac d'Alsace a Petits Grains.
What are the two expressions of muscat available in Alsace?
1. slope 2. Aspect 3. altitude 4. trees 5. bodies of water 6. geographical features
What factors affect specific vineyard climates?
Muscadet produces refreshing wines with apple, citrus and herb flavors. Often aged on their lees, the wines can demonstrate distinctly yeasty, bread-like flavors.
Describe the qualties of wines made from Melon de Bourgogne in the Loire?
1. Quality Wine 2. Table Wine
What are the two major classifications of wine in France?
This condition represents difficulty at the vine's flowering stage and is typically caused by cool wet weather. Vines with this condition may drop some or all of their berries after fruit set.
Name the 5 red and 3 white grapes grown in Bordeaux.
Dry white wines
What type of wine is permitted to be made in Entre-Deux-Mers
North- Steep slopes, narrow river valley low yields vines staked against the wind Hand harvesting for best wines
South- Mountains slopes, flat areas, broad river valleys Low yields Goblet training Hand harvesting mandated by many AOCs
Describe the viticulture practices of the Northern vs. Southern Rhone.
Most tannins come from the skins, stems and seeds.
Where do the tannins come from?
1. Rose de Loire AOC for pink wines 2. Cremant de Loire AOC for traditional method sparklers
There is no regional AOC for Red or White in the Loire.
What are the regional AOC's for the Loire?
It is approximately 275 km north of Bordeaux. They are separated by the Cognac growing region.
How far is the coastal region of the Loire from Bordeaux? What separates it?
Lengthy contact with skins to extract colour and tannin.
What is important about the fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon?
95% of production in red wine Small quatities of white, rose, sparkling and dessert
What type of wine is produced in the Rhone?
1. the Bas-Rhin (lower Rhine) most sparkling wine 2. the Haut-Rhin (Upper Rhine) more grand cru vineyard sites.
What are the two departements of Alsace?
What is the most common type of yeast used in wine making?
1. Humidity 2. Rain at harvest 3. Frost 4. Wind
What are the major hazards to the vine?
What is the red grape of Alsace?
Chardonnay, Pinot noir, Pinot meunier.
What three grapes are permitted to grow in Champagne?
- High Vine density - Guyot or Cordon trained - spraying for mildew - machine and hand harvesting - Different varieties harvest at different times - top sweet wines are affected by botrytis
In the vineyard in Bordeaux what techniques are used?
Removes unwanted particles. There are different degrees ranges from light to sterile.
What does filtering do?
Approximately 3000 years
How long has the Rhone River valley been producing wine?
Fat and protein reduce the perception of?
The Spainards in the1500s.
Who and when were vines brought to South America ?
1. Choucroute garni ( Sauerkraut simmered in stock and spices and then garnished with various meats such as smoked pork sausages and goose) 2. Quiche Lorraine (Egg-custard tart with bacon) 3. Fruit tarts. Cheese - Munster
Name three of the classic dishes of Alsace. Name a local cheese
It affects the green parts and the immature berries of the vine.
what part of the vine does Downey mildew affect?
Medium bodied reds from Cabernet Franc.
What is the style of wine produced in Chinon AOC?
Traditionally done in open topped wood fermenters. Pigeage for gentle color extraction.
Describe the fermentation of Pinot Noir.
red - merlot - Cabernet Sauvignon - Cabernet Franc - Malbec -Petit Verdot
white- Semillion - Sauvignon Blanc - Muscadelle (less than 5% of plantings)
Name the 5 red grapes and 3 white grapes of bordeaux.
What is another name for the Cap?
57-64 F or 14-18 C This is considered just below room temperature.
What is the service temperature for full bodied reds?
A white mutation of Pinot Gris. Produces soft, fruity, refreshingly acidic whites.
What is the aroma of Pinot Blanc
Alsace produces fuller wines (with exception of late harvest and botrytis affected) Alsace ferment to dryness Alsation Riesling typically - steely, mineral-rich aromas with lemon-lime and peach aromas. With maturitiy will develop the signature petroleum aroma.
What are some of the differences between Rieslings from Alsace and those from Germany?
Lengthy contact with skins to extract colour and tannin.
What is important about the fermentation of Cabernet Sauvignon?
Corton Grand Cru AOC
What is the largest single Grand Cru vineyard in Burgundy?
Mediterrean Also gets the Mistral winds.
What is the climate of the southern Rhone?
1. Steep slopes, narrow river valley 2. low yields 3. Vines staked for protection against the wind 4. Hand harvesting for best wines
What is the viticulture of the northern Rhone?
Wines are made exlusively from Chenin Blanc. intense concentrated dry white wines Known for high acidity as well as their aging potential
What style is made in Savenniers AOC?
It is spread by the glassy-winged sharp shooter.
How is Pierce's Disease spread?
Acid can be added to either the must or the wine. Tartaric acid is used for the best wines. This technique is employed in warmer climates or vintages.
When is Acid added to a wine?
no significant water body influence Extreme temperature variations between seasons. Potential problems-frost, hail Regions- Burgundy, Colombia Valley, Champagne, Rheinegau
Describe the Continental climate. What are the potential problems in this region? Name 4 regions with this climate
At last count approximatley 500.
Approximatley how many wines have AOC status?
Light bodied dry whites from Melon de Bourgogne Some are done sur lie and will be labelled as such
What is the style of wine made in Muscadet Sevre et Maine AOC
Foothills - fairly thin topsoils with varied subsoils of granite, sandstone or limestone. Flatlands - rich in organic matter formed of alluvium. Soils are typically thick and fertile
What are the soil types of Alsace?
Vin de Table - most basic category of french wine. - rarely seen on the export market - cannot include grape variety, geographical origin or even vintage on the label. Vin de Pay - translates to country wine - develped in the 1970s - designation designed to encourage better-quality wines from table wine producers. - regulations around yields, permitted grape varieties, minimum potential alcohol at harvest. looser than AOC regulations. - regulations permit geographical designation, vintage as well as grape variety on the label.
Describe the difference between the 2 classifications of table wine in France
controlling the growth of the vine shoot thinning training systems maximizing sun exposure
What things are considered in canopy management?
1. water 2. skin 3. seeds 4. acids 5. sugars 6. phenolics (tannin and colour)
Name the 6 components of a grape.
4 1. Viognier 2. Marsanne 3. Roussanne 4. Syrah
How many grape varieties are permitted in Northern Rhone?
Small blue/black berries which hang in loose long bunches. Skins are thick. Pips are large. Tough stalks on grapevine.
Describe the appearance of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes.
The tall, green Alsace flute.
What type of bottle is used for wines from Alsace?
1. Regional AOC - Alsace AOC 2. Better vineyard sites Alsace Grand Cru AOC 3. AOC for particualr syles of wine - Alsace Vendage Tardives AOC - Alsace Selection de Grains Nobles AOC
What is the AOC system in Alsace?
Wine is circulated over the cap.
What is Remontage?
Yeast + Sugar = Ethyl Alcohol, CO2 and heat
What is Alcoholic Fermentation?
Vintage is important when the climate is variable in a region. Different years will have different growing conditions thereby affecting the taste of the wine.
Why is vintage important to the taste of a wine?
The growing of grapes and the maintaining of the vineyard.
What is viticulture?
Drawing clear wine off its sediment/lees clarification changing containers
Buds late. Ripen late. Naturally low yields.
When do Cabernet Sauvignon grapes bud and ripen? What are the yields?
A substance is added into the wine to accelerate the natural settling process. The solids are precipitated out. Helps with stabilization and clarification Often use egg whites or bentonite
What is fining?
These are botrytis affected wines. They are sweet, concentrated and invariably expensive. They are often known as SGN
What type of wines are Alsace Selection de Grains Nobles AOC? What are they also known as?
South central France Between Lyon and Avignon The Rhone rises in the Alps passes through Lake Geneva on a westward course before turning south into the Mediterranean.
Where is the Rhone located.
Pressing happens before fermentation for white wines and after fermentation for red wines.
When does pressing happen for red and white wine?
Structured reds from Cabernet Franc. The wines display typical aromas of raspberries and pencil shavings.
What stye of wine is Bourgueil known for?
The measurement of sugar in unfermented grape juice Potential alcohol Can be measured as Brix, Baume, or grams/litre
Define Must Weight.
What type of port is never fined or filtered?
The sulfur and lees react. It smells like rotten eggs. It may be relieved with aeration.
How is hydrogen sulgide produced?
Needs a long growing season.
Does Cabernet Sauvignon require a short or long growing season.
Peronospera fungal disease caused by excess humidity. Attacks all parts of the vine. cottony growth on underside of leaves. contolled by spraying fungicide
What is another name for Downy Mildew?
1. Stainless steel. 2. Older oak
Give two examples of neutral containers.
It provides body and ripe fruit flavours.
What role does Grenache play in blends?
A word used to define a wine at it's optimum point and readiness to drink.
- Crisp whites from Sauvignon Blanc. Herbaceous and mineral notes typically high in acid - Small production of reds from Pinor Noir -
What is the style of wine from Sancerre?
The Rhone river valley
Which region was the first and hardest hit by Phylloxera?
30-50 degrees north or south of the equator.
Between what two degrees of latitude is generally considered to be best for grape growing?
Chaptilization is adding sugar to the must before fermentation. It increases the alcohol in the finished wine. Widely practiced in cool climates
What is Chaptilization and what does it do?
North - Defined by a signature varieyt Syrah for Red and Viognier fro white South - Region is dominanted by blends. Dominant grape is grenache for both reds and whites.
What are the traditional vinification styles of the Northern and Southern Rhone?
Some AOCs are very large and others are very small. A very large AOC may be divided in the following way;
R- Regional AOC D- District AOC C- Commune AOC S- Single vineyard AOC
How are AOC divided?
An enclosed/ walled vineyard
What is a clos?
Sugar in the grape juice plus yeast converts alcohol to carbon dioxide and sulfities.
What is fermentation?
Method of mixing fermenting wine with solids. Punching down the cap.
Wine produced from Aligote is high in acid and relatively neutral tasting. Aligote is the traditional base for a Kir which is Aligote with a dash of Cassis
Describe the flavour of wine made from Aligote
Vinegar or nail polish smell. Caused by the action of acetobacter on alcohol sometimes called bottle stink
Define volatile acidity.
With the exception of the blends, producers label their wines varietally. In Alsace, varietally labeled wine must be composed 100% of the labeled variety. All standard-sized bottles must be the tall syle known as the flute.
What is different about the labels of the wines from Alsace?
Cream sauces, rich white meats, grilled meats.
What does oaky style Chardonnay pair well with?
Left Bank - deep gravel Right Bank - Clay sand is also found in Bordeaux
What type of soil is found on the left and right banks in Bordeaux
A fortified wine. Spirit is added at the end of fermentation after the sugars have been converted.
Medium acidity, moderate to high alcohol, med-full bodied, rarely produced in a sweet style.
Describe the palate of Chardonnay.
Wood Stainless steel Amount of aging required (may be governed by law)
What are some factors to be considered in aging?
Malevolent form of Botrytis Cinerea. Attacks grape clusters. detracts from wine quality.
What is grey rot?
Makes white wines from Bone-dry to Syrupy sweet to sparkling. Some sweet wines are produced from botrytis affected berries. Chenin Blanc is early budding and late ripening
What types of wine are made from Chenin Blanc in the Loire?
Calcium Carbonate is used to decrease acidity. It is employed in cooler climates/vintages.
What does adding Calcium carbonate do to wine?
Muscadet de Sevre et Maine AOC
What are the important AOC of Nantais?
Allowing the wine to rest in contact with the lees
What is the definition of sur lie?
Flint-like or gunpowder-like white wines from Sauvignon Blanc.
What is the style of wine from Pouilly-Fume AOC?
Lead by Baron Le Roy de Boiseaumarie of Chateau Fortia The directives of the group were: - definition of the production area - the type of grape varieties that could be used in the wine - minimum potentail alcohol levels at harvest - restrictions on methods of grape growing -restrictions on methods of winemaking
Who lead and what was the purpose of the committee of producers that was formed in the Rhone in the 1920s?
1. type of container 2. type of wood 3. size 4. age of wood 5. origin of the wood 6. level of toast cooper
What factors must we consinder when aging in wood?
Pineau de la Loire
What is another name for Chenin Blanc in the Loire?
In youth flavours of raspberry, strawberry, and cherry wih age mushroon, underbrush and underwear
Describe a classic Burgundian Pinot Noir
It starts in the Cevennes Mountains in south-central France to the Bay of Biscay in the northwest. The river travels north and then westward from the city of Orleans. The vineyards of the Loire are located primarily along the westward flowing section of the river.
What is the Route of the Loire River?
What is another name used in the Loire for Cabernet Franc?
1. Riesling 2. Pinot Gris 3. Gewurztraminer 4. Muscat
What are the 4 permitted grapes of the Alsace Grand Cru wines?
1. Reisling 2. Pinot Gris 3. Gewurztraminer 4. Muscat
What grapes are permitted in the Alsace Vendage Tardives AOC and the Alsace Selection de Grains Nobles AOC?
Continential Strong winds called the Mistral
What is the climate of the Northern Rhone?
Raw oysters, light white fish
What does unoaked Chardonnay pair well with?
The addition of sugar to the must in order to raise potential alcohol level.
Unfermented grape juice is added to dry wine. Also called sussueserve
What is back-sweetening?
1. Sauvignon Blanc 2. Chenin Blanc (Pineau de la Loire) 3. Muscadet (Melon de Bourgogne) 4. Cabernet Franc 5. Grolleau