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52 terms

PS A333 Final

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Machiavelli
Man is born alone
Hobbes
State of Nature is a state of war, need to escape
Locke
State of Nature can be peaceful, we have a duty to enforce, punish

Right to self protection
No common authority
Man is reasonable
Rousseau
SON is pre-moral
Developing stage w/ Hobbsean fighting
Only progress when you have to, when forces demand it
Kant
SON is a threat to the Social Contract
Pre-morality -> Morality

We had to go through non-morality

Unsocial Sociability
people want security and ind. life
forces competition, moves us from non-society
Marx
Man has no natural necessity
All necessity forced upon through property and money
Man is originally free
Nietzsche
All thought is culturally, historically conditioned

Capacity to creativity is natural, gaining knowledge is overcoming shame
Machiavelli
Authority based on fraud, strong provide security to weak, whom provide glory
Hobbes
Only goal of government/man is to seek peace
Self preservation
Rule through fear
Locke
Purpose of government is to protect property
Common laws / settled standing rules prevent arbitrary rule
Rousseau
Government equally restricts the rulers and ruled
Solution is the general will of the people, the difference of the individual wills that cancel eachother
No individual interests, only common
Gov't is always fraud, restricting freedom
Can only be legit
Kant
Reason is the basis for the social contract
Man has moral authority over himself
Morality fundamental to freedom
Hegel
Content of morality combined with right motives at end of history
No conflict between politics and morality
Rule from reason: no arbitrary laws
No restrictions on freedom
Marx
Solution to authority is communism
Revolution = the abolition of private property
Acquire property for individual will
Can no longer exploit; own labour
Nietzsche
Self preservation is result of will to power, not the main drive of humanity

Power over others less important than power over self
Machiavelli
Individuals have a necessity to acquire, unending process
Hobbes
No property in the SON, preservation of prop. comes from Government
Locke
Extension of personal autonomy, value is created through labour
Rousseau
Property is antithetical to freedom, beginning of the end
100% human convention
1st occupancy, add labour value
Human necessity unnatural, result of competition and differences
Kant
Man can never be free morally, never be free of physical necessity
Hegel
Necessity can be escaped

Human freedom achieved through history
Unlocking freedom is unlocking the mind
resolution of all conflict
Marx
Man cannot escape necessity, can overcome/conquer over time
Value added theory of labour = justification for revolt
Property inherently bad, causes alienation, pushes unnatural necessity on workers, no longer own their own labour, become commoditized
Machiavelli
Morality about the ends, not the means
Justice != the good
Hobbes
Surrender ability to publicly judge morality
Locke
Same as hobbes on Morality, not as many rights
State cant compel morality
Rousseau
Societal progress reduces morality, replaced with virtue
Good/bad -> good/evil
Morality = honesty
Kant
Morality is categorical, good for own sake
Not based on outcomes or human nature
Must be applicable/practical
Agrees with Rousseau-> morality vs happiness, kant chooses

Morality saves philosophy, pure reason can know morals

Pure morality impossible; can never know if achievable, should always still strive for it
Kant
Synthetic a priori judgements, not implied in itself; no previous experience

Practical+moral law
Hegel
Reason != individual mind, its collective
Marx
Political economy leads to greed, an unnatural necessity
Nietzsche
Reason isn't the basis of morality, morality doesn't exist
Way of translating inner views onto external world
Rejects truth as positive
Master vs Slave morality
Masters = strong, powerful
Slaves = weak, submissive, cynical
Machiavelli
Do not trust religion, but a good model for indirect rule
Hobbes
Religion a potential rival
Locke
Everything based off god/nature, supporter of religious toleration
Rousseau
Religion can be used as tool of government, rel. freedom is good
Kant
God is inactive, cannot be proven
Hegel
Old religion subordinates human reason to author
Wants rational christianity
Marx
Religion is the opiate of the masses
Tool of rulers to control workers
Secular society is possible, not fully emancipated
Nietzsche
Religion is attractie because teaches self control, will to power over self
We sacrafice god etc. for our will to power
Religion is good for the herd
Rousseau
Series of accidents force society
Artificial history/hypothetical conception
Kant
History is vindication of moral man, starts with civilized man
Hegel
Progression of history is progression of human understanding, we'll eventually hit the maximum
Marx
Essence of man not intellectual production, but material production

History repeats itself in a class struggle
Communism stops cycle of oppressive governments
Nietzsche
Agrees with idealism of future
No collective progresss, result of aristocrats

Encourages the strong to protect themselves
Machiavelli
Princes v. people, potential princes are the only dangerous people
Hobbes
All born equal in morality, not in natural talents
Locke
All men born equal in rights, autonomy
Rousseau
Society a result of differences, general will requires surrender of all natural gifts and rights
Kant
Concentration of power is good
Hegel
History = Science = Society
Marx
History is class struggles
Nietzsche
Only the strong can be independent, weak are sheep.

Being strong = dangerous, weak cant become strong