Extended Themes In Political Analysis
Terms in this set (104)
Give three ways that the Nation can be defined.
1. Cultural - Common values, traditions, language, religion and history
2. Political (Civil Allegiance) - based on civic identity or the acceptance of citizenship. Citizens recognise themselves as members of a state with reciprocal rights and responsibilities
3. Psychological - Nationalism has a doctrinal character (it has a clear set of ideological ideas) and emodies the belief that the nation is in some way the central political organisation.
Why can the nation be defined as vague?
Origins - The exact origins of the nation is a matter of controversy. Primordialists believe 'nations' can be found in early civilisations. Modernists believe nationalism and nations are mostly a product of the modern era.
Summarise the four ways a Nation can defined
1. Vague - controversial and argued over by pri-mordialists and modernists.
2. Cultural - Common values, traditions, language, religion and history within the same geographical area.
3. Political (Civic Allegiance) - based on civic identity or the acceptance of citizenship.
4. Psychological - Patriotism is a psychological attachment to ones country.
Give three ways that the State can be defined.
1 - Political Sovereignty
2 - Territorial Boundaries
3 - Public Legitimacy
What is Political Sovereignty?
-The state is a political reality whilst the nation is a political, cultural or psychological idea or feeling.
-national consciousness is often manifest in a desire to achieve or maintain statehood or self-determination.
What are Territorial Boundaries?
Most states are primarily formed around particular nations and the aim of nationalism is usually to create a Nation-State.
What is Public Legitimacy?
The state is usually regarded as publicly legitimate and therefore binding on members of society because its decisions are claimed to be made in the public interest.
Give three reasons why Nations and States are often confused.
1 - Nations can be defined politically
2 - Overlap to form "Nation-States"
3 - Aim of Nationalism is usually to create "Nation-States"
Why can nations be defined politically?
Politically a nation is a group of people who regard themselves as a natural political community and normally expressed in the desire to maintain statehood.
Why do Nations & States overlap to create Nation-States?
Nations are complex phenomena that are determined by cultural, political and psychological factors. States claim to make decisions in the public interest and exercise authority through permanent institutions
Why is the aim of Nationalism is usually to create a Nation-State?
Wilson's 14 Points
-However, Nationalist overseas colonies would not be resolved until post World War Two.
Give four differences between the Nation and the State
1 - Not all states contain just one nation
2 - A number of nations do not have a state
3 - Some nations cross state boundaries
4 - Some nationalisms are content with a measure of self rule
Why is it the case that not all states contain just one nation?
Some places i.e. the UK are a single sovereign state with a unitary govt, but it contains within it a system of several different countries and nationalities
Why do a number of nations not have a state?
Many of the problems that the nation state must deal with have become supra-national in character
-Do not recognise national boundaries and individual states find it difficult to defend against terrorism.
Why do some nations cross state boundaries?
Movements that have sought to unite ethnic groupings may have proposed racial exclusivity and unity, but included no special sense of superiority.
Why are some nationalisms are content with a measure of self rule?
Cultural forms of nationalism have arisen seeking a degree of autonomous control over cultural institutions but not general independence.
Give two reasons why Nationalists see the nation-state as the ideal form of government.
1 - Natural Process
2 - Ensures and maintains freedom and the popular will
Define what nationalists mean by natural process?
Nationalist movement is deemed to be progressive if it is not seeking to defend or protect a particular way of life or political organisation, but is seeking to create a new political organisation which is deemed to be an improvement on the current situation
How do nation-states ensure/maintain freedom & popular will?
The Nation-State embodies the goal of political freedom, the principle of national self determination. Democracy and self government therefore only operate within the nation state.
Give two other reasons why nationalists see the nation-state as the ideal form of government
1 - Ensures homogeneity and unites political and cultural national identity
2 - More peaceful than empires
How do nation states ensure homogeneity/unite political and cultural national identity?
-Nation-states are united by a combination of political allegiances and a high levels of cultural cohesion
-All members of such a state therefore belong to it in a civic and cultural sense
How are nation-states more peaceful than empires?
Nation-states tend to recognise the sovereign independence of neighbouring states as they do not want to sacrifice their civic and cultural cohesion through expansionism and conquest.
Race is a social, cultural and political concept based largely on superficial appearances. This is why some prefer to use the term ethnicity which denotes cultural rather than biological characteristics.
Give three reasons why the terms Nation and Race have become confused?
1 - Historical Link
2 - Nations can be defined culturally/ethnically
3 - Extreme forms of nationalism are racialist i.e. NAZI
Why do historical links blur the boundaries between nation and race?
The idea that common blood ties make up a nation can give rise to a number of problems. It can promote a sense of exclusivity so that those who cannot demonstrate a blood connection may be excluded from society.
How can nations be defined culturally/ethnically?
In general terms however, a race is not necessarily a nation, furthermore nations can contain more than one racial grouping as is the case with the Chinese and the English.
Why are extreme forms of nationalism racialist?
Racialism on a political level sees other non-national groups as outsiders, and not legitimate members of the state. It has led to quasi-scientific racialist beliefs that the nation can only retain its strength and superiority if it can maintain racial superiority.
Give three differences between the terms 'nation' and 'race'
1 - Many states are multi-racial or ethnic i.e. USA
2 - Races are poorly and subjectively defined
3 - Many forms of nationalism defined are politically based on Civic Identity not racial or cultural characteristics
How are many states multi-racial/ethnic?
Multicultural public policies are characterised by formal recognition of the distinctive needs of particular cultural groups and a desire to ensure equality of opportunity between and amongst them.
Why are races poorly & subjectively defined?
Racial purity is virtually impossible to ascertain. Many nations consider themselves to be a race and in general terms race is not a nation, furthermore nations can contain more than one ethnic grouping
Why are many forms of nationalism defined, politically based on civic identity not racial or cultural characteristics?
There are many forms of Liberal nationalism, where they have wanted control of their own resources and their own government.
Give the first core theory of nationalism
-Nationalists = unified by their belief that nations are organic communities. Humankind in other words, is divided into a collection of nations each possessing a distinctive character and separate identity
What Key Theorist is associated with Organic Society?
HEGEL - saw the organic society as an expression of universal will
What is the counter-argument to an Organic Society?
Fact that nations are formed through a combination of objective and subjective factors has given rise to rival concepts of the nation. Although all nationalists agree that nations are a mix of cultural and psycho-political factors, their is debate about their balance.
Give a second core theory of Nationalism
-Essentially based on the view that people have a fundamental right to determine how they are governed, The concept of self determination asks what is a people? The answer offered is that the nation is the most natural unit
What Key Theorist is associated with Self Determination
JJ ROUSSEAU - popular sovereignty in 'the General Will', the seed from which nationalist doctrines spring Government based on will.
What is the counter-argument to Self-Determination
Although achieving independence from other states is a core value of nationalists there are some exceptions to this i.e. Wales still wants to defend their culture
Why is nationalism considered a cross cutting ideology?
-Nationalism can represent many different ideological traditions from Liberalism to fascism. They all define the nation in different ways.
-Nationalism cannot easily be pigeon holed, there will always be elements of progression and regression.
What is Liberal nationalism based on?
- Based on Liberal ideas of individualism and freedom
-Oldest form of Nationalism - dates back to French Revolution
-Based on the concepts of 'popular sovereignty' and the 'general will'. In particular it was opposed to the autocratic and feudal aristocratic empires
What theorist is associated with Liberal Nationalism
LOCKE - Natural Rights Theory - In a natural state all people were equal and independent, and everyone had a natural right to defend 'life, health, liberty or possessions'.
What is the aim of Liberal Nationalism?
- National pluralism - a world of nation states
- Liberating & Progressive force that stands for the idea of self government. Thus independent nation-states would respect the rights of others.
What is an example of the aim of Liberal Nationalism?
The last of Wilson's fourteen points stated that a 'general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for purpose of affording mutual guarantees'
Give the three main features of Liberal Nationalism
1 - Opposition to Empire i.e. MAZZINI
2 - Popular Sovereignty i.e. ROUSSEAU (tyranny of the majority)
3 - Self Determination i.e. WILSON (14 Points)
Define what is meant by the Liberal Nationalist concept of "Opposition to Empire?"
Opposed empires, seeking nations in there place whilst believing that national self determination would usher in a period of international peace
What is meant by "Popular Sovereignty?"
-The Peoples Will
- Nation = means for ensuring popular sovereignty expressing the 'general will' of individuals and should therefore be as free as possible to itself.
-The nation state embodies the goal of political freedom giving expression to the principle of national self determination, democracy and self government - therefore only operate within a nation-state.
What is the basis of Conservative Nationalism?
-Based on Conservative beliefs of human nature, tradition and need for social stability
-19th Century - became sympathetic towards nationalism seeing it as a way of maintaining social order & tradition
-Principle goal = maintain national unity by fostering patriotism
What Theorist is associated with Conservative Nationalism?
HOBBES - account of human nature as self interested cooperation has proved to be an enduring theory in the field of philosophical anthropology.
Give 2 features of Conservative Nationalism
1- Organicism i.e. HERDER (world is divided into national cultures)
2 - Maintaining unity, authority and social stability i.e. DISRAELI (appealing to the idea of one nation to prevent social disorder)
What is Organicism?
-Nation = organic community more than the sum of individual arts. Humankind in other words is divided into nations each possessing a distinctive character and separate identity. This is why a higher loyalty attaches to the nation.
-HEGEL - organic society = expression of universal will
Why do Conservative Nationalists believe in maintaining unity, authority and social stability?
-It prevents social conflict by binding irrational dependent individuals together with a shared set of values, whilst transcending the natural rights of the individual.
Give a further two key features of Conservative Nationalism.
1 - Maintains Homogeneity in society i.e. POWELL (Antimulticulturalism- danger of immigration)
2 - Defensive (Protecting the nation from a perceived threat) i.e. UKIP say EU erodes our independence & dictates us
What do Conservative Nationalists mean by "Maintaining homogeneity in society?"
-Strong nationalism preserves a common culture which will preserve the social order and unify society.
-Traditional institutions like the monarchy are symbols of national pride commemorating the past.
-Feel threatened by diversity
Why do Conservative Nationalists believe in "Protecting the nation from a perceived threat?"
-Have a strong belief in self determination and a greater belief in individual sovereignty over political correctness
-Believe that sovereignty is being eroded
What is Chauvinistic Nationalism based on?
-Based on view of integral nationalism
-Refers to a feeling of intense, even hysterical nationalist enthusiasm in which the nation is all important and the individual unimportant
Who is the theorist associated with Chauvinistic Nationalism?
MAURRAS - national prestige linked to the possession of an empire, each victory appreciated by the public.
What is an example of Chauvinistic Nationalism?
-belief that some nations possess characteristics or qualities that make them superior than others - should dominate
-belief that racial divisions are important either because races should live apart, or because some races are superior to others possessing different qualities.
Give the four main features of Chauvinistic Nationalism
-Expansionism i.e. NAZI's - Lebensraum
-Racialism i.e. Nazi's Social Darwinism (survival of fittest)
-National Glory Rebirth i.e. Mussolini's Roman Empire
-Security i.e. Nazi-Jewish Threat
What is Expansionism?
-Extreme nationalism often results in militarism and expansionism
-Achievement of ends by military means or even the extension of military ideas, values and practices to the whole of society.
What is Racialism?
-Portrayal of another nation or race as a threat or enemy.
-In the face of the enemy the nation pulls together and the sense of the identity and importance is increased. Breeds a clear distinction between them and us.
What is National Glory Rebirth?
-The individual as a separate, rational being is swept away on a tide of patriotic emotion, expressed in the desire for aggression, expansion and war.
-Individuals are expected to be loyal (submerged in all powerful nation)
What is Security?
-Appeals to the isolated, powerless, and emotionally insecure, particularly at times of crisis.
-It offers security, self respect and pride to people who would otherwise not feel these emotions.
What is the basis for Anti-Colonial Nationalism?
-Based often on Socialist / Marxist views of class struggle, equality and fraternity
-US Imperialism has not usually involved overt political colonisation but its economic and cultural power has incredible influence.
What theorist is associated with Anti-Colonial Nationalism?
Lenin - Imperialism - the highest stage of capitalism
-Imperialism is an economic phenomenon, a quest for capitalist countries to pursue profit, cheap labour and raw materials. The class struggle became colonial.
Give three features of Anti/Post Colonial Nationalism
1 - Nation used as a unifying force
2 - Response to Imperialism
3 -Political and economic cooperation
Why was the "Nation used as a unifying force?"
-Most independence leaders were western educated.
-Experiences of colonial rule helped to foster a particular national identity and desire for national liberation.
Why was Anti/Post Colonial Nationalism a "response to imperialism?"
-Socialism/ Marxism provides an analysis of inequality through which the colonial experience can be understood and challenged.
Why was Anti/Post Colonial Nationalism seen as "political & economic cooperation?"
-linked to economic under development and subordination to more powerful Western economic powers.
-'National liberation' was expressed in political and economic terms. Anti-Colonial movements were attracted to left wing socialist ideas.
Describe the ideology that goes beyond nationalism
-Internationalism - Internationalists believe that the common characteristics of the people of the world are stronger than the national boundaries that separate them.
-Believe nationalism is responsible for war, genocide, ethnic cleansing, terrorism and nuclear arsenals
Give two reasons why the nation has come under threat.
-Economic Globalisation - Emergence of multinational capital where national governments have little control
-Ecological Crises - Nation-states are self interested and damage the environment (environmental issues do not respect national boundaries)
Give a further two reasons why the nation has come under threat.
-Social & Cultural Globalisation - homogenised culture whereby the spread of a market driven society can be seen as the McDonaldisation of the world
-Threat of Global Conflict - Competition between rival nation states has the potential to result in conflict and create a state of international disorder and chaos
-Supranationalism - huge increase in the power and influence of international organisations
What is Liberal Internationalism?
Based on Individualism and Universal Rights - Liberals have sought to make the rights and liberties of the individual a universal concept in the belief that a common set of universal liberal values will lessen tension between nations and create a common international culture
-LOCKE - Everyone has a natural right to defend his life, liberty and possessions.
Give the first main feature of Liberal Internationalism.
Fear of Conflict - Competition between rival nation states has the potential to result in conflict and create a state of international disorder and chaos
Counter through - Trade creates a sense of interdependence between nations, thus making it a force for peace
Example - EU, designed to prevent a repeat of the two world wars.
Give the 2nd main feature of Liberal Internationalism.
International Free Trade - create a sense of international law and order. Free trade agreements are seen as having a positive impact on economic growth, especially for the smaller countries in the agreement. Trading blocs are groups of countries that have reached a common agreement to lower trade barriers throughout the group
Give a theorist & example associated with International Free Trade
COBDEN - free trade would break down the likelihood of war and create international understanding and material prosperity.
IMF - intergovernmental organisation that oversees the global financial system with an impact on the exchange rate and the balance of payments.
Give the 3rd main feature of Liberal Internationalism.
Universal Individualism - Liberals have sought to make the rights and liberties of the individual a universal concept in the belief that a common set of universal liberal values will lessen tensions between nations and create a common international culture.
What is an example of Universal Individualism?
Universal Declaration on Human Rights - anti-imperialists see this as an attempt to impose Western values on all the peoples of the world.
What is Socialist Internationalism?
Based on Socialist views of fraternity and common humanity - Socialists believe in a common humanity. Nationalism divides peoples, creates divisions, conflicts and enmities, and thus prevents the development of a common humanity.
-may be necessary for oppressed peoples to achieve national liberation and throw off the bourgeoisie
-DONNE - 'No man is an island entire of itself,' Human beings do not thrive when isolated from others.
Give one main feature of Socialist Internationalism
Class Solidarity - 'working class has no country'.
Social class is more important than nationality. Socialists accepted that it may be necessary for oppressed peoples to achieve national liberation and throw off the bourgeoisie and imperialism.
Give an example of Class Solidarity
Socialist internationalism has found its expression in modern times with the growth of the anti-capitalist movement
Give a second feature of socialist internationalism
Overthrow of the Bourgeoisie - Marx believed that the working class has no country
-Marx believed that the emergence of world markets has turned capitalism into a global system that can only be challenged by an international movement
What is an example of the desire to Overthrow the Bourgeoisie
'The Communist Manifesto 1848 - The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries unite!
Give two further examples of socialist internationalism
Anti-Capitalist Movement - This has led to anti-capitalist campaigns against neo-liberal economics.
Negri 'Empire' - entering a new imperialist stage where the world is governed over by a new empire, made up of neo-liberal economic institutions.
Define the view that nationalism is rational
Rationalism is normally associated with ideologies such as Liberalism and Socialism. Therefore nationalist movements tend to be considered rational when national consciousness is being used as an instrument to create a rationally desirable situation. The nation-state has a purpose eg. creation of popular sovereignty.
Give two forms of nationalism that are considered rational
- Liberal Nationalism - Nations base their beliefs around individualism which are applied to the nation as they believe in self determination and use this as a basis for international peace
-Anti-Colonial Nationalism - nation can be used as a unifying force as a response to Imperialism to achieve political and economic liberation from underdevelopment and subordination.
Give 2 examples of why nationalism is rational.
-Liberal Nationalism - LOCKE - Natural Rights (Everyone has the right to defend his life, liberty, health and possessions)
-Anti-Colonial Nationalism - LENIN, CHE GUEVARA
Define the view that nationalism is irrational
Human reason is flawed and that humans are essentially limited creatures. Therefore emotional, cultural, familial and ethnic ties are more important guides to political action than pure reason. Nationalist movements are therefore seen to be irrational when they stress the importance of cultural and ethnic ties
-nationalism results from deep seated sentiments and emotions that are virtually immutable.
Give two forms of nationalism that can be considered irrational
-Conservative Nationalism - human nature viewed as a philosophy of human imperfection & the nation is an organic community being more than a sum of its individual parts. Conservatives want to maintain homogeneity and defend the nation from a perceived threat.
-Chauvinistic Nationalism - believe individuals will blindly follow the nation. Thus it is based on a form of integral nationalism, and the belief that some nations possess characteristics or qualities that make them superior to others
Give 2 examples of why nationalism can be considered irrational
-Conservative Nationalism - HOBBES, DISRAELI
-Chauvinistic Nationalism - MAURRAS, NAZI's
Explain why all forms of nationalism might be seen as having rational and irrational elements.
Different nationalist movements within a country may exhibit different types of nationalism- English nationalism can be represented by the progressive, rational, inclusive values of people like Billy Bragg or the largely regressive, exclusive, irrational and racialist BNP
Some forms of nationalism are rationally progressive but there is an extent that all forms of nationalism are built on irrational ties, cultural ties tend to underpin most forms of nationalism. Yet arguably they all blend reactionary themes with progressive ones
Explain the view that Nationalism is progressive
Progressive - aims towards a goal in the interests of progress - to progress to a new state of affairs. Although it is highly subjective a nationalist movement is therefore deemed to be progressive if it is not seeking to defend or protect a particular way of life.
Give two progressive forms of Nationalism
Liberal Nationalism - opposes all forms of foreign domination and oppression whether by multi-national empires or colonial powers & it is progressive in that it is orientated around projects of political change and has created laws
Anti-Colonial Nationalism - sought to prevent economic under-development and subordination to more powerful empires
Give a further debatable progressive form of nationalism
Some forms of chauvinistic nationalism - Individuals and groups lose their identity and submerge totally within the all powerful nation. The individual as a separate, rational being is swept away on a tide of patriotic emotion expressed in the desire for aggression, expansion and war. Individuals are expected to be loyal to the nation over themselves in the name of progression
Explain the view that Nationalism is reactionary
Nationalist movements are said to be regressive or reactionary when they attempt to protect the current status quo or even return to a more 'golden age' of historical glory or national or cultural identity.
Give two reactionary elements of nationalism
Conservative nationalism - see nationalism as a way of maintaining social order and tradition. Patriotism/Nationalism give a sense of identity, an expression of universal will and spirit, where a threat or obstacle is always perceived
Some chauvanistic forms of nationalism - the Nazi's adopted the pan-German expansionism justifying it on the need for lebensraum due to biological superiority of the German/Aryan race against Jews.
Explain why all forms of nationalism might be seen as having progressive and reactionary elements.
Nationalism is progressive to the extent that it is orientated around projects of political change, aimed at liberating nations from subordination or oppression. However, nationalism is reactionary in that its often based on historical images and symbols, on the foundation of an idealised past.
Explain why Nationalism can be viewed as Inclusive
Open to everyone to join who have civic membership of the nation-state. The nation is therefore defined politically. It does not exclude on the basis of race, religion, language or other ethnic distractions.
associated with Liberal and Socialist backgrounds.
Give two elements of inclusive nationalism
-Liberal Nationalism - Supranational organisations such as the United Nations create a sense of interdependence between nations helping smaller nations to prosper. Create a common international culture based on a number of treaties and organisations
-Anti-Colonial Nationalism - Nation used as a unifying force -Experiences of colonial rule helped to foster a particular national identity and desire for national liberation, embodied values of community and cooperation through which the colonial experience could be challenged
Give two examples of inclusive nationalism
-Liberal Nationalism - LOCKE 'Natural Rights' - founding of EU
-Anti-Colonial Nationalism - CHE GUEVARA - defeat capitalism through guerrilla warfare
Give a further debateable form of inclusive nationalism + example
Some forms of chauvinistic nationalism - militarism & expansionism advocated in Hitlers policy of lebensraum where he advocated extending territorial boundaries 'without consideration of tradition and prejudices, Germany must find the courage to gather our people and their strength'.
I.e. MUSSOLINI's Doctrine of Fascism - Sees life as a duty, struggle and conquest, those who are at hand and those who are far distant.
Explain why Nationalism can be viewed as Exclusive
Excludes certain people and groups from membership of the nation. The nation is therefore defined on racial or cultural grounds. Groups of people therefore may be members of the state but are not considered part of the nation
Associated with right-wing ideologies
Give two exclusive forms of Nationalism
Conservative Nationalism - feel threatened by pluralism and diversity as it threatens the cohesion of society and risks social conflict. Strong nationalism preserves a common culture which will preserve the social order and unify society. Defensive - protecting the nation from a perceived threat
Some forms of Chauvinistic Nationalism - Racialism often fuelled by negative integration, the portrayal of another nation or race as a threat or enemy. In the face of an enemy the nation draws together and the sense of its identity and importance is increased. Breeds a clear distinction between 'them' and 'us'
Give two examples of Exclusive Nationalism
Conservative Nationalism - Anti-Multiculturalism highlights dangers of immigration
Some forms of Chauvinistic Nationalism - Social Darwinism - the Nazi's applied Social Darwinism to the intermingling of races. Their line of reasoning was that intermingling degenerates the Aryan race
Explain why all forms of nationalism might be seen as having exclusive elements
since nationalism draws attention to divisions within humankind it embodies a potential for expansionism and exclusivity. Critics of nationalism often argue that its chief defect is that it highlights the differences between and amongst the people of the world. Cultural ties tend to underpin most forms of nationalism