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76 terms

Procedures III (Final Exam Review)

Dalton State College Radiologic Technology Program Dalton, GA
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The total number of fontanels in an infant
Six - Anterior, Posterior, Right and left sphenoid, Right and left mastoid
The 4 Cranial bones that form the calvaria (skullcap)
Frontal, Left & Right Parietal, Occipital
The 4 Cranial bones that form the floor of the cranium
Right & Left Temporal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid
The cranial bone that articulates with all the other cranial bones
Sphenoid
The landmark that corresponds with the level of the petrous ridge (Todd's Question, double barrel)
TEA
The cranial bone that contains the cribriform plate
Ethmoid
The suture that separates the parietal from the occipital lobe
Lambdoidal
An average shaped skull with a 47 degree angle between the petrous pyramids & the midsagittal plane
Mesocephalic
The term that describes the small flap of cartilage covering the opening to the ear
Tragus
The degree difference between the OML and IOML
7 to 8 degrees
The most critical factor for demonstrating air/fluid levels within the cranium
Horizontal beam
Situation: A radiograph of an AP axial projection of the cranium reveals that the dorsum sellae is projected below the foramen magnum but the anterior arch of C1 is visible within the foramen. Name the Error.
Insufficient flexion of the head and neck
The projections that best visualize the anterior clinoid processess of the sella turcica
AP axia, CR 30 degrees caudal to IOML
Situation: A radiograph of a submentovertex projection of the cranium reveals that the mandibular condyles are projected into the petrous pyramids. What must be fixed?
Increase the extension of the skull
Situation: A radiograph of a PA axial projection (caldwell method) of the cranium reveals that the petrous ridges are located at the level of the lower 1/3 of the orbits. The tech performed this projection with the CR 15 degrees caudal to the OML. How must this be fixed?
None of the above; positioning was correct
Situation: A radiograph of a lateral projection of the cranium reveals that the orbital plates are not superimposed, 1 is slightly superior to the other. What is the error?
Tilt
Situation: A radiograph of a lateral cranium reveals that the mentum was cut off from the bottom of the radiograph. A 10 x 12 IR was used and placed crosswise. What must be fixed for the repeat?
Nothing; Centering & IR placement were correct
Situation: A patient comes to radiology for a routine study of the cranium. He is unable to flex his head & neck sufficiently to place the OML perpendicular to the IR for the AP axial projection. What should the tech do to compensate for this problem without creating excessive magnification of the skull?
Use the IOML & increase CR angle by 7 degrees
Situation: A patient enters the ED with a possible basilar skull fracture. Which skull projection would best demonstrate any blood present in the sphenoid sinus?
Horizontal beam lateral projection
Situation: A patient comes to radiology with a history of a possible erosion of the foramen rotundum. Which projection would best demonstrate this structure?
PA axial with a 30 degree caudal angle to OML
Situation: A patient comes to radiology with a possible bone cyst within the squamous portion of the frontal bone. Which projection would best demonstrate this region with a minimal amount of distortion of the frontal bone?
AP axial with a 30 degree caudal angle to OML
Situation: A patient comes to radiology for a study of the sella turcica. Which routine projections would best demonstrate this structure?
AP Axial and Lateral
TRUE or FALSE: The PA Axial projection (HAAS method) fro the cranium requires a CR angle of 25 degrees Caudad
FALSE
TRUE or FALSE: The submentovertex projection requires that the IOML is placed parallel to the IR
TRUE
The skull projection with the highest thyroid dose
Submentovertex
Situation: When using a 30 caudad angle for the AP Axial (Towne) projection of the skull, which positioning line should be perpendicular to the IR?
OML
The cranial bone that is best demonstrated with a PA Axial (HAAS method) projection of the skull
Occipital Bone
The positioning error that is present if the mandible rami are not superimposed on a lateral skull
Tilt
The projection of the cranium that produces an image of the frontal bone with little or no distortion
Caldwell
The aspect of the frontal bone that is thin walled & forms the forehead
Squamous
Thickest and densest structure in the cranium
Petrous Portion
Name the Sutures of the Cranium
Squamosal, Coronal, Lambdoidal & Sagittal
The pterygoid hamulus is a part of this cranium bone
Sphenoid
The perpendicular plate is a part of this cranium bone
Ethmoid
The foramen ovale is a part of this cranium bone
Sphenoid
The cribriform plate is a part of this cranium bone
Ethmoid
The cranial suture formed by the inferior junction of the parietals to the temporal bones
Squamosal
The name of the paired collections of bone found inferior to the cribriform plate that contain numerous air cells & help form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity
Lateral Labyrinths
Formal term for the left & right sphenoid fontanels in the adult
Left & right pterion
Formal term for the left & right mastoid fontanels in the adult
Left & right asterion
Formal term for the anterior fontanel in the adult
Bregma
Formal term for the posterior fontanel in the adult
Lambda
The small irregular bones that sometimes develop in adult skull sutures
Wormian or Sutural
Bacterial infection of the mastoid process
Mastoiditis
New or adnormal growth
Neoplasia
Benign tumor of the auditory nerve sheath
Acoustic neuroma
Benign, cystlike mass or tumor of the middle ear
Cholesteatoma
Growth arising from a mucous membrane
Polyp
Fracture that may produce an air filled fluid level in the sphenoid sinus
Basal skull fracture
The aspect of the temporal bone that contains the organs of hearing & balance
Petrous portion
The opening between the epitympanic recess & the mastoid portion of the temporal bone
Aditus
The structure that helps equalize atmospheric pressure in the middle ear
Eustachian tube
the structures that appear as scroll-like projections on a radiograph and found in the nasal cavity
Conchae
2 Bones form the bony nasal septum
Ethmoid and Vomer
Posterior aspect of the orbit
Apex
The number of facial bones that help make up the bony orbit
Four:
1. Maxilla
2. Zygoma
3. Lacrimal
4. Palatine
Bone involved with a tripod fracture
Zygomatic
CR centered for a lateral projection of the facial bones
Zygoma, midway between the E.A.M. and the outer canthus
The CR exit point for a modified parietoacanthial (mod. waters) projection of the facial bones
Acanthion
The positioning line is placed perpendicular to the plane of the IR with a true lateral nasal bone projection
Interpupillary
The sinuses develop last & are not fully developed until the teenage years
Ethmoid
A fracture involving the facial bones where a blow to one side causes a fracture to the opposite side
Contrecoup
The Sinuses are BEST demonstrated with a parieto-acanthial projection
Maxillary only
With the use of erect positions, what other technical factor is important to demonstrate air/fluid levels in para-nasal sinuses
Horizontal x-ray beam
The following projection will BEST demonstrate the bony nasal septum
Parietoacanthial
The C.R. exit point for a modified parieto-acanthial "modified Waters" projection of the facial bones
Acanthion
The CR exit point for a PA Axial Projection of the mandible
Acanthion
The only paranasal NOT contained within a cranial bone
Maxillary
The CR centering point for an AP Axial projection of the mandible
the glabella
The 7 bones that form the bony orbit
Lacrimal, Ethmoid, Frontal, Sphenoid, Palatine, Zygomatic, Maxilla
A fracture that produces a "free floating" zygomatic bone
Tripod Fracture
The 3 foramina found within the bony orbits
Optic foramen, Superior & inferior orbital fissure
Older term for the maxillary sinuses
Antrum
The fracture that results from a direct blow to the orbit leading to a disruption of the inferior orbital margin
Blow-out Fracture
The two basic projections for an injury to the right anterior ribs
PA and LAO
The two specific oblique positions that can be used to elongate the left axillary portion of the ribs
LPO or RAO