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Dalton State College Radiologic Technology Program Dalton, GA

The total number of fontanels in an infant

Six - Anterior, Posterior, Right and left sphenoid, Right and left mastoid

The 4 Cranial bones that form the calvaria (skullcap)

Frontal, Left & Right Parietal, Occipital

The 4 Cranial bones that form the floor of the cranium

Right & Left Temporal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid

The cranial bone that articulates with all the other cranial bones


The landmark that corresponds with the level of the petrous ridge (Todd's Question, double barrel)


The cranial bone that contains the cribriform plate


The suture that separates the parietal from the occipital lobe


An average shaped skull with a 47 degree angle between the petrous pyramids & the midsagittal plane


The term that describes the small flap of cartilage covering the opening to the ear


The degree difference between the OML and IOML

7 to 8 degrees

The most critical factor for demonstrating air/fluid levels within the cranium

Horizontal beam

Situation: A radiograph of an AP axial projection of the cranium reveals that the dorsum sellae is projected below the foramen magnum but the anterior arch of C1 is visible within the foramen. Name the Error.

Insufficient flexion of the head and neck

The projections that best visualize the anterior clinoid processess of the sella turcica

AP axia, CR 30 degrees caudal to IOML

Situation: A radiograph of a submentovertex projection of the cranium reveals that the mandibular condyles are projected into the petrous pyramids. What must be fixed?

Increase the extension of the skull

Situation: A radiograph of a PA axial projection (caldwell method) of the cranium reveals that the petrous ridges are located at the level of the lower 1/3 of the orbits. The tech performed this projection with the CR 15 degrees caudal to the OML. How must this be fixed?

None of the above; positioning was correct

Situation: A radiograph of a lateral projection of the cranium reveals that the orbital plates are not superimposed, 1 is slightly superior to the other. What is the error?


Situation: A radiograph of a lateral cranium reveals that the mentum was cut off from the bottom of the radiograph. A 10 x 12 IR was used and placed crosswise. What must be fixed for the repeat?

Nothing; Centering & IR placement were correct

Situation: A patient comes to radiology for a routine study of the cranium. He is unable to flex his head & neck sufficiently to place the OML perpendicular to the IR for the AP axial projection. What should the tech do to compensate for this problem without creating excessive magnification of the skull?

Use the IOML & increase CR angle by 7 degrees

Situation: A patient enters the ED with a possible basilar skull fracture. Which skull projection would best demonstrate any blood present in the sphenoid sinus?

Horizontal beam lateral projection

Situation: A patient comes to radiology with a history of a possible erosion of the foramen rotundum. Which projection would best demonstrate this structure?

PA axial with a 30 degree caudal angle to OML

Situation: A patient comes to radiology with a possible bone cyst within the squamous portion of the frontal bone. Which projection would best demonstrate this region with a minimal amount of distortion of the frontal bone?

AP axial with a 30 degree caudal angle to OML

Situation: A patient comes to radiology for a study of the sella turcica. Which routine projections would best demonstrate this structure?

AP Axial and Lateral

TRUE or FALSE: The PA Axial projection (HAAS method) fro the cranium requires a CR angle of 25 degrees Caudad


TRUE or FALSE: The submentovertex projection requires that the IOML is placed parallel to the IR


The skull projection with the highest thyroid dose


Situation: When using a 30 caudad angle for the AP Axial (Towne) projection of the skull, which positioning line should be perpendicular to the IR?


The cranial bone that is best demonstrated with a PA Axial (HAAS method) projection of the skull

Occipital Bone

The positioning error that is present if the mandible rami are not superimposed on a lateral skull


The projection of the cranium that produces an image of the frontal bone with little or no distortion


The aspect of the frontal bone that is thin walled & forms the forehead


Thickest and densest structure in the cranium

Petrous Portion

Name the Sutures of the Cranium

Squamosal, Coronal, Lambdoidal & Sagittal

The pterygoid hamulus is a part of this cranium bone


The perpendicular plate is a part of this cranium bone


The foramen ovale is a part of this cranium bone


The cribriform plate is a part of this cranium bone


The cranial suture formed by the inferior junction of the parietals to the temporal bones


The name of the paired collections of bone found inferior to the cribriform plate that contain numerous air cells & help form the lateral walls of the nasal cavity

Lateral Labyrinths

Formal term for the left & right sphenoid fontanels in the adult

Left & right pterion

Formal term for the left & right mastoid fontanels in the adult

Left & right asterion

Formal term for the anterior fontanel in the adult


Formal term for the posterior fontanel in the adult


The small irregular bones that sometimes develop in adult skull sutures

Wormian or Sutural

Bacterial infection of the mastoid process


New or adnormal growth


Benign tumor of the auditory nerve sheath

Acoustic neuroma

Benign, cystlike mass or tumor of the middle ear


Growth arising from a mucous membrane


Fracture that may produce an air filled fluid level in the sphenoid sinus

Basal skull fracture

The aspect of the temporal bone that contains the organs of hearing & balance

Petrous portion

The opening between the epitympanic recess & the mastoid portion of the temporal bone


The structure that helps equalize atmospheric pressure in the middle ear

Eustachian tube

the structures that appear as scroll-like projections on a radiograph and found in the nasal cavity


2 Bones form the bony nasal septum

Ethmoid and Vomer

Posterior aspect of the orbit


The number of facial bones that help make up the bony orbit

1. Maxilla
2. Zygoma
3. Lacrimal
4. Palatine

Bone involved with a tripod fracture


CR centered for a lateral projection of the facial bones

Zygoma, midway between the E.A.M. and the outer canthus

The CR exit point for a modified parietoacanthial (mod. waters) projection of the facial bones


The positioning line is placed perpendicular to the plane of the IR with a true lateral nasal bone projection


The sinuses develop last & are not fully developed until the teenage years


A fracture involving the facial bones where a blow to one side causes a fracture to the opposite side


The Sinuses are BEST demonstrated with a parieto-acanthial projection

Maxillary only

With the use of erect positions, what other technical factor is important to demonstrate air/fluid levels in para-nasal sinuses

Horizontal x-ray beam

The following projection will BEST demonstrate the bony nasal septum


The C.R. exit point for a modified parieto-acanthial "modified Waters" projection of the facial bones


The CR exit point for a PA Axial Projection of the mandible


The only paranasal NOT contained within a cranial bone


The CR centering point for an AP Axial projection of the mandible

the glabella

The 7 bones that form the bony orbit

Lacrimal, Ethmoid, Frontal, Sphenoid, Palatine, Zygomatic, Maxilla

A fracture that produces a "free floating" zygomatic bone

Tripod Fracture

The 3 foramina found within the bony orbits

Optic foramen, Superior & inferior orbital fissure

Older term for the maxillary sinuses


The fracture that results from a direct blow to the orbit leading to a disruption of the inferior orbital margin

Blow-out Fracture

The two basic projections for an injury to the right anterior ribs

PA and LAO

The two specific oblique positions that can be used to elongate the left axillary portion of the ribs


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