AP Human Geography Chapter 9 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (36)
An imaginary line that separates the rich "Global North" from the poor "Global South."
Five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
Newly industrialized countries that are experiencing rapid economic expansion and industrialization.
The ability of a country to produce a good at a lower cost than another country can.
The majority of that growth is enjoyed by a 'core' region of wealthy countries (MDCs) despite being severely outnumbered in population by those in a 'periphery' (LDCs) that are ignored.
LDCs tend to have a higher dependency ratio, the ratio of the number of people under 15 or over 64 to the number in the labor force.
A country that is at a relatively early stage in the process of economic development.
Statistics that provide information about the performance of the economy and its position in the business cycle.
The process of improving economic/material conditions of people through the diffusion of knowledge and technology.
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI)
Gender Development Index: Compares the level of development of women with that of both sexes.
Gender Empowerment Index (GEM)
Compares the ability of women and men to participate in economic and political decision making.
gross national product/income (GNP/GNI)
The value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year, including money that leaves and enters the country.
Human Development Index (HDI)
An indicator of the level of development for each country, constructed by United Nations, that is based on income, literacy, education, and life expectancy.
A strategy for economic growth in which a country restricts imports in order to spur demand for locally produced goods.
Network of business transactions that are not reported and therefore not included in the country's GDP and official economic projection.
international division of labor
The process where the assembling procedures for a product are spread out through different parts of the world.
Least Developed Country: exhibits the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.
The percentage of a country's people who can read and write.
Most Developed Country: sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
Also called economic imperialism, this is the domination of newly independent countries by foreign business interests that causes colonial-style colonies to continue, such a monoculture.
The portion of the economy concerned with the direct extraction of materials from Earth's surface, generally through agriculture, although sometimes by mining, fishing, and forestry.
The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it.
Service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services.
A numerical relationship showing the number of total jobs created for each new basic job in a region.
Rostow's "Modernization Model"
A linear theory of development that developed countries go through a common 5 stage patter of structural change (traditional society, transitional, take off, drive to maturity, high mass consumption), which explains the development experiences of Western countries and is general model for many others
The portion of the economy concerned with manufacturing useful products through processing, transforming, and assembling raw materials.
Places where core and periphery processes are both occurring; places that are exploited by the core but in turn exploit the periphery.
An economic system of relatively simple technology in which people produce most or all of the goods to satisfy their own and their family's needs; little or no exchange occurs outside or the immediate or extended family.
Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
The portion of the economy concerned with transportation, communications, and utilities, sometimes extended to the provision of all goods and services to people, in exchange for payment.
A company that conducts research, operates factories, and sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters or shareholders are located.
An economic theory which states that investing money in companies and giving them tax breaks is the best way to stimulate the economy.
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy.
The gross value of the product minus the costs of raw materials and energy.
A specialized agency of the United Nations that makes loans to countries for economic development, trade promotion, and debt consolidation. Its formal name is the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development.
World Systems Theory
Theory developed by Immanuel Wallerstein that explains the emergence of a core, periphery, and semi-periphery in terms of economic and political connections first established at the beginning of exploration in the late 15th century and maintained through increased economic access up until the present.