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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
History of the Holocaust IDs
Terms in this set (80)
The union of Austria with Germany, resulting from the occupation of Austria by the German army in 1938. Absorbing ethnic germans back into germany
SS Lieutenant Colonel who was in charge of transporting the passengers to the death camps under ANY circumstances via the trains
A deep ravine outside the Ukrainian city of Kiev, where the Einsatzgruppen murdered and buried close to 34,000 Jews over the course of two days (September 29-30, 1941
He was the Chairman of the Judenrate in the Warsaw ghetto. Before ghettoization he was an assimilated Jewish engineer. He was significant in that he tried to bargain with the Germans for better living conditions within the ghettos. Deportations begin in July 1942 and last until September. Czerniakow is responsible for providing thousands of Jews to be executed. He kills himself July 23, 1942.
First nazi extermination camp in poland (1941). First extermination camp to use carbon monoxide gas as main killing method. 150,000 jews murdered. 5000 gypsies
1945-1952 --> 250,000 DP in Germany. DP camps (germany, italy, austria) established run by allied forces and the UN. Main goal is using them as a transitional place, from these places they emigrated or were reunited with family
early supporter of the Nazi party. He studied law and eventually became the personal legal advisor to Adolf Hitler. After the outbreak of World War II, Frank was appointed Governor General of occupied Poland. In this capacity, Frank was responsible for the exploitation and murder of hundreds of thousands of Polish civilians, as well as the deportation and murder of Polish Jews.
view that hitler was a strong dictator and that every step was deliberate with no improv. everything came back to hitler for approval. everything that happened in nazi germany happened because hitler wanted it to
a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the Nazi regime "the whole function of education is to create Nazis"
Security leader of the SS who was given the task of making the Final Solution. Creator of the Einsatzgruppen.
Entrusted by Hitler with administration of the "Final Solution" to the Jewish Question. Head of SS (Gestapo) which oversaw the Death Camps.
He was a young Zionist in the Vilna ghetto who had escaped the ghetto but he later returned. He concluded that in order for any revolt to be successful, a Jewish resistance fighting force needed to be assembled. He formed the FPO (United Partisans Organization) in January 1942. Kovner and the FPO were significant because they were one of the most prominent resistance groups and used guerilla warfare to fight against the SS.
psychologist who believed in the dignity of children. Would not leave before the children left the orphanage and when they did leave he was put to death
Term for a concentration camp prisoner who has given up fighting for his/her life.
was the code name given to the Nazi plan to murder Polish Jews in the General Government, and marked the most deadly phase of the Holocaust, the use of extermination camps. During the operation, as many as two million people were murdered in Bełżec, Majdanek, Sobibor and Treblinka, almost all of whom were Jews. Initiated in 1941
Police Battalion 101
Head of the Lodz ghetto Judenrat. He tried to both industrialize and build community within the ghetto in order to make them indespensible to the Germans, thus, saving the lives of the Jews in the ghetto. Although Lodz was eventually liquidated, they were the last ghetto in Eastern Europe to do so
Special units of prisoners given the duty of transporting bodies from the gas chambers to the crematoria and cleaning out the ovens. Each unit lasted a few months and then was killed
Leader of the Central Committee for Counteracting Jewish Atrocity Tales and Boycotts, publisher of Der Sturmer (anit-semitic news paper)
This domestic euthanasia program was lead by the Nazi party to exterminate the handicapped and those with generic diseases. This forced sterilization was not yet racial persecution that would later characterize the Nazi Party's dealings with the Jews.
Concentration camp established in Czechoslovakia as a model camp to be shown to outside visitors from neutral countries. Jews that were sent here were later sent to Auschwitz and killed.
peace imposed by allies on defeated Germany; punitive treaty; Germany must admit guilt of war; must pay Frnace $269 billion; no air force, subs, army limited to 10000; Germany loses Alsace and Lorraine; Germany west of Rhine occupied
American will admit 20,000 German children under the age of 15 over two years. Nativists come out as opposition, most of this opposition is disguised anti-Semitism. When it comes out of committee those 20,000 places would go into the German immigration quota, meaning the quota would now have to reserve almost half of its spaces for the kids.
January 1942. Called together by Heydrich. Convened to prepare for the final solution to the Jewish question. They discussed the plan of how it would be executed
War Refugee Board
Federal agency created in 1944 to try to help people threatened with murder by the Nazis. FDR only established the meager organization because of political pressures
created as a result of the Treaty of Versailles. Was the democratic government which ruled over Germany form 1919 to 1933. Was Germany's first democracy and it failed miserably. It had leaders such as Stresseman and Hindenburg.
German word meaning "special treatment". It was the SS' code word for murder
suggested policy of the Nazi government of Germany to relocate the Jewish population of Europe to the island of Madagascar. Alternative to sending all the Jews to Palestine. Failed because of logistics
the road of accession. Road to the gas chambers
Reich Security Main Office. Headed by Heydrich, Eichmann is deputy.
The first major ghetto, because the city already had 62,000 Jews. It was established in Poland on May 1, 1940. Those deported from Lodz (this city was renamed Litzmannstadt under German occupation) during 1942 and June-July 1944 were sent to the Chelmno extermination camp. In August-September 1944, the ghetto was liquidated and the remaining 60,000 Jews were sent to Auschwitz.
The science of race. Started in the US in the 1920s. Anthropologists, geneticists, doctors, and other professionals all involved in legitimizing the idea of the final solution for the nazi party., the study of methods of improving genetic qualities by selective breeding (especially as applied to human mating)
A non-agression pact between Nazi Germany and the U.S.S.R., in which the two parties also agreed to partition Poland and Lithuania. In doing so he ensures that while Germany is fighting France, they will not also be attack by Russia. Signed pact knowing they'd eventually break it
Jan. 30, 1933
Adofl Hitler Becomes chancellor of Germany
Anschluss (German annexation of Austria)
Hitler gives a speech that if the Jews "plunge germany into a world war" it'd be the end of their race. first threat against the jews
Sept 1, 1939
WWII begins: Invasion of Poland. Poland is split between Russia and Germany
Operation Barbarossa; Germany's invasion of Soviet Union
Beginning of mass deportations of Jews to strictly Jewish death camps
December 17, 1942
The existence of Nazi death camps is first officially made public in the British House of Commons
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people. Motivating idea behind the expulsion of Jews from Eastern Europe at all costs
(My Struggle) written in jail by Hitler. This book set forth his beliefs and goals for Germany. It became the blueprint for the Nazis
Hitler's plan to create an entire race of Aryans, Jews were fired from their jobs and expelled from school in order to cleanse the community. Lead to the Jews loosing all rights
Codename for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II -- led to USSR joining the Allies 1941. largest military operation in history
Specially trained killing squads who had as their mission to seek out and kill Jews, Roma, and communists. These mobile killing units consisted of Special Action squads of the SS and Security Police. Their victims were executed by shooting and were buried in mass graves. Most were later dug up and burned.
Largest and most notorious of all the concentration camps; was both a slave labor camp and a death camp. Established in 1940 as a concentration camp, it became a death camp in early 1942. Eventually it consisted of three sections: Auschwitz I, the main camp; Auschwitz II, also known as Birkenau, a death camp; and Auschwitz II, the I. G. Farben labor camp, also known as Buna.
People who had both Christian and Jewish ancestors. In these people's case depending on how many were of their grandparents were Jewish or Christian was how they were deemed Aryan or Jewish
Sinti and Roma
two largest European Gypsy groups, between 200,000 and one million were killed during the Holocaust because they were persecuted alongside the Jews
The Chief of Staff of the SA and a leading figure in the early history of the party. After the Nazis came to power, he expected the SA to be turned into a Nazi 'People's Army', but his idea was opposed by Hitler and regular army. He was murdered in the blood purge, known and the 'Night of Long Knives', in June 1934.
1924-Johnson Act [National Origins Act]
congress passes this bill setting a quota of about 400,000 immigrants allowed in each year. Those desiring to come to the US were checked on their national origin before being allowed to enter. But they based their figures on outdated census information and thus Great Britain was allowed the most immigrants because they were white Anglo-Saxons. Until 1938, the Jewish quota (42,000) was not filled
S.S. St. Louis
boat carrying 900 Jews on their way to Cuba, their passports are revoked - not allowed into Cuba, go to Miami, not allowed there either. Luckily, the captain finds a way to get the passengers dispersed through several countries in order for them to not have to go back to Germany
a conference of nations to try and solve the refugee problem. The only way he can convince countries to come is by promising that no country would be forced to change its immigration laws. Britain will only come if Palestine is allowed in the conference because the countries disagree on their immigration policies. Only the Dominican Republic is willing to help the Jews. This conference gave Hitler a green light
village in France where the entire community (French Huguenots) came together to help Jews escape/hide Jews from Nazis, even at great personal risk. As people of God, residents of Le Chambon could not turn their backs on the "chosen people" as they put it
Rabbi Stephen Wise
US seceratry of treasury who wanted to transform Germany back into a pastoral country after the end of the war. he also was important because he established the War Refugee Board
The actual physical ramp that lead Jews from the trains into the camps. The significance of the ramp is that it was the location of selection: the separation of men and women, as well as those who would immediately be lead to the gas chambers or those who would be sent to the camps to be laborers
Meaning "Likely to become a Public Charge". A policy implemented by Hoover on officials who gave out visas to Europeans. The policy was to not allow people who were "Likely to become a Public Charge (LPC)" to get a US visa because they were most likely going to come to the US and immediately go on welfare. Policies like this were the paper walls that kept so many Jewish immigrants out
Par 175 German Criminal Code
Law of 1871 outlawed homosexuality. Punished lewd acts preformed between German men. This early law validated the Reich's persecution of gays
A German word meaning "collection point." It was a square in the Warsaw Ghetto where Jews were rounded up for deportation to Treblinka.
One of the first actions against the Jews prior to the first organized boycott of Jewish stores. This burning of books written by Jewish authors was organized by students and back by the Nazi Party
An agreement in 1938 that attempted to prevent large-scale war by granting German chancellor Adolf Hitler his demand for control over the Sudetenland, a German-populated region bordering Czechoslovakia. Hitler said he would not invade Czechoslovakia if Instead it verified Hitler's theory that the West would not interfere in eastern Europe, gave him time to rebuild an army, an emboldened him to continue the invasions - beginning with Czechoslovakia just months later - that led to WWII.
The award winning filmmaker as the director of "Triumph of the Will" (the first propaganda film for Hitler) and a documentary of the 1936 Olympics. As Hitler's primary filmmaker, she produced movies that effectively promoted Germany and was labeled a promoter of Hitler's propaganda. After serving a time in prison she became an award winning still photographer. She died at the age of 101 in 2003.
Night of Long Knives
A purge that took place in Nazi Germany between June 30 and July 2, 1934, when the Nazi regime carried out a series of political executions. most of the SA leaders were killed, they also eliminated all homosexuals in the Nazi party.
This term refers to the "badge" that prisoners in Germany were forced to wear on their clothing - to designate that they were in jail for being
homosexuals. Similar to the yellow star for Jews
The White Rose was a non-violent, intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany, consisting of students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor. The group became known for an anonymous leaflet and graffiti campaign, lasting from June 1942 until February 1943, that called for active opposition to dictator Adolf Hitler's regime.
Jewish student who assassinated third secretary to the ambassador at the German embassy, Ernst Vom Rath. (sparked Kristallnacht)
Ernst vom Rath
Third secretary to the ambassador at the German embassy. Assassinated by Hershel Grynszpan. His death lead to kristallnacht
February, 1933; the Reichstag was set on Fire by a secret order of Joesef Goebbels; called a communist plot;Hitler convinced president Hindenburg to suspend all civil rights for Communists, socialists, liberals, and trade unionists
Jewish council in each ghetto set up by the Nazis to represent Jewish interests and carry out Nazi instructions. They chose where people lived, worked, food, and eventually they were the ones who decided who would be deported
Topf & Sons
A German engineering company who built the crematorium for many of the death camps including Auschwitz.
Forced marches under brutal conditions required of death camp and concentration camp inmates by the Nazis to avoid liberation by advancing Allied forces.
Speer became Hitler's personal architect. In 1942, he was named Minister of Armaments and Munitions, assuming significant responsibility for the German war economy. In this position, Speer used millions of forced laborers to raise economic production.
Dr. Josef Mengele
a German SS officer and a physician in the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. He gained notoriety chiefly for being one of the SS physicians who supervised the selection of arriving transports of prisoners, determining who was to be killed and who was to become a forced labourer, and for performing human experiments of dubious scientific value on camp inmates, amongst whom Mengele was known as the Angel of Death.
in charge of the 4 year plan for the rearmament of Germany and the restructuring of the german economy for war
Rescue through Victory
Slogan of the Roosevelt Administration. Meaning there was nothing the U.S. could do to help the Jews until after the Nazis were defeated on the battlefield.
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