Biology: Unit 2 terms
Terms in this set (56)
Controls cell activity and contains cell information
Where chemical reactions take place
Controls movement of materials in and out of cell
Where energy is released during respiration
Where protein synthesis takes places
Made of cellulose for support
Contains chlorophyll for photosynthesis
Absorbs light for photo synthesis
Contains cell sap
When bacteria multiply its called a bacterial colony
Single celled organism
Movement of particles of gas from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
Oxygen into cells from bloodstream
Carbon dioxide in photosynthesising plants
A group of cells with a similar function and structure
Contracts to bring about movement
Produces substance such as enzymes and hormones
Covers some part of the body
Epidermal tissue (plant)
Covers the plant
Xylem transports water around the plant
Phloem transports food around the plant
The process in which plants make food (sugar-glucose) using water, carbon dioxide and light
Photosynthesis word equation
Carbon dioxide + water +(light energy) ------> glucose + oxygen
Process of photosynthesis
Light energy is absorbed by chlorophyll in the chloroplast. This energy is then used to convert CO2 and water into a simple sugar (glucose). Oxygen is also produced as a by-product which is released into the air.
Uses of glucose in plants
- converted into insoluble starch and is stored
-converted into fats and oils for storage
-produce cellulose which strengthens cells
-to produce proteins
Limiting factors of photosynthesis
Temperature- if it's cold enzymes don't work as well. If too hot enzymes denature
Light- you need light for photosynthesis to happen, if there isn't enough it won't happen
CO2 - plant needs it to photosynthesise, plants respire at night creating CO2 meaning early morning when there is light the plants photosynthesise well.
Making the most of photosynthesis
Greenhouses and poly tunnels can be controlled
Nitric ions are added to soil
Count the number of organisms in an area. Square frame made of wood or metal, which you lay on the ground to outline your sample area.
Must chose sample areas at random, or a transect is a line between two points, placing the quadrat every 5 meters.
Long chain amino acid.
Folded to produce specific shapes depending on its function.
They can be hormones antibodies and catalysts
Control chemical reactions.
Large proteins, and the shape is vital for its function. The shape has an area where other molecules (substrate) can fit, active site.
Can build large molecules from small ones
Can change one molecule into another.
Break down larger molecules into smaller ones.
Enzymes in digestion
Amylase - produced by the salivary gland, pancreas and small intestine. Catalyses the digestion of starch into sugar in mouth and small intestine
Protease - produces by the pancreas stomach and small intestine. Catalyses the breakdown of proteins into amino acids.
Lipase - produced by pancreas and small intestine. Catalyses the breakdown of lipids (fats and oils) into fatty acids and glycerol.
Transferring energy from food molecules to living cells
The process in which glucose and oxygen release energy.
Takes place in mitochondria
Glucose + oxygen ------> carbon dioxide + water (+energy)
When there is insufficient oxygen for respiration.
Incomplete breakdown of glucose - less energy released and lactic acid produced
Muscles become fatigued if there is a build up of lactic acid. Blood flowing through muscles removes lactic acid.
Lactic acid + oxygen -----> carbon dioxide + water
The effects of exercise on the body
When you exercise your muscles need more energy so they can contract. You need to increase the rate at which oxygen and glucose can reach the muscle cells. You also need to remove the extra waste carbon dioxide.
Heart rate increases and blood vessels widen. This allows more blood containing oxygen and glucose to reach the muscles. Muscles store glucose as glycogen. Glycogen can be converted back into glucose during exercise.
when you exercise you need more oxygen and glucose.
23 pairs of chromosomes in human body cell
Made from the large molecules called DNA
Double helix structure. Code is used to synthesise proteins.
A small section of DNA. Each gene codes for a particular combination of amino acids which make a specific protein.
characteristics are controlled by genes
A version of a particular gene.
A normal body cell has four chromosomes in two pairs. All of the chromosomes are replicated. The nucleus divides into. Two identical cells are formed. Mitosis happens in my toes.
Cells in reproductive organs divide by meiosis to form gametes.
A copy of each chromosome is made. The cell divides twice to form four gametes. Each gamete has a single set of chromosomes.
Found in human embryo and change into all different types of body cells. Found an adult bone marrow.
The cells of offspring are produced by asexual reproduction are produced by mitosis. They contain the same genes as a parent
Studied inheritance.He realised that some characteristics but dominant over others and never mixed together.
Chromosomes and genes hadn't been heard of or seen before.
People didn't accept the link between humans and plants.
An individual with two identical alleles for a characteristic
An individual with different alleles for characteristics
Describes the genetic make up of individual regarding the characteristic.
Describes the physical appearance of an individual regarding a particular characteristic e.g. dimples, no dimples.
Control the development of a characteristic even when they're only present on one of your chromosomes.
Only control the development of characteristics if they are present on both chromosomes.
When you have extra fingers or toes. Caused by a dominant allele
Organs become clogged up by the sticky mucus which stops working properly. Many people with cystic fibrosis also are infertile.
Antibiotics and physiotherapy are used to treat disease.
Caused by recessive allele you. Meaning children are born to parents who both don't have the disease. However they will be carriers
Remains of organisms from many thousands or millions of years ago that I found preserved in rocks and ice.
Formed from the hard parts of animals. E.g. bones teeth claws or shells
Other fossils are formed when an animal does not decay after it had died.
Conditions need for decay are oxygen bacteria and warm temperatures.
If there is too little oxygen poisonous gasses that kill bacteria or low temperatures the animal will not decay.
Preserve traces of organisms e.g. footprints or burrows.
Extinction is the permanent loss of all the members of the species
What causes extinction
Change of environment over geological time.
New or more successful competitors.
A single catastrophic event e.g. volcanic eruption.
The formation of a new species
How do new species arise
Isolation e.g. when two populations of species become separated geographically e.g. a river and after many generations each population of evolves genetic differences.
Natural selection - in each population the alleles that control characteristics which help an organism survive are selected. The individuals with the most beneficial alleles are more likely to survive. Therefore pass on their genes to the next generation.
A species only found in one place in the world e.g. one country.