69 terms

Phonetics: Chapter 4-6

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Vowels
phonemes that are produced without any appreciable constriction or blockage of air flow in the vocal tract
Tongue
primary articulator for vowels
Tongue height
refers to how high (or low) in the oral cavity the tongue is when producing a particular vowel
Tongue advancement
how far forward (or backward) in the mouth the tongue is when producing a particular word
Vowel Quadrilateral
a two-dimensional figure used to represent tongue advancement and height
Rounded
a rounded lip position during vowel production
Unrounded
an unrounded lip position during vowel production
Monophthongs
have one primary articulatory position in the vocal tract
Diphthongs
have two distinct articulatory positions
Onglide
the first element of a diphthong
Offglide
the second element of a diphthong
Point Vowels
vowels at the corner of the vowel quadrilateral
spectrogram
a graphic representation of the three major parameters that describe the acoustic characteristic of any sound, including speech sounds
Frequency
the number of cycles a vibrating body completes in one second
Intensity
the amplitude of energy associated with a particular sound
Decibels
measurement unit of intensity
Rhotic Diphthongs
speech sound consisting of a vowel and an /r/ sound
Consonant
a phoneme produced with a constriction in the vocal tract, shorter in duration than its opposition
Resonant Consonants
a class of sounds produced with resonance through the entire vocal tract, nasals, glides, liquids; produced with little constriction
Obstruent Consonants
a class of sounds including the stops, fricatives, and affricates; produced with constriction in the oral cavity
Prevocalic
consonants that occur before a vowel in any syllable
Postvocalic
consonants that occur after a vowel in any syllable
Intervocalic
consonants that are located between two vowels
Manner of production
the way in which the airstream is modified as it passes through the vocal tract
Place of Articulation
the place in the vocal tract where the constriction is located during the production of a particular consonant
Voicing
indicated whether or not the vocal folds are vibrating during the production of a particular consonant
Cognates
phonemes that differ only in voicing
stop
consonants that are produced by completely obstructing the airstream once it enters the oral cavity
intraoral pressure
air pressure within the oral cavity
Aspiration
frictional noise that occurs in some stops
Nasal plosion
the release of air through the nasal cavity
Homorganic
consonants that share the same place of articulation
Sibilants
most intense of all fricatives; /s, z, sh, 3/
Non-Sibilants
least intense fricatives; /th, th, f, v, h/
Fricatives
produced by forcing the breath stream through a narrow channel in the vocal tract
Affricates
manner of production involves a combination of the stop and fricative manners
Approximants
includes the glides and liquids
Liquid
the oral resonant consonants; /r/ and /l/
Glides
involve a gliding motion of the articulators in a manner similar to the production of a diphthong
retroflexed
articulation of the /r/ that involves raising the tip of the tongue and curling back toward the alveolar ridge
bunched
articulation of the /r/ that involves lowering the tip of the tongue and raising the blade of the tongue
Lateral Consonant
/l/, air flows over both sides of the tongue
Light /l/
raise tip of tongue near alveolar ridge, back of tongue is low
dark /l/
tongue tip may be raised or lowered; back of tongue raised toward palate/velum
Citation Form
when a word is pronounced carefully as a single item
Connected Speech
joining two or more words together in the creation of an utterance, more real-life speech
Coarticulation
the overlapping of the articulators during the production of speech
Assimilation
the process whereby phonemes take on the phonetic character of neighboring sounds
Regressive Assimilation
occurs when the identity of a phoneme is modified by a phoneme following it (right to left)
Progressive Assimilation
occurs when the identity of a phoneme is modified by a phoneme preceding it (left to right)
Elision
omission of a phoneme during speech production
Epenthesis
the addition of a phoneme to the production of a word
Metathesis
the transposition of sounds in a word
Vowel Reduction
the full form of a vowel reduced to a mid-central vowel (most commonly the schwa)
Suprasegmental Aspects of Speech
stress, timing, and intonation
Content Words
words that contain salient information in a sentence
Function Words
the less important words in a sentence; prepositions, articles, pronouns, conjunctions, etc.
Intonation
the modification of voice pitch
Intonational Phrase
made up of all changes in fundamental frequency spanning the length of a meaningful utterance
Tonic Syllable
the syllable that receives the greatest pitch change in any particular intonational phrase
Tonic Accent
the emphasis given to the tonic syllable
Falling intonation phrases
complete statements, commands, indicative of the finality of an utterance
Rising Intonational Phrases
typical of questions and incomplete thoughts, indicative of uncertainty
Rise-Fall Intonational Phrases
stressed syllable on final syllable, wh- questions, utterance expressing surprise
Tempo
the durational aspect of connected speech
Juncture
term used to indicate the way in which syllables and words are linked together in connected speech
External Juncture
term given to a pause that connects two intonational phrases
Open Internal Juncture
a pause between syllables (maked with +)
Close Internal Juncture
no pause between syllables, no symbols