The membranous compartmentalization of a cell___
allows different chemical conditions to be maintained in different parts of the cell.
If you were to add olive oil to your food as part of a diet to lower your risk of atherosclerotic disease, you would use olive oil that____
is liquid at room temperature.
The rough endoplasmic reticulum is considered to be in which general functional category of organelle?
Proteins differ from one another because____
the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide chain differs from protein to protein.
The hydrogen atoms of a water molecule are bonded to the oxygen atom by ________ bonds, whereas neighboring water molecules are held together by ________ bonds.
polar covalent . . . hydrogen
The oil and vinegar in your salad dressing remain separate from one another due to the _____ properties of the oil.
Which four elements are the primary components of important biological molecules, such as proteins, fats, and carbohydrates?
nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Two proteins have the same number and type of amino acids. How is it that they can have different shapes and therefore different functions?
The sequence and arrangement of the amino acids differs between the two proteins.
Which of the following structures is essential for the successful operation of the endomembrane system?
When full, the innermost electron shell of argon contains ________ electrons, and the outermost shell contains ________ electrons.
Besides water, most of the mass of a typical cell is present in the form of one of these four categories of macromolecules: _____.
proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids
Some athletes use anabolic steroids to build their body mass. Why is this considered a problematic practice, especially in adolescents?
Anabolic steroids can prevent bone growth.
Which of the following statements regarding triglyceride molecules is false?
Triglycerides are hydrophilic.
The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells defines
Which of the following statements regarding the Golgi apparatus is false?
The Golgi apparatus decreases in size when a cell increases its protein production.
Which of the following is dependent on the ability of water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with other molecules besides water?
the universality of water as a solvent.
Which of the following characteristics of protein will remain intact if the protein is denatured?
the number of amino acids in the protein
Which of the following statements about radioactive isotopes is true?
The energy emitted by radioactive isotopes can break chemical bonds and cause molecular damage in cells.
An uncharged atom of boron has an atomic number of 5 and an atomic mass of 11. How many electrons does boron have?
Dehydration reactions _____. They do so by _____.
link monomers to form a polymer ... removing a water molecule
In the equation 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O, the H2 molecules are ________ and the H2O molecules are ________.
reactants . . . products
A scanning electron microscope is used to study ________, whereas a transmission electron microscope is used to study ________.
cell surfaces . . . internal cell structures
Choose the pair of terms that completes this sentence: Hydroxyl is to _____ as _____ is to amine.
alcohol ... amino
donates H+ ions when conditions become too basic and accepts H+ ions when conditions become too acidic.
An element has 8 protons, 9 neutrons, and 8 electrons. Its atomic number and its mass number, respectively, are _____.
8 and 17
The sodium atom contains 11 electrons, 11 protons, and 12 neutrons. What is the mass number of sodium?
Which of the following statements best describes a compound?
A compound contains two or more different elements in a fixed ratio.
Which of the following hypotheses would be supported if liquid water were found on Mars and contained evidence of bacteria-like organisms?
The chemical evolution of life is possible.
The role of a control in an experiment is to
provide a basis of comparison to the experimental group.
A phospholipid is composed of
one glycerol molecule linked to one phosphate group and two fatty acids.
Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which of the following sequences correctly lists that hierarchy from least inclusive to most inclusive?
molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
There is an uncharged atom of oxygen (atomic number = 8) in the figure below. It has _____.
8 protons and 8 electrons
Unlike animal cells, plant cells have ________ and ________. Unlike plant cells, animal cells have ________.
chloroplasts . . . cell walls . . . centrioles
The maximum size of a cell is limited by _____.
its need for enough surface area to make exchanges with its environment
The most common form of calcium has 20 protons, 20 neutrons, and 20 electrons. Which of the following elements would be an isotope of calcium?
an atom with 20 protons, 21 neutrons, and 20 electrons
(Isotopes of an atom have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.)
The two domains of life that consist of prokaryotic organisms are _____ and _____.
Archaea ... Bacteria
Which of the following correctly matches an organelle with its function? The _____ functions in _____.
vacuole ... storage
Which is a typical function of lysosomes?
breaking down of damaged organelles, such as chloroplasts
(rarely found in plant cells)
A cell is exposed to a substance that prevents it from dividing. The cell becomes larger and larger. This situation
will eventually be problematic, since the cell's ability to absorb nutrients through its outer membrane will not keep increasing as quickly as its cytoplasmic needs.
DNA carries the instructions for building _____, and these instructions are found in informational units called _____.
polypeptides ... genes
Which of the following statements about the cytoskeleton is false?
Once laid down, the elements of the cytoskeleton are fixed and remain permanently in place.
Membrane proteins are synthesized by ribosomes that are attached to _____.
the endoplasmic reticulum