135 terms

Mexican Folk Music Final


Terms in this set (...)

Porfirio Diaz
President of Mexico After independence from 1876 to 1911. He vowed to bring order and stability and modernity to the nation. Music was one of the tools he used to accomplish the aims. The three centuries of rule under Diaz is known as "The Porfiriato."
Calderon de la Barca
Calderon de la Barca was a Spanish composer during the 17th century who was known to have written the first composition that geared the name "zarzuela." El Golfo de las Sirenas. Even during this time the compositions drew upon classical texts and responded to popular trends and fashions in Europe
Rafael Medina
Raphael Medina was a publisher and librettist to the popular Mexican Zarzuela Chin Chun Chan. He had written librettos for many other zarzuelas, of which were made in a short time. This illustrates the position of the zarzuela as timely entertainment to educate and rising middle-class audiences. He was known for his use of puns in the libretto.
Jose Elizondo
José Elizondo is the publisher and author of the famous zarzuela Chin Chun Chan. He along with Raphael Medina, were the co-founders of the Mexican Society of Authors of Mexican Theatre. This society helped distribute zarzuela tunes through cancioneras publications.
Luis G. Jorda
Luis G. Jorda was the musical composer for the zarzuela Chin Chun Chan. He was a Catalan musician, raised in Barcelona who moved to Mexico in 1890 and collaborated with Elizondo and Medina in making Chin Chun Chan.
Carlos Curti
Carlose Curti was one of the composers and members who formed the Orquesta Típica de Mexico in New York, with Miguel Lerdo de Tejada. He had enlisted musicians from the National Conservatory in order to establish the Orquesta for the New Orleans Cotton Exposition to represent Diaz.
Miguel Lerdo de Tejada
Miguel Lerdo de Tejada was a fellow composer to Carlos Curti who helped establish the Orquesta Típica de Mexico in New York for the New Orleans Cotton Exposition. He is also most well known for his 1900 composition "Perjura." He was the subsequent director of the Orquesta and performed at numbers world fairs. This some was later published in a 1938 film. It also has lyrics by Fernando Luna y Drusino set to a danza.
Juventino Rosas
Juventino Rosas was a composer who began as a musician on the streets of Mexico city. In 1888 he composed "Sobre las Olas" which came to represent the circus tents and coliseums.
Melisio Morales
Melisio Morales was one of the most distinguished Mexican composers. He is known for writing the opera Anita in the Italian style. He dedicated the opera to Diaz and had intended it to be performed on 1910, but was put on hold because of the Revolution. His opera was later revived in 2010 by Karl Belinghausen.
Manuel Ponce
Mauel Ponce is a famous Mexican composer who's works overshadowed the works of Carlos Curti, the director and co-founder of the Orquesta Típica de Mexico.
The zarzuela is a musical drama that incorporates Operatic songs and spoken dialogue. It was inspired by the comedia, a dramatic form combining poetry and prose in Spain. Calderón was the first known composer of zarzuelas. The form later came to Mexico and was a representation of popular culture and created entertainment for educated audiences and the growing middle class.
The chotis, Schottis, or Choté derives from the German word for Scottish and came for represent a quick duple meter dance form of the German and Bohemian round dances. It became part of ballroom dance repertory. The Scottische became Chotis in Spain. In Mexico, it became popular through the rule of Maximilian. It features a dotted rhythm and an emphasis on the two of the measure. The Chote is enjoyed in Mariachis música norteña music.
The Coplas are paired lines of verses that form the body of a Villancico. The refrains of the song are called Estribillos. Each line of verse customarily features eight or six syllables. These lengthy narrative of coplas are typical of Jácaras.
Orquesta típica
The Orquesta Típica de Mexico is a wind and string band that was formed in 1884 by Carlos Curtí and Miguel Lerdo de Tejada. The band was formed to represent Diaz at the New Orleans World Fair. The band later came to perform many different styles. This band maintained the status of the wealthy and urban middle-class contrasting with the conjunto music.
The pasodoble is a rhythm that was used in the tune "Monterrey Alegre" of the Orquesta Típica style. It is a 1,3,4 rhythm with an extended one count.
It typically refers to music for popular and folkloric dance. A twentieth century danza style emerged out of the Caribbean. This was a distinct blend between the European dance structures and the regional syncopation of the contradanzas and danza which represented the middle-class. The danza featured a cinquillo rhythm or eighth-sixteenth-eight-sixteenth-eight in one bar of 2/4.
Porfirismo is the term which refers to the time of rule from 1876 to 1910 of Porfirio Diaz. This time features great advancements in technology, economics, and art. This however, the advancements were exchanged for the burden and exploitation of the lower-class citizens.
Cuarta raíz
Cuarta Raíz is the term which refers to the fourth component of the Mestizo culture and racial mixture of Mexico. During the Porfirismo, trade, commerce and immigration with China rose and resulted in Mexico having the second largest population of Chinese immigrants in the world.
This form of literature was popular in Europe and inspired the zarzuelas during the early 17th century in Europe. This form is a dramatic communing of poetry and prose with musical interludes.
Clownish fellows or characters which were employed into the zarzuela Chin Chun Chan. These characters are used alongside many other characters in order to represent the urban tension between classes.
The cancioneraos were publications that were made by Medina, Jorda and Elizondo which were part of the Mexican Society of Authors of Music Theatre. These publications featured tunes from zarzuelas and further spread their musical popularity.
Trio Nava
Trio Nava is a band that performs a corrido in honor of the pre-revolutionary figure Heraclio Bernal (1921). Heraclio was a lower-class miner who was accused of theft and was put in jail. In 1885 he signed a proclamation denouncing the legitimacy of the presidency of Diaz. He was later arrested and executed in 1888.
Francisco Madero
Francisco Madero was the son of a wealthy land owner and protested against Diaz and created the Plan de San Luis Potosí and ran against Diaz in 1910. He was defeated and was jailed, but he later escaped and called for an uprising. Diaz was ousted, and Madero took the presidency in 1911. But he was later challenged deposed and assassinated by Victoriano Huerta in 1914.
Victoriano Huerta
Victoriano Huerta was a support of Porfirio Diaz in 1913 challenged and won the presidency from Francisco Madera. But in 1914, Venustiano Carranza rose to power and over threw Huerta.
Victoriano Carranza
Carranza was the succeeding ruler to Victoriano Huerta, who had won against Francisco Madera in 1913. He rose to power in 1914 and overthrew Huerta.
Manuel Camacho Regino Perez
Manuel Camacho and Regino Perez are two performers who played a corrido honoring the work and protest of Francisco Madera. Their corrido was recorded in 1930. In this recording, we hear a different type of corrido from the pre-revolutionary corrido, where there is a more elaborate accompaniment of the driving walking bass-line of the bajo sexto.
Pancho Villa
Pancho Villa is a historic Mexican revolutionary figure who supported Francisco Madera in his struggle to oust Diaz and take the seat as president. He was also a key figure in the battles against Pascual Orozco in Ciudad Juarez, and against the forces of Carranzas in Zacatecas. But his forces were later defeated by presidential challenger Álvaro Obregon at the battle of Celaya in 1915. He was later assassinated in 1923 by Obregón.
Los Cuatezones
Los Cuatezones is a Mexican band that performs the tune in honor of Pancho Villa entitled "Gral Francisco Villa" in 1965. In the song it use one of the most common phrases in order to describe Pancho Villa: With a pistol in his hand. Also the Carabina 30-30 is also reference in the song.
Los Lobos
Los Lobos is a Mexican-American band that performed the classic Mexican revolutionary corrido "Carabina Treinta-Treinta." Although the song directly talks about the revolution, Villa, and the Carabina 30-30, it also has significance during it performance in 1993. The ambiguous lyrics allow it to be used at that time for the political struggle of the Mexicans in the United States.
Trio Gonzalez
Trio Gonzalez is a Mexican band that performs the corrido honoring one of the famous women revolutionary figures named Adelita in their corrido entitled "La Adelita." In this tune recorded in 1919, the tune talks about the love and hypnotism that fighters had for this woman figure, but she is also described to be emotionless and strong.
Lydia Mendoza
A famous Mexican female performer, Lydia Mendoza, "Lark of the Border," performs another version of the corrido "Adelita." This tune shows the variance and vocal power of Lydia Mendoza, and how through her voice and skillful guitar playing and live performance where she takes requests reminds us of the documentation and reinterpretation of the corrido for different settings.
Sergei Eisenstein
Corridos Conjunto
Bajo Sexto
The Bajo Sexto is a guitar like instrument but features a large round body in order to produce the lower and booming sound. This is featured in the corrido of Manuel Camacho and Regino Perez, "Nuevo Corrido Madero."
Haciendas were the frontier lands that upper-class Spaniards owned during up until the early 20th century. Until then, lower-class Mexicans worked under the Hacendados doing slave-like labor
Golden age of the Corrido
The Golden age of the Corrido was during the Mexican revolution as Diaz was being overthrown and challenged by the lower class. During this era, the Corrido accompaniments were more elaborate with the walking bass of the Bajo-Sexto. This is exemplified in the corrido, "Nuevo Corrido Madero," performed by Manuel Camacho and Regino Perez in 1930.
Button accordion
An interesting addition to the Mexican rack of instruments was the Button Accordion from the Germans in Texas, in the Southern United States. This instrument is featured in the Corrido "Gral Francisco Villa" performed by Los Cuatezones in 1965. At this time the instrument had come into the hands of Mexicans and was being played in bands.
The Despedida is a part of corrido in which the performer of the corrido gives a farewell to the audience. This typically paired along a introduction and with the narrative poetic form of the Corrido.
Carlos Monsivais
Carlos Monsivais is a legendary Mexican music critic and journalist had stated that the radio "created the Mexican housewife," during the 1930s, when music seemed to be performed just for the housewife and were short and romantic.
Augustín Lara
Augustín Lara is a famous film and radio star during the 1930s. He was famous for his romantic boleros, one specifically featured in the film Santa is "Santa," composed and performed by Lara. He creates several different sections with harmony and meter. He was also known as a traveler and the Gershwin of Mexico with his Cancionero Mexicano compared to the American Popular Song Book.
Tito Guízar
Tito Guízar was a famous film and music star from his popular "Alla en el Rancho Grande" tune performed in 1936 in a film by Fernando de Fuentes. He paved a way for the Comedies Rancheras with his elegant power, but Negrete was to take away the real fame of the ranchero image.
Plutarco Calles
Plutarco Calles was the president during the 1930s and had restructured the Mexican government. He founded the PNR political party which lasted for 70 years and was focused on integrate laborers, women and indigenous peoples into the prosperous nation. He also enforced land redistribution which led up to the demise of the haciendas.
Jorge Negrete
Jorge Negrete was a famous actor and singer whose operatic voice set him apart from Tito and others. He was described as a cross between a fighting rooster and a peacock. He later became the icon of mariachi. He is featured singing Tito's popular song "Allá en el Rancho Grande," and stole his fame.
Emilio "El Indio" Fernandez
During the era of reform which began with Plutarco Calles, film director Emilio "El Indio" Fernadez portrayed the double consciousness of the nation and is revered in the golden era of cinema. His famous film's Flor Silvestre, and El Salon Mexico, both illustrate the juxtaposition of rural ideal life and the change social values.
Lucha Reyes
Lucha Reyes is one of Mexico's first women of song. One her famous songs from the 1943 Flor Silvestre, "El Herradero." The lyrics emphasize the tensions between co-existing classes of the urbanites and traditional Herraderos and Chinas Polanas.
Trio Calaveras
Trio Calaveras is a Trio performance band that began in film with Las Tres Milpas but eventually shifted and lost its original members. However the Trio is continued even today with different performers. This group sang in the campirano (country style), in a smooth and polished manner. They are featured performing two songs "Flor Silvestre" a bolero love song, and "El Hijo Desobediente," a revolutionary corrido.
Antonio Aguilar
A famous performer of the recorded "El Hijo Desobediente," which was popularized by Trio Calaveras, was Antonio Aguilar. He performed in numerous Mariachis, all around the world, specifically in Mexico and Columbia.
Acerina y su Danzonera
Acerina y su Danzonera was the Danzón orchestra under Consejo Valiente Robles that performed Las Nereidas (Sea Nymphs). Acerina, the band leader, grew up in Cuba where he had a deep fascination with the rhythm of the danzon. At 14 he moved to Veracruz, where he performed with the Orchestra Tiburcio Hernadez "Babuco." Nereidas was by Mexican composer Amador Perez Torres.
Carlos Campos
Carlos Campos is the band leader of the performing group who played "Danzón Juárez." This Danzón was composed by Mexican Esteban Alfonso. This song is also featured in Fernadez's film El Salon Mexico (1948). These songs underly the adoption of the Cuban dance genre.
Arturo Marquez
Arturo Marquez is the composer of the set of Danzones entitled "Listening to Danzón." The Mexican composer was inspired to compose his "Listening to Danzón No. 2. when he went on a trip to Malinalco and Veracruz where he experienced the rhythms and emotions of the Salones and the Danzones. The performance is on a 1993 of the OFUM.
Carlos Hernandez & Los Trovadores
Carlos Hernadez and Los Trovadores are the performers of the song Besame Mucho.
Carlos Chavez
Carlos Chavez is noted in chapter 9 to have influenced the American composer Aaron Copland to compose the El Salon Mexico, when he was taken by Chavez in 1932.
Placido Domingo
Placido Domingo is the performer of the tune Jurame by Maria Grever. This piano Bolero is a modern example of the classic Romantic bolero ballad that was performed during the 1930s.
Grupo Sparx
Alongside the popular performance of "El Herrado" by Lucha Reyes, a new interpretation was released by the Mexican-American Quartet of women known as Sparx or Grupo Sparx.
The Campirano is a country style for which Trio Calaveras became famous. This campirano style was a smooth, polished and genteel style which contrasted with Negrete's bravo style.
The Bravo Style was a style that was used by Jorge Negrete, and led to his image of a Fighting rooster and peacock.
The final section of a danzón is often a montuno, or a moutain, which is faster, and a basher improvised feel. In the classic Danzón structure is designed to optimize variety and familiarity in a prolonged format for dancers, this is often accomplished by the used of a alternating refrain or (estribillo).
The Bolero is a musical form that arrived to Mexico from Cuba as early as 1908. In the 1920s it was celebrated by Guty Cardenas. Augustín Lara is the renowned master of the Mexican Bolero. It is characterized by a 1,3,4 pattern in the bass and a up rhythm by the treble.
The ranchera is a musical styles that has come to represent the cowboy. It features a oomp-pah accompaniment performed in a lively or duple meter or slow triple meter. This was popularized through Tito and Negrete with the beginning of "Allá en El Rancho Grande." The Charro Cantante sings a common strophic verse-chorus.
The danzón was a Cuban or creole Cuban dance rhythm that was brought over to Mexico. The Danzón structure is designed to optimize variety and familiarity in a prolonged format for the dancer. This structure involves the use of an alternating refrain (estribillo) with contrasting melodies in sections. The last section of the danzón is a montuno (mountain) with faster, brasher section.
Two years after the first radio station began in 1923, radionovelas (radio soap operas) were created with educational broadcasts. These radionovelas were part of the creation of the Mexican Housewife during the 1930s.
The compositor-canante is the image of the singer which is emphasized or created by a performer.
El Partido Nacional Revolucionario
The Partido Nacional Revolucionario was a party that was established by Plutarco Calles during the 1930s. It dominated for nearly 70 years as is known to have influenced the spreading of wealth to the lower-class citizens of Mexico.
China Poblanas
Chinas Poblanas refers to a traditional Mexican woman who wears the traditional attire which was popularized during the 19th century during the protest for independence. This outfit features a scarf, white blouse and colorful skirt.
Cancionero Mexicano
The Cancionera Mexicano is the Mexican form of the American Popular Song Book, formed by the influence of Augustín Lara.
Natividad "Nati" Cano
Nati Cano is a Mexican musician who has played in numerous mariachi groups such as Los Mensajeros, Mexican Chapala, Mariachi Aguilla, and Mariachi Camperos from the 1950s to the 1970s. He is known to have opened the music creativity of Mariachi music when he created the La Fonda in 1969, by setting guidelines for the Mariachi to perform for everyone in La Fonda.
Leonor Perez
Leonor Perez is a female Mexican-American Violinist who grew up in East Los Angeles. She remarks on the amount of poverty and pain that Mexicans experienced in East L.A. but they were unified and able to vent their strong emotions through the music of Mariachi. In an interview, she also remarks as the to multidimensional characteristics of music and how it can represent or signify different things depending on the context and people.
Jose Hernandez
Jose Hernandez, like Leonor Perez, grew up in East L.A. and is the director of the famous Sol de México. He was also part of the Mariachi Chapalas with Nati Cano in the 1950s. His music has tested the boundaries and limits of Mariachi Music by collaborated with popular artists such as the Beach Boys, and Glenn Miller. While maintaining that the tradition can change and is part of the music.
Linda Ronstadt
Linda Ronstadt is a Mexican Mariachi singer who was known to have popularized the Mariachi and Mariachi Ranchera genre. Her national tour and album in 1987 was noted to have made Mariachi music cool. She had also popularized the music by performing on radio and television on venues such as Saturday Night Live and David Letterman. She also performs the song "La Charreada" which talks about the charro and Mexican identity in the Mariachi Ranchera form.
The Mariachi which was originally a regional form of music dedicated to Urban listeners who romanticized the country, later represented Mexico, even later, it came to represent Mexican-Americans and Latin Americans. Although, the genre does maintain traditions that are contested such as the role of the woman in Mariachi. Even 25 years after some of the original female performers, it still remains a novelty. The genre is also molded around economic factors with certain venues offering certain restrictions and opportunities.
This Mariachi band, in some cases must play what the audience requests, in order to appease the listeners, they must quickly improvise certain styles in order to put out. For certain styles, different adornos or endings are used for a certain style. The original Carribean Bolero must conform to the style.
Musica Ranchera
Musica Ranchera was made popular through film and radio. Film stars such as Pedro Infanted, Jorge Negrete, Tito Guizar, and Lucha Reyes were vital to the forms popularity and its places as a national identity. Later in the Mariachi History during the 1980s, a female performer, Linda Ronstadt, created a new and popular interpretation of the classic Musica Ranchera.
Al Talón
Al Talón is a venue for Mariachi Musicians where they would move from table to table and take requests from buyers and establish a set price for a song. This possibly the most brutal venue and testing on musicians due to its "Buy and Sell" mentality and its catering to the audience for money. So Mariachi performers have to be quick to respond to audiences. This venue however offers little artistic creativity since the venues is catered to the buyer.
La Fonda
La Fonda was a Mariachi dinner theatre establishment that was founded in 1969 by Nati Cano in order to promote is ideal of Mariachi music and performance. The restaurant was established in Los Angeles and was designed to cater to the creativity of the Mariachi Musicians and perform to everyone rather than an individual buyer. This paved the way for many other developments and practices.
Chambas is less stressful venue compared to Al Talón, since they are paid by the hour and are offered more artistic freedom. The host would hire a band from La Plaza Garibaldi for weddings, birthdays, baptism and even funerals. They do however pay attention to their audience, but they are able to perform with some of their own.
The Serenata is a specific form or subdivision of the Chamba venue. This is half-hourly paid venue where a man would hire a band to serenade and impress a girl or give a surprise for mom on Mother's Day. The fee is typically more expensive than the hourly Chamba venues, but has remained a Mexican tradition and has even spread to Guatemala, El Salvador, Venezuela, Columbia, and Bolivia.
The Plantas are regular gigs that are set up by a certain establishment such as a restaurant, theatre or hotel. There are arrangements with a specific Mariachi group to perform for a certain time through certain days. It pays the most generously and offers a strong stability for a Mariachi band. This venue allows the most musical creativity, by allowing musicians to expand their skill and arrangements. These performers many stand in one spot or move around and perform.
The Mariachada is the social group and brotherhood of a Mariachi band. The Mariachada refers to the mutual dependency of each member upon one another in order to establish networks for costumes, or gigs. They also share comradery by giving each other apodos or nicknames and telling charras to pass the time will they wait to be picked up by certain paying customers. When they do, they use unique lingo or signs in order to communicate with members.
Josh Kun
Josh Kun is a journalist who has discussed and written about the growing popular Mexican American Music along the US-Mexican Border. He is noted to have conducted an interview with member of the Norteño banda, Los Tigres del Norte, Jorge Hernandez.
Jorge Hernandez
Jorge Hernandez is one of three brothers who form the band Los Tigres del Norte. They are a Norteño Banda credited for having popularized the Narco Corrido genre with their tune 1971 "Contrabando y Traición." They are also noted to compose and performs song that tell stories which the audience and community. They perform different forms of songs. They were known to have received the name from a Customs agent along the US-Mexican border. They are also known for using fashion as a tool for representing identity in their group. We hear them perform with Juanes in 2011 at the Palladium in LA, of "La Juala de Oro."
Los Tigres Del Norte
Los Tigres del Norte is a Norteño Banda from Sinaloa in the small ranching town of Rosa Modara. They were known to have left Sinaloa at 16 and began performing in the United States. They became popular for their Narco Corrido "Contrabando y Traición," their narrative and story driven corrodes, and their involvement of border and immigrant issues. Their first performance was at the Prison in Soledad, California.
Banda el Recodo
Banda el Recodo is noted as the Banda Sinaloense for popularizing the Banda form in the Southwest. It was started by Clarinetist Cruz Lizárraga in the small village of Recodo near Mazatlan, in Sinaloa. The band began in 1951 when he received instruments from the president for playing his clarinet well. The band includes two clarinets, two trumpets, two trombones with a bass and a snare. We hear them perform two songs "Caballo Bayo," which shows their approach to ranchera by including alternating A and B sections and the other "Te Queiro Morir," in 2011 with their incorporation of vocals and emphasis on dance.
Fito de la Parra
Fito de la Parra is most well known for being the drummer to the American Blues and Rock band Canned Heat. The band was known for being involved in the Mexican Rock Revolution scene and having played in some of the Hoyos Funkies. Parra was also noted to have performed in bands such as Los Sparkos, Los Sinners, Los Hooligans, and with Javier Batiz's.
Santiago Jimenez
Santiago Jimenez is a early Conjunto accordionist who was professional at age eight with his father Patricio Jimenez. He is first started out on the two row accordion in Dallas Texas, but he later returned to San Antonio and recorded with his son Flaco Jimenez. He is heard playing the tune "Flor Marchita," in 1937 recording which employs a chotis rhythm. The tune is also very predictable in structure.
Flaco Jimenez
Flaco Jimenez expanded the Texas Mexican Conjunto style of Narcisco Martinez by connecting it with popular music of the 1950s. He developed a virtuoso style of playing that made him a legend. He performed in his father's band Los Corporates at the age of 7. He later moved to New York where he recorded with Bob Dylan and later received several Grammies. He performs "Marina" which shows his virtuosic technique by inserting decorative interludes. With Emmy Lou Harris in "West Texas Waltz," he demonstrates the county and Conjunto blend.
Lydia Mendoza
Lydia Mendoza is a female Mexican Tejano, Corrido and Conjunto performer. Her songs have and singing has paved a new identity for the woman performer, by breaking gender restrictions and identified with the Mexican immigrants and working-class citizens in the Texas and along the US-Mexican border. She is known as the "Lark of the Border." She is heard performing ranchero "Pajarito Prisonario," in 1986 in a concert in Santa Barbara and Tango tune "Mal Hombre," recorded in 1934 which started her tour career.
Chalino Sanchez
Chalino Sanchez is an example of the Narco Corrido movement. He is heard performing the Narco Corrido "Los Sinaloanses."
Banda Arkangel
Banda Arkangel R-15 is an early pioneering band of the Quebradita style which became popular in Southwestern states and especially in California. The band is heard performing the tune "De Donde Es La Quebradita." This 1993 tune makes it clear that the quebradita is not necessarily from any one state, but is from all different states who engage in the Quebradita dance.
Proyecto Akwid
Proyecto Akwid is an Urban Regional style rap band that performs the tune "No Hay Manera."
Banda Machos
Banda Machos is a early pioneering band of the quebradita craze during the early 1990s. They are heard performing the tune "Sangre de Indio."
Bostich is a in-between band or group that has established itself between the music traditions of the Norteño genre and style and the Technobanda. The band responded against the mainstream cultures of both the Americas and Mexico by producing an indistiguisable style known as Nor-Tec. From Tijuano they produce music that resonates and symbolizes the daily events in the city of Tijuana. We hear them perform the 1990 tune, "Polaris" as part of the Nor-Tec collective in which they use Ostinati (repeating patterns).
Montex de Durango
Montex de Durango was the pioneer and craze establishing band from Southern Chicago, that made the Duranguense genre popular. Although, the genre has some relations to the Durango through immigrants, it has become a genre that represent a broader international community in Chicago and in the Midwest.
TechnoCumbia Tribal
TechnoCumbia Tribal is a Technobanda group that is heard performing the tune "Intentalo." Their music illustrates the youth community that the genre reaches.
Narciso Martinez
Narcisco Martinez is a classic Texas Mexican Conjunto performer in who was famous for his unique accordion playing. Narcisco developed a technique of playing where he dropped the left-hand bass chords and focused on elaborating the right-hand melody lines. He left the bass line to his Bajo Sexto player Santiago Almeida. He is heard performing the tune "El Huracan de Valle."
The pasito is a dance style that originated alongside the Duranguense form in Chicago. It grew out of the quebradita dance style and had come to establish an style of dress alongside it.
Musical identity Audiotopia
Josh Kun, in his book Audiotopia, insists that America is not a single chorus of many voices folded into one, but rather various republics of sound that represent multiple stories of racial and ethnic difference.
Duranguense is a similar genre to quebradita, but it has it's connection with the state of Durango, and has come to signify a broad community in Chicago and the Midwest. The genre was known to have come into their consciousness audiences when the Famous Grupo Montez de Durango released their eighth able in 2003 entitle De Durango a Chicago. The sound which is Mexican in its roots is claimed to not entirely be taken from any one place of origin, featuring the electronic arrangements of Technobanda, elements of Norteño, and the Quebradita. The genre is self-consciously artificial with its electronic note bends and has been compared to Circus music.
The Cumbia is a style of music the originated in the Caribbean coastal region of Columbia but was brought to Mexico City. The style experienced some recognition but the local groups later moved northward and became part of the deejays mainstay during the 1950s. This influence the banda style and help create the Quebradita form that became popular during the early 90s.
Norteño is a mexican style of music that is associated with the instrumentation of an accordion, bajo sexto, guitar and the percussion or drums. One this genre is popular in the Northern states of Mexico along the US-Mexican border. One of the famous bands of the Norteño style is Los Tigres del Norte.
Banda Quebradita
Banda Quebradita is a dance music that orginitated out of the Banda tradition in the North and with influences of the Cumbia and technobanda. These songs are often times simple in melodies and lyrics but places much of its emphasis in the rhythmic patterns that make the genre excellent for dancing. It is also distinguished as a fast cumbia.
Banda Sinaloense
Banda Sinaloense is the traditional banda form that was rooted on the Pacific Coastal state of Sinaloa the arrangements including woodwinds, brass and percussion. These bands were different than the formal military wind bands by being composed of amateur musicians One of the most famous Sinaloense Banda is the Banda El Recodo. These were particularly large groups since the instrumentations and arrangements called for larger numbers in the bandas.
Techno Banda
The Techno Banda is a branch and alternative of the Banda Sinaloense is or banda. This form of the banda is typically smaller since the numerous instruments could be simulated by the newly introduced synthesizers. These bands typically attempted to remake or recreate the traditional Bandas through the electronic instruments.
The waila or Chicken scratch is a form or offshoot of the Norteño style that was part of social dance of the Tohono O'odham that began in the 1880s. These were polkas but Wailas to the O'odham. The songs such as "Dream Cloud Chote" and "First Stop Waila" are typical styles which do not have singing and the instruments are played less ornately.
Gloria Rios
Gloria Rios was the earliest stars of the Rocanrol on television. She was known as La Reina del Rocanrol (Queen of RocknRoll). Her simple lyrics in "Mecedora" Rocker Girl illustrates the playful attitude that dominated this early style of dance. But she was quickly overthrown by male performers.
El Tri
El Tri or originally Three Souls in My Mind is known to be like the Rolling Stones of Mexico. The band was founded in 1968 by guitars Alex Lara. One of their songs, "Abuso De Autoridad" illustrates some of the tensions between the counterculture and the authorities. During the late 1960s.
Javier Batiz
Javier Batiz is the most important early Mexican Rock figures. Born in 1944 in Tijuana, he formed his first rock group in 1957 called the TJs and developed a blues sound that contrasted to the popular bandstand sound. His gritty and blue sounds were one side, but the other he showed the softer side. He was known to have influence guitarst Carlos Santana. His fame in the rock movement also established him as a major figure in La Onda Chicana (Chicano Wave). The songs that illustrate this double image are "Hard Life" and "Si Estuvieras Aqui."
Maldita Vencindad
Maldita Vencindad y Los Hijos del Quinto Patio is an rock group in 1985. This rock band pioneered new approaches to Rock en Español. They blended styles including ska, heavy metal, and traditional Mexican music. These new rock musicians typically dressed in long coats and wore pork pie hats. This band along with others drove the Latin Marketing of Rock en Tu Idioma. The band is heard performing "Kumbala."
Café Tacuba
Café Tacuba was another mid-eighties rock band that helped blend the styles of ska, heavy metal, and traditional Mexican Music and pioneered approaches to Rock en Español. They performed the song "El Fin de La Infancia."
Los Locos del Ritmo
Los Locos del Ritmo were an classic Rock band during the 1950s who won a contest in the US and came back to Mexico and were widely popular for their interpretations of American early Rock tunes. Their tune "No Soy Rebeldes," is an example of their early rock sound that mimicked tunes of Elvis Presley.
The Jaguares is a mid-90s rock band that was found by Saul Hernandez. He was the co-founder of the 1987 band Caifanes, but left the band after a dream he had of himself singing in a Jaguars mouth. He was known to have been something of a magician or spiritual leader who connected his listeners to the spiritual worlds of power. His song "Las Ratas No Tienen Alas," the rats don't have wings explains the concept that the authority figures will never fly and soar like the counterculture figures do.
Amparo Ochoa
Amparo Ochoa is the leader of the Nuevo Cancion movement that surge in South America in protest of political inadequacies. The movement gain international prominence in the 1970s with Amparo Ochoa in the social protests in Chile and Argentina.
Guiomar Palomar
Ana Sidel
Ana Sidel is a singer and journalist born in Mexico City in the late 1970s. She became popular as she became the lead singer of El Tri after her original positions in Armando Molino and La Maquina del Sonido. In 2008 she profiled the film The History of Rock and Roll in Mexico, produced by Lance Miccio and Fito de La Parra.
Nueva Canción
The Nueva Canción is a socially conciousn-performance movement of folk song. This was a pan-latin American approach to folk song and was important to social protests in Chile and Argentina then later across the Americas. At points the countercultural political views and protests of the rock musicians and folk artist overlapped.
Rocanrol Refritos
Rocanrol Refritos or Refried RocknRoll were cover of hits songs in Spanish the were released by CBS as entire families listened to the hip new style of music. Direct translations of RocknRoll tunes were also known as Fusiles.
Plaza de las Tres Culturas
The Plaza de las Tres Culturas is the place were the 5000 protestors were fired at. These protestors were argued that the resources of the Olympic Games in 1968 could be more effectively used in order to alleviate poverty. The riot led to 48 listed deaths but the number reached closer to 300.
Tareadas Cafes a Gogo
The Tareadas were afternoon gatherings for rock fans at the Cafes a Gogo. These youth gathering which centered around the music of rocanroll in Mexico were imposing on the family gathering and community activities. These gatherings would pull children form participating in seasonal music events, such as fiestas patron ales or the annual posadas.
The Posadas is a Christmas tradition of song and pageantry recalling Joseph and Mary's search for lodging and the birth of the intact Jesus.
La Onda Chicana
This was the rock counterculture that peaked in 1971 at the Avadaro festival, where 200,000 youths from across the country came to participate in a two days of music and freedom. This movement was during the 1960s as Mexico began creating its own countercultural movement.
This is the subversion of social boundaries of propriety.
Hoyos Funquis
The Hoyos Funquis (Funky Holes) were underground temporary Rock venues. These Hoyos Funquis were populated with lower-class rock fans due to the economic recession during the 1970s. These sites of abandoned buildings were situated in some of the poorest neighborhoods in Mexico city.
Silvestre Revueltas
Revueltas was involved early on in the educational reforms of the 1930s and SEP as he directed the National Conservatory. He wrote the famous 1936 Puppet Theatre composition: El Renacuajo Paseador: Traveling based on folkloric or popular musical selections such as "La Bamba" or "El Jarabe Tapatío." The Composition was also based around the poem by Colubian author Álvaro Pombo which warns children of the dangers of drinking and dancing and not listening to parents. The scores also used for a ballet.
Pablo Moncayo
Moncayo began his studies with Carlos Chavez in the National Conservatory in Mexico City. He later became invalid in the "group of four" composers who helped contribute to the foundations of Nationalistic compositions. Chavez encouraged the group to conduct field collections and from his collections of tunes from Veracruz he compose Huapango in 1941. It was performed in 1941 by OSM in New York City and featured references to sones "El Siquisiri" and "El Balajú." He was also known for his other pieces of works.
Manuel Enriquez
Manuel Enriquez was the son of a Musican and carried on the tradition by studying in Guadalajara at the Conservatorio de Rosas in Morelio and then at the Juliard school were he was introduced to many influential music scholars and teachers. While in New York, he became interested in the Expressionist approach and experimented with Electronic composition at the Center of Electronic Music at Columbia. He later moved to Europe under promotion by the Mexican Government to promote Mexican Music. As a result he gave recitals and letters and later returned and taught at the National Conservatory and directed. He was most important in the Avant Garde music of Mexico. He famous 1973 Ritual illustrates his experimental techniques and employs a free technique of performance.
Mario Lavista
Mario Lavista is considered on e of the most important proponents of contemporary Mexican Music. Having studied with Carlos Chavez at the Conservatory, he also studied in France. He later experimented with performance through his Ensemble called Quanta and established a music critics journal called Pauta. He described his 1991 composition Clepsidra as the ancient water clocks of time. It was also created to celebrate his 60th birthday.
Marcela Rodriguez
Marcela Rodrigues is a prominent femal composer who was born in Mexico city in 1951. She studied under Cuban composer Brouwer and Lazano and Estrada. She began composing works for solo instruments and voice, but also orchestra and chamber ensembles. Since 1979 she's favored the theatrical elements. Illustrated in her composition Funesta which is a six song chamber orchestra piece dedicated to Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz texts
Sor Juana
Sor Juana was a genius nun who live during the 17th century and composed poems, plays and music. She also wrote a celebrated defense of the right of women to an education. Her texts are used in Marcela Rodriguez's piece Funesta
This is a type of structured change form of music in which Manuel Enriquez wrote his 1973 piece ritual. This piece allowed freedom of the performers with certain restrictions given by the director.
Symphonic Orchestra
The Symphonic Orchestra was established in Mexico in 1928. This meant a great deal to the nation. It place the nation in the international exchange of music. It also served as a promotional tool for presenting large scale compositions to public. It also provided employment and education support.
Dynamic Contrast
The Dynamic contrast is the use of musical elements in order to instill and sense of change and fluctuation to a piece.
Nationalism was not only growing under the direction of Carlos Chavez in the 1930s but also by other European and American Composers during the time. This Nationalistic movement inspired composers to draw from folk tunes and music that represented Nations.
During the 1930s as reforms were established in order to promote literacy and social and family values through art and Puppetry. The Ministry o f Fine Arts established the Teatro Guiñol de Bellas Artes puppet theatre under (Mexico's Ministry of Public Education.) This ministry is given the acronym of SEP.
Alto Sacramentales
The Alto Sacramentales were morality plays or dramatic plays that were performed during the 17th century. The composition by Marcela Rodriguez draws from this dramatic form in order to convey the anguish of the main character as she
Steel drum
In the piece by Marcela Rodriguez, she employs the use of a steel drum. This instrument is typically found in Carribean music, not necessarily in classical genre, but she used the drum in order to represent the toll of the bells in a monastery.
Teatro Guiñol
The Teatro Guiñol was established in 1932 as a collection of artists, intellectuals, writers and bohemians inspired by socialist aims of the Russian revolution. They hoped their dramas would nourish the youth of the new nation by promoting anti-alcoholism, literacy, political engagement, aesthetic appreciation and a sense of class consciousness, and a desire to promote equity. In 1933 the theatre was sponsored by SEP in order to give tours of the puppet shows.