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91 terms

Science Ch. 6 (9th Grade)

STUDY
PLAY
Refrigerators and air conditioners are examples of _________.
heat movers
Wind and ocean currents are formed by _______.
convection
A material that reduces the flow of heat by conduction, convection, and radiation is a(n) ___________.
insulator
All the following are good conductors of heat EXCEPT ________.
silver, copper, aluminum, and air
air
Of the following, insulation that is most resistant to heat flow is rated ________.
R-40, R-20, R-10, and R-1
R-40
The process by which engine fuels burn is ________.
combustion
Through which of the following will convection most likely occur?
solids and liquids, solids and gases, solids, and liquids and gases
liquids and gases
Gasoline and diesel engines are _______.
internal combustion engines
The transfer of energy that does not require matter is _________.
radiation
Solar collectors are parts of ________.
active solar heating systems
Energy from the sun travels to Earth as ________.
radiant energy
Of the following, the best insulator would be _________.
silver, copper, air, and iron
air
A device that heats your home by transferring thermal energy from a region of low temperature to a region at a higher temperature is a __________.
heat mover
A device that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy is a ________.
heat engine
The effectiveness of insulation is rated with a(n) __________.
R-value
The inside surfaces of the glass inside vacuum bottles are coated with aluminum to prevent heat loss by ___________.
radiation
Compared to the efficiency of a gasoline engine, a diesel engine is ________.
twice as efficient
Temperature measures the ________ of the particles of a material.
kinetic energy
Two equal masses of two different kinds of matter __________.
probably have different thermal energy
The specific heat of an object depends on its _________.
chemical makeup
Compare and contrast heat and temperature.
Temperature is the measure of kinetic energy. Heat is kinetic and potential energy.
How does thermal energy relate to heat?
heat is thermal energy that flows from higher temperature to lower temperature.
Water has very high specific heat. Why does this make it a very good substance for use in cooling systems of automobiles?
takes a long time to get hot.
A well-insulated house should have insulation with an R-value of at least R-19 in the walls and an R-value or R-30 to R-44 in the ceilings. Why is a higher R-value needed in the ceilings?
cause heat rises.
Why do the pipes in a steam-heating system need to be insulated?
so it doesn't loose heat.
What is the equation for measuring the change in thermal energy?
Q=m (delta T) C
fan moves warm air
forced air
a pump circulates a liquid to a radiator
hot water
large windows on south side of building
passive solar
hot vapor is forced through radiators
steam
large tank for storing water heated by the sun
active solar
gives uniform warmth
electrical
If particles move _______ the object's temperature falls.
slowly
Conduction can take place in solids, liquids, and _______.
gases
Thermal energy includes both kinetic and ___________ energy.
potential
Any material that can flow is a _______.
fluid
Any material that allows heat to pass through it easily is a __________.
conductor
Materials with a high specific heat can absorb heat without a large ___________ in temperature.
change
Radiation is the transfer of energy in the form of ________.
waves
When an objects increases in temperature it __________ thermal energy
gains
Many conductors, such as silver and copper, are _______.
metals
Energy travels by radiation is often called _________ ________.
radiant energy
Insulators, such as wood and air, are poor conductors of _______.
heat
The transfer of thermal energy by convection and conduction both require _________.
matter
Using solar energy is especially appealing because it is __________.
free
Most _________ ________ use fuel or electricity as a source of energy.
heating systems
A house with large windows on its south side and few windows on its other sides probably uses a(n) ____________ solar heating system.
passive
Solar collectors are used in buildings that have _________ solar heating systems.
active
Fuel burned un a stove or fireplace transfers thermal energy to the surrounding air by __________, convection, and radiation.
conduction
Before solar energy can be used as a source of heat, it must be changed to _______ ________.
thermal energy
_________ means rapid burning.
combustion
A two-way heat mover is a _______ ________.
heat pump
A ________ is the movement of a piston up or down.
stroke
___________- related to the average kinetic of an object's atoms or molecules.
temperature
________- the sum of the kinetic and potential energy of all the atoms in an object.
thermal energy
Thermal energy ____________ as temperature increases.
increases
At constant temperature, thermal energy increases if __________ increases.
temperature
Thermal energy that flows from something at a lower temperature is called _______.
heat
______- amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a material b 1 degree C or K.
specific
Changes in thermal energy can be calculated as change in thermal energy equals _______ times change in temperature times specific heat.
mass
When heat flows into an object and its temperature rises, the change in temperature is ____________.
positive
When heat flood out of an object and its temperature decreases, the change in temperature is _______.
negative
A _________ is used to measure specific heat.
calorimeter
___________- transfer of thermal energy through matter by direct contact of particles.
conduction
Kinetic energy is transferred as particles ______.
collide
__________, particularly metals, are good heat conductors.
solids
The transfer of energy by the motion of heated particles in fluid is called _______.
convection
Convection _________ transfer heat from warmer to cooler parts of a fluid.
currents
Convection currents create __________ and ____________ over different regions of Earth.
rain forests and deserts
_________- energy transfer by electromagnetic waves.
radiation
Some radiation is _________ and some is ________ when it strikes a material.
absorbed and reflected
Heat transfer by radiation is ________ in a gas than in a liquid or solid.
faster
Most living things control the flow of heat by using special features such as fur, ______, or scales.
fat
__________- material that does not let heat flow through it easily.
insulator
Gases such as _________ usually make better insulators than liquids or solids.
air
A __________ layer in a thermos is a good insulator because it contains almost no matter to allow conduction or convection to occur.
glass
_______ systems- warm homes and buildings.
heating
________ system - fuel heats air, which is blown through ducts and vents; cool air is returned to the furnace to be reheated.
forced air
________ system - hot water or steam in a radiator transfers thermal energy to the air.
radiator
________ heating system - electrically heated coils in ceilings or floors heat sir by conduction.
electric
_______- energy from the sun.
solar
_________ solar heating does not use mechanical devices to move heat.
passive
Active heating systems use ____________ to absurd radiant energy, which is circulated through the building.
solar collectors
____________ - an engine that converts thermal energy into mechanical energy.
heat engine
An _____________ engine burns fuel inside the engine in chambers or cylinders.
internal combustion
internal combustion engines convert only about _____% of the fuels chemical energy to mechanical energy.
25
________- device that removes thermal energy from one location and transfers it to another location at a different temperature.
heat mover
A __________ contains a coolant that absorbs heat from the inside of the refrigerator and releases it one the outside as heat.
refrigerator
___________ cool warm air.
heat pump
_________ can both cool and warm air.
air conductor
The human body stays cool by ___________ of sweat.
evaporation