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145 terms

Micro Final DSC

final notecards for micro
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Antoni van Leuuwenhoek was the first person in history to.....
view protozoa and bacteria
Semmelweiss advocated handwashing as a method of preventing which of the following diseases
puerperal fever
which scientists performed the same experiment concerning spontatneous generation but with opposite results
needham and spallanzani
all of the following are aspects of pasteurs experiments to disprove spontaneous generation except
the flasks were free of microbes until they were opened

the flasks were incubated for very long periods of time

the necks of the flask he used were bent into an S shape

he boiled the infusions to kill any microbes present
History of microbiology in order from earliest to latest
leeuwenhoek observes microbes using a microscope
spontaneous generation
Lister introduced the use of disinfectants
Fleming discovered penicillin
Ehrlich discovers chemical majic bullet
True statements concerning Koch's postulates
cannot be used to demonstrate cause of all diseases

involve experimental infection of susceptible hosts

all must be satisfied before an organism can be proven to cause a particular disease.

a suspected pathogen must be able to be grown in the laboratory
the microbial formation of alcohol from sugar is known as
fermentation
the study of the body's defenses against pathogens is called
immunology
a single flagellum at one end of a prokayotic cell is called
polar
all of the following statements concerning pili are true
pili facilitate the transfer of DNA among bacterial cells

a bacterial cell will usually have only one or two pili

not all bacteria have pili

pili are composed of a protein called pilin
the glycocalyx of a eukaryotic cell performs all of the following functions
cellular recognition and communication

anchoring cells to each other

strengthening the cell surface

protection against dehydration
the total magnification of a compound microscope is calculated using the magnification of
the objective and the ocular lenses
all of the following are associated with smear preparation
fixation using methanol or formalin

killing the microbes in the specimen

spreading the specimen onto a slide

fixation using heat
The Gram stain works due to the differences in the ___________ of bacteria
cell walls
if a microbiology lab technician left the crystal violet out of the gram stain procedure what would be the result
all cells would be pink
the botanist Carolus Linnaeus was responsible for which of the following scientific advances
development of a syste for naming and classifying organisms
Carl Woese proposed the concept of the domain based on differences among which of the cellular molecules
ribosomal RNA
A nanometer would be a suitable unit of measurement for which of the following
cellular organelles and viruses
all of the followng structures are associated with eukaryotic cells
glycocalyx
flagella
cilia
cytoskeleton
in microbiology the term growth usually refers to which of the following
an increase in the number of microbial cells
nutritionally you are classified as a
chemoheterotroph
an aquatic microbe that can grow only at the surface of the water is probably which of the following
a phototroph
At which of the following temperatures would a psychrophile grow best
10 degrees Celsius
which of the following organisms would be most likely to contaminate a jar of pickles
an acidophile
human pathogens are classified as both
mesophiles and neutrophiles
all of the following are true statements concerning biofilms
a large percentage of bacterial diseases are caused by biofilms

they contain different species

they attach to a surface

it is an example of symbiosis
all of the following are true concerning the generation time of bacterial cells
some bacteria have a generation time of 20 minutes or less

generation time is the time required for a bacterial cell to grow and divide

most bacteria have a generation time of three hours or less

generation time can be affected by changes in chemical or physical conditions
a microbiologist inoculates a growth medium with 1000 bacterial cells/ml. If the generation time of the species is 30 minutes. how long before culture contains more than 10,000 cells
2 hours
During which growth phase are bacteria more susceptible to antimicrobial drugs
log phase
which of the following measurements techniques would be useful to quantify a species of bacteria that is difficult to culture
microscopic counts
A ________ is a mass of cells that are descended from a single cell through successive cell divisions
colony
________ are microbes small enough to pass through filters that are designed to trap bacteria
viruses
Robert Koch discovered the cause of ________, a disease of animals that can be spread to humans
anthrax
A ___________ is a type of glycocalyx that is organized and firmly attached to the cell
capsule
The peptigoglycan molecule is composed of chains of alternating sugar subunits connected by short crossbridges of four amino acids called
tetrapeptides
___________ is a structural molecule found in eukaryotic, cytoskeletons, flagella, cilia, and centrioles
Tubulin
A __________ plots the number of organisms in a growing population over time
growth curve
immediately after inoculation, a bacterial culture enters the ______, where cells are adjusting to their new environment
lag
_________ is the process of immobilizing organisms on a glass slide through the application of either heat or chemicals
fixation
The _____ growth temperature is the temperature at which an organism exhibits the highest growth rate
optimum
A genetic determination used in classification of the different taxa of Gram-positive bacteria is the _____ ratio
G & C
__________ are bacteria that can colonize and spoil meats preserved with high concentrations of salt
halophiles
___________ are bacteria that use chlorophyll a and engage in oxygenic photosynthesis, just like plants and algae
cyanobacteria
fungal diseases of animals, plants, or humans are called
mycoses
the vegetative state of a protozoa is called a
cyst
ticks and mites are examples of arthropods with four pair of legs, called
arachnids
______________ is the process of drying foods such as fruits in order to preserve them from microbial growth
dessication
__________________ means that a given antimicrobial agent is more toxic to a pathogen than to the host being treated
chemoselective toxicity
the abbreviation _________ stands for the smallest amount of a drug that kills a pathogen
MBC
a _______________ concentration of a drug is one at which microbes survive, but are not able to grow and reproduce
bacterostatic
An ideal antimicrobial agent
is inexpensive

stable during storage

harmless to humans

acts quickly
a septic means
free of all pathogens
example of degerming
scrubbing your hands
sterilization applies to the removal of all of the following
viruses

bacterial cells

fungi

bacterial endospores
Which of the following is an example of sanitization
a public toilet is treated with disenfectant
all of the following sterilize
ionizing radiation
dry heat
autoclaving
incineration
which of the following is bacteriostatic
dessication
freezing below 0
refrigeration of mesophiles
lyophilization
which of the following is least resistant to antimicrobial agents
enveloped viruses
which of the following is true concerning microbial death
it can be used to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial agents

it is the permanent loss of a microbes reproductive ability
the cell wall inhibiting drub bacitracin works by
blocking the transport of cell wall molecules from the cytoplasm
which of the following is used to sterilize items that should not, or cannot be exposed to heat or water
ethylene oxide
which of the following procedures is currently the standard test for evaluating the efficiency of antiseptics and disinfectants
the use dilution test
which of the following types of antimicrobial drugs make microbes more susceptible to osmotic pressure
drugs that inhibit cell wall synthesis
Beta-lactam antibiotics have an effect on which of the following types of cells
bacterial cells
all of the following drugs affect the proper function of the ribosome
streptomycin
choramphenicol
tetracyclines
erythromycin
which is true of the inhibition observed in a Kirby-Bauer test
it is measured as a diameter
it is a clearing zone with no growth
it is a result of diffusion of the drug out of the paper disk
it is measured after incubation
all of the following are antibiotic producing genera of microbes
streptomyces
penicillium
cephalosporium
bacillus
the type of antimicrobial drug that would be least toxit to humans is a drug that
inhibits the synthesis of the cell wall
alterations in the structure of which of the following are an important aspect of Gram-negative bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs
porins
the largest class of proteobacteria is the
gammaproteobacteria
which of the following groups of bacteria live in environments similar to those that may have existed on the early earth
deeply branching bacteria
All of the following characteristics are used to distinguish the archaea from the bacteria
the rRNA sequences preset
the types of transfer RNA used
cell membrane composition
cell wall composition
which of the following types of phototrophic bacteria have characteristics most similar to plants and algae
cyanobacteria
which of the following groups of bacteria live in environments similar to those that may have existed on the early earth
deeply branching bacteria
all of the following terms can be used to refer to both a bacerial genus and an arrangement or shape of bacterial cells
streptococcus
sarina
staphylococcus
bacillus
merozoites are a result of
schizogony
which pairs matched
protozoa: usually haploid
animals: diploid
plants: diploid
algae: haploid
which is associated with fungal morphology
mycelium
thallus
hyphae
septa
which of the following types of arthropod vectors transmit the largest number of diseases
mosquitoes
the combination of a virus's protein coat and nucleic acid core is called the
nucleocapsid
the animal virus that does not have an envelope is described as a ________ virus
naked
diseases that are naturally spread from their usual animal hosts to humans are known as
zoonoses
spread of pathogens from one host to another by fomites is an example of ________ contact transmission
indirect
__________ not only transmit pathogens, but can also serve as hosts for the multiplication of the pathogen during some phase of the pathogens life cycle
biological vectors
____________ are composed of a single protein called PrP
prions
the process known as _________________ allows neutrophils and eosinophils to squeeze between the cells lining the capillaries in order to phagocytize invading microbes
diapedisis
the variable regions from the light and heavy chains of an antibody combine to form
antigen-binding site
________ is an oily substance that lowers the pH of the skins surface to about pH 4 and is inhibitory to many bacteria
sebum
the formation of membrane attack complexes results in
cell lysis
Resident microbiota are found in all of the following location
lower digestive
upper respiratory
upper diegestive
urinary
normal microbiota are first acquired
during birth
symptoms are
subjective characteristics of a disease that can only be fet by the patient
a disease that occurs at a greater than normal frequency for a given are or population across more than one continent is considered
pandemic
fomites are
inanimate objects that participate in the indirect contact transmission of pathogens
correct sequence of disease
prodromal, convalescence, incubation, illness, decline
which of the following types of arthropod vectors transmits the largest number of diseases
mosquitoes
prusiner was the first to describe which of the following
prions
viruses are primarily classified according to their
type of nucleic acid
reverse transcriptase is associated with
retroviruses
lytic replication cycle
attachment
entry
synthesis
assembly
release
plaque assays are used for
estimation of the number of phages in a culture
role of protoncogenes in theories of how viruses cause cancer
play a role in the control of cell division
mutualism is a relationship
...
mucous membranes are found in all of the following areas except
the urinary bladder
which is a part of the body's second line of defense
inflammation
interferon
phagocytes
complement proteins
chemotaxis is
the movement of cells toward or away from a chemical stimulus
virulent strains of S Aureus can resist penicillen because the produce
beta-lactamase
S. Aureus causes
SSS
a sty
carbuncle
impetigo
ringworm is caused by
deratophytes growing in the upper dead tissue layers of the skin
What is the pathogenic process underlying rocky mountain spotted fever
damage to blood vessels
Cat scratch disease is caused by
bartonella henselae
strains of s pyogenes that cause necrotizing fascitis produce these factors
streptokinases
streptolysin S
deoxribonucleases
exotoxin A
staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is caused by
exfoliative toxins
which of the following is considered normal microbiota of the CNS
NONE
all of the following are associated with Neisseria meningingitis
transmission by inhalation of respiratory droplets
a polysaccharide capsule and fimbriae are important virulence factors
the organism typically appears as a diplococcus
close to 100% mortaility in untreated patients
which of the following is a frequent cause of menigitis in newborns
streptococcus agalactia
which of the following causative agents of bacterial meningitis is from contaminated food
listeria monocytogenes
the only type of bacterial meningitis that beomes epidemic is caused by
neisseria meningitidis
which of the following produces the most deadly bacterial toxins
clostridium botulinum
All of the following statements are true regarding leprosy
develops in cooler regions of the body
diagnosis rests on signs and symptoms accompanied by microscopic specimens
it is difficult to transmit
long-term antimicrobial treatment is usually necessary
Poliovirus is most often transmitted via
contaminated water
all are true concerning rabies
caused by ssRNA virus
can be treated with active immunization
bats are the source of most cases in humans
transmission via bite of rabid animal
birds are natural hosts with which diseases
west nile encephalitis
eastern equine encephalitis
western equine encephalitis
st louis encephalitis
Tsetse flies transmit
african sleeping sickness
true statements regarding septicemia
exact bacterial cause unknown
septicemia can be fatal
healthy individuals with normal immune systems rarely get septicemia
bacteria usually has virulence factors such as capsules
the causative agent of bubonic plague is
yersinia pestis
infection with which o the following species of plasmodium is usually fatal
P. falciparum
which of the following cause a more serious disease the second time with the same strain of the pathogen
dengue virus
associated with ticks
lyme disease
ehrlichiosis
anaplasmosis
tularemia
microscopic identification of its spiny eggs is used in the diagnosis of infection
schistosoma
all of the following are normal microbiota of upper respiratory system
moraxella catarrhalis
strep pneumonia
haemophilus influenzae
staph aureus
pathogenic strep of the upper resp. exhibits which type of hemolysis
beta
which of the following allows group a Strep to stread through tissues by breaking down blood clots
streptokinase
the majority of adult cases of pneumonia are caused by
strep pneumoniae
all are true concerning the common cold
confined to upper res. tract
colds are rarely transmitted by explosive sneezes
cold viruses remain viable for hours outside the body
viruses in the genus rhinovirus are one cause of common cold
all of the following are true regarding tuberculosis
ghon complexes are produced when the immune system elininates the infection
only about 10 cells are required for infection
virulent strains of M. tuberculosis produce cord factor
it remains viable in dried aerosol droplets for up to 8 months
strep that secret enzymes and toxins capable of destroying muscle and fat tissue cause a disease formally known as
necrotizing facciitis
_______________ is the most common microbe associated with burn wound infections.
pseudomonas aeruginosa
armadillos and humans are the only host for infection with the microbe
mycobacterium leprae
bacterial infection of the membrane lining the heart chambers and valves is called
endocardidis
__________________ is a name for the jaundice caused by liver damage from the disease
yellow fever
historically ______ occurred in three great pandemics; the most notable one occurred in the 14th century
plague
a major change in the antigens of influenza A which occurs every 10 years on average is called
antigenic shift
pneumnia caused by the bacterium ________ has a higher mortality rate than pneumococcal or mycoplasmal pneumonias
klebsiella pneumonia
ICAM-1 serves as an attachment protein for almost all
rhinoviruses