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final notecards for micro

Antoni van Leuuwenhoek was the first person in history to.....

view protozoa and bacteria

Semmelweiss advocated handwashing as a method of preventing which of the following diseases

puerperal fever

which scientists performed the same experiment concerning spontatneous generation but with opposite results

needham and spallanzani

all of the following are aspects of pasteurs experiments to disprove spontaneous generation except

the flasks were free of microbes until they were opened

the flasks were incubated for very long periods of time

the necks of the flask he used were bent into an S shape

he boiled the infusions to kill any microbes present

History of microbiology in order from earliest to latest

leeuwenhoek observes microbes using a microscope
spontaneous generation
Lister introduced the use of disinfectants
Fleming discovered penicillin
Ehrlich discovers chemical majic bullet

True statements concerning Koch's postulates

cannot be used to demonstrate cause of all diseases

involve experimental infection of susceptible hosts

all must be satisfied before an organism can be proven to cause a particular disease.

a suspected pathogen must be able to be grown in the laboratory

the microbial formation of alcohol from sugar is known as


the study of the body's defenses against pathogens is called


a single flagellum at one end of a prokayotic cell is called


all of the following statements concerning pili are true

pili facilitate the transfer of DNA among bacterial cells

a bacterial cell will usually have only one or two pili

not all bacteria have pili

pili are composed of a protein called pilin

the glycocalyx of a eukaryotic cell performs all of the following functions

cellular recognition and communication

anchoring cells to each other

strengthening the cell surface

protection against dehydration

the total magnification of a compound microscope is calculated using the magnification of

the objective and the ocular lenses

all of the following are associated with smear preparation

fixation using methanol or formalin

killing the microbes in the specimen

spreading the specimen onto a slide

fixation using heat

The Gram stain works due to the differences in the ___________ of bacteria

cell walls

if a microbiology lab technician left the crystal violet out of the gram stain procedure what would be the result

all cells would be pink

the botanist Carolus Linnaeus was responsible for which of the following scientific advances

development of a syste for naming and classifying organisms

Carl Woese proposed the concept of the domain based on differences among which of the cellular molecules

ribosomal RNA

A nanometer would be a suitable unit of measurement for which of the following

cellular organelles and viruses

all of the followng structures are associated with eukaryotic cells


in microbiology the term growth usually refers to which of the following

an increase in the number of microbial cells

nutritionally you are classified as a


an aquatic microbe that can grow only at the surface of the water is probably which of the following

a phototroph

At which of the following temperatures would a psychrophile grow best

10 degrees Celsius

which of the following organisms would be most likely to contaminate a jar of pickles

an acidophile

human pathogens are classified as both

mesophiles and neutrophiles

all of the following are true statements concerning biofilms

a large percentage of bacterial diseases are caused by biofilms

they contain different species

they attach to a surface

it is an example of symbiosis

all of the following are true concerning the generation time of bacterial cells

some bacteria have a generation time of 20 minutes or less

generation time is the time required for a bacterial cell to grow and divide

most bacteria have a generation time of three hours or less

generation time can be affected by changes in chemical or physical conditions

a microbiologist inoculates a growth medium with 1000 bacterial cells/ml. If the generation time of the species is 30 minutes. how long before culture contains more than 10,000 cells

2 hours

During which growth phase are bacteria more susceptible to antimicrobial drugs

log phase

which of the following measurements techniques would be useful to quantify a species of bacteria that is difficult to culture

microscopic counts

A ________ is a mass of cells that are descended from a single cell through successive cell divisions


________ are microbes small enough to pass through filters that are designed to trap bacteria


Robert Koch discovered the cause of ________, a disease of animals that can be spread to humans


A ___________ is a type of glycocalyx that is organized and firmly attached to the cell


The peptigoglycan molecule is composed of chains of alternating sugar subunits connected by short crossbridges of four amino acids called


___________ is a structural molecule found in eukaryotic, cytoskeletons, flagella, cilia, and centrioles


A __________ plots the number of organisms in a growing population over time

growth curve

immediately after inoculation, a bacterial culture enters the ______, where cells are adjusting to their new environment


_________ is the process of immobilizing organisms on a glass slide through the application of either heat or chemicals


The _____ growth temperature is the temperature at which an organism exhibits the highest growth rate


A genetic determination used in classification of the different taxa of Gram-positive bacteria is the _____ ratio

G & C

__________ are bacteria that can colonize and spoil meats preserved with high concentrations of salt


___________ are bacteria that use chlorophyll a and engage in oxygenic photosynthesis, just like plants and algae


fungal diseases of animals, plants, or humans are called


the vegetative state of a protozoa is called a


ticks and mites are examples of arthropods with four pair of legs, called


______________ is the process of drying foods such as fruits in order to preserve them from microbial growth


__________________ means that a given antimicrobial agent is more toxic to a pathogen than to the host being treated

chemoselective toxicity

the abbreviation _________ stands for the smallest amount of a drug that kills a pathogen


a _______________ concentration of a drug is one at which microbes survive, but are not able to grow and reproduce


An ideal antimicrobial agent

is inexpensive

stable during storage

harmless to humans

acts quickly

a septic means

free of all pathogens

example of degerming

scrubbing your hands

sterilization applies to the removal of all of the following


bacterial cells


bacterial endospores

Which of the following is an example of sanitization

a public toilet is treated with disenfectant

all of the following sterilize

ionizing radiation
dry heat

which of the following is bacteriostatic

freezing below 0
refrigeration of mesophiles

which of the following is least resistant to antimicrobial agents

enveloped viruses

which of the following is true concerning microbial death

it can be used to evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial agents

it is the permanent loss of a microbes reproductive ability

the cell wall inhibiting drub bacitracin works by

blocking the transport of cell wall molecules from the cytoplasm

which of the following is used to sterilize items that should not, or cannot be exposed to heat or water

ethylene oxide

which of the following procedures is currently the standard test for evaluating the efficiency of antiseptics and disinfectants

the use dilution test

which of the following types of antimicrobial drugs make microbes more susceptible to osmotic pressure

drugs that inhibit cell wall synthesis

Beta-lactam antibiotics have an effect on which of the following types of cells

bacterial cells

all of the following drugs affect the proper function of the ribosome


which is true of the inhibition observed in a Kirby-Bauer test

it is measured as a diameter
it is a clearing zone with no growth
it is a result of diffusion of the drug out of the paper disk
it is measured after incubation

all of the following are antibiotic producing genera of microbes


the type of antimicrobial drug that would be least toxit to humans is a drug that

inhibits the synthesis of the cell wall

alterations in the structure of which of the following are an important aspect of Gram-negative bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs


the largest class of proteobacteria is the


which of the following groups of bacteria live in environments similar to those that may have existed on the early earth

deeply branching bacteria

All of the following characteristics are used to distinguish the archaea from the bacteria

the rRNA sequences preset
the types of transfer RNA used
cell membrane composition
cell wall composition

which of the following types of phototrophic bacteria have characteristics most similar to plants and algae


which of the following groups of bacteria live in environments similar to those that may have existed on the early earth

deeply branching bacteria

all of the following terms can be used to refer to both a bacerial genus and an arrangement or shape of bacterial cells


merozoites are a result of


which pairs matched

protozoa: usually haploid
animals: diploid
plants: diploid
algae: haploid

which is associated with fungal morphology


which of the following types of arthropod vectors transmit the largest number of diseases


the combination of a virus's protein coat and nucleic acid core is called the


the animal virus that does not have an envelope is described as a ________ virus


diseases that are naturally spread from their usual animal hosts to humans are known as


spread of pathogens from one host to another by fomites is an example of ________ contact transmission


__________ not only transmit pathogens, but can also serve as hosts for the multiplication of the pathogen during some phase of the pathogens life cycle

biological vectors

____________ are composed of a single protein called PrP


the process known as _________________ allows neutrophils and eosinophils to squeeze between the cells lining the capillaries in order to phagocytize invading microbes


the variable regions from the light and heavy chains of an antibody combine to form

antigen-binding site

________ is an oily substance that lowers the pH of the skins surface to about pH 4 and is inhibitory to many bacteria


the formation of membrane attack complexes results in

cell lysis

Resident microbiota are found in all of the following location

lower digestive
upper respiratory
upper diegestive

normal microbiota are first acquired

during birth

symptoms are

subjective characteristics of a disease that can only be fet by the patient

a disease that occurs at a greater than normal frequency for a given are or population across more than one continent is considered


fomites are

inanimate objects that participate in the indirect contact transmission of pathogens

correct sequence of disease

prodromal, convalescence, incubation, illness, decline

which of the following types of arthropod vectors transmits the largest number of diseases


prusiner was the first to describe which of the following


viruses are primarily classified according to their

type of nucleic acid

reverse transcriptase is associated with


lytic replication cycle


plaque assays are used for

estimation of the number of phages in a culture

role of protoncogenes in theories of how viruses cause cancer

play a role in the control of cell division

mutualism is a relationship


mucous membranes are found in all of the following areas except

the urinary bladder

which is a part of the body's second line of defense

complement proteins

chemotaxis is

the movement of cells toward or away from a chemical stimulus

virulent strains of S Aureus can resist penicillen because the produce


S. Aureus causes

a sty

ringworm is caused by

deratophytes growing in the upper dead tissue layers of the skin

What is the pathogenic process underlying rocky mountain spotted fever

damage to blood vessels

Cat scratch disease is caused by

bartonella henselae

strains of s pyogenes that cause necrotizing fascitis produce these factors

streptolysin S
exotoxin A

staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is caused by

exfoliative toxins

which of the following is considered normal microbiota of the CNS


all of the following are associated with Neisseria meningingitis

transmission by inhalation of respiratory droplets
a polysaccharide capsule and fimbriae are important virulence factors
the organism typically appears as a diplococcus
close to 100% mortaility in untreated patients

which of the following is a frequent cause of menigitis in newborns

streptococcus agalactia

which of the following causative agents of bacterial meningitis is from contaminated food

listeria monocytogenes

the only type of bacterial meningitis that beomes epidemic is caused by

neisseria meningitidis

which of the following produces the most deadly bacterial toxins

clostridium botulinum

All of the following statements are true regarding leprosy

develops in cooler regions of the body
diagnosis rests on signs and symptoms accompanied by microscopic specimens
it is difficult to transmit
long-term antimicrobial treatment is usually necessary

Poliovirus is most often transmitted via

contaminated water

all are true concerning rabies

caused by ssRNA virus
can be treated with active immunization
bats are the source of most cases in humans
transmission via bite of rabid animal

birds are natural hosts with which diseases

west nile encephalitis
eastern equine encephalitis
western equine encephalitis
st louis encephalitis

Tsetse flies transmit

african sleeping sickness

true statements regarding septicemia

exact bacterial cause unknown
septicemia can be fatal
healthy individuals with normal immune systems rarely get septicemia
bacteria usually has virulence factors such as capsules

the causative agent of bubonic plague is

yersinia pestis

infection with which o the following species of plasmodium is usually fatal

P. falciparum

which of the following cause a more serious disease the second time with the same strain of the pathogen

dengue virus

associated with ticks

lyme disease

microscopic identification of its spiny eggs is used in the diagnosis of infection


all of the following are normal microbiota of upper respiratory system

moraxella catarrhalis
strep pneumonia
haemophilus influenzae
staph aureus

pathogenic strep of the upper resp. exhibits which type of hemolysis


which of the following allows group a Strep to stread through tissues by breaking down blood clots


the majority of adult cases of pneumonia are caused by

strep pneumoniae

all are true concerning the common cold

confined to upper res. tract
colds are rarely transmitted by explosive sneezes
cold viruses remain viable for hours outside the body
viruses in the genus rhinovirus are one cause of common cold

all of the following are true regarding tuberculosis

ghon complexes are produced when the immune system elininates the infection
only about 10 cells are required for infection
virulent strains of M. tuberculosis produce cord factor
it remains viable in dried aerosol droplets for up to 8 months

strep that secret enzymes and toxins capable of destroying muscle and fat tissue cause a disease formally known as

necrotizing facciitis

_______________ is the most common microbe associated with burn wound infections.

pseudomonas aeruginosa

armadillos and humans are the only host for infection with the microbe

mycobacterium leprae

bacterial infection of the membrane lining the heart chambers and valves is called


__________________ is a name for the jaundice caused by liver damage from the disease

yellow fever

historically ______ occurred in three great pandemics; the most notable one occurred in the 14th century


a major change in the antigens of influenza A which occurs every 10 years on average is called

antigenic shift

pneumnia caused by the bacterium ________ has a higher mortality rate than pneumococcal or mycoplasmal pneumonias

klebsiella pneumonia

ICAM-1 serves as an attachment protein for almost all


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