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Geology Quiz 17

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The hot spring deposits at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, are travertine. What rock probably lies somewhere beneath the hot springs?
limestone
Which common, rock-forming mineral or mineral group is most readily dissolved by groundwater?
calcite
The water table is ________.
a boundary between saturated rock below and unsaturated rock above
Water-saturated muds have low permeabilities but can have greater porosities than well-cemented sandstone.
True
________ is the volume of voids or open space in a rock or unconsolidated material.
Porosity
Lowering of the water table around a pumping well results in a cone of infiltration.
False
Permeability is the physical force that pushes water below the water table through a porous, rock material.
False
When the elevation of the water table is higher than the level of the surface of a stream, you have a __________.
gaining stream
A ________ is the icicle-like speleothem that grows down from the roof of a cavern.
stalactite
An unconfined water table is the ________.
boundary between the aerated zone above and saturated zone below
Where do the majority of hot springs in the United States occur?
the West
________ are specific features of karst topography.
Streams flowing into depressions and continuing underground
The water table is a surface separating the saturated and unsaturated zones.
True
Porosity is a measure of the volume of open space in rocks and unconsolidated, geological materials like alluvium and soils.
True
Most caves and caverns originate by solution of limestone.
True
An artesian well is one in which ________.
water rises above the top of the aquifer without any pumping
________ are characteristics found in all good aquifers.
High porosity and high permeability
Excessive groundwater withdrawals can cause ________.
the water table to drop or decline in elevation
What is a hole bored into the zone of saturation called?
a well
Which one of the following concerning stalactites and stalagmites is not true?
Stalagmites form on the floors of caves below the water table.
Where is the majority of groundwater found?
in tiny pore spaces
________ would have the largest capacity to naturally remove sewage pollutants.
Slightly clayey sand
________ controls the ease (or difficulty) of groundwater transmission through a porous material.
Permeability
How is groundwater flow primarily controlled?
by gravity
Which one of the following statements is true for an artesian aquifer?
The water table in the recharge area is at a higher elevation than the top of the aquifer in the subsurface.
In areas underlain by unconsolidated or weakly consolidated strata, lowering of the water table can cause the land to subside.
True
What type of rock do caves most commonly form in?
limestone
The aerated zone ________.
lies above the water table
In general, contaminated groundwater will be naturally cleaned faster by circulation through porous and permeable sands than by circulation through fractured, crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks.
True
How well pores are connected to allow groundwater flow is known as _____.
permeability
A "soda straw" is one type of _____.
stalactite
An aquifer is ________.
a saturated, porous, and permeable layer or stratum
Which one of the following is not a speleothem?
geyserite