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22 terms

Unit One Chemistry Review

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accuracy
how close measurement is to it's actual value, its in the court but not in a specific spot
precision
the exactness of the measure, consistant, but not necessarily right
significant figures
all the digits known as well as the ones estimated
atom
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of an element
pure substance
a sample of matter, either a single element or a compound, that has definate chemical and physical properties
element
a substance that cannot be separated or broken down into into simpler substances by chemcial means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic number
molecule
The smallest unit of a substance that keeps all the physical and chemical properties of that substance; it can consist of one atom or two or more atoms bonded toether
compound
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds.
mixture
A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined
homogeneous
Describes something that has a uniform structure or composition throughout
heterogeneous
Composed of dissimilar components
energy
the capacity to do work
physical change
A change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties
chemical change
A change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties
evaporation
The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas
endothermic
Describes a process in which heat is absorbed from the environment
exothermic
Describes a process in which a system releases heat into the environment
laws of conservation of energy
The law that states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another.
heat
The energy transferred between objects that are at different temperatures; energy is always transferred from higher-temperature objects to lower-temperature objects until thermal equilibrium is reached
kinetic energy
The energy of an object that is due to the object's motion
temperature
A measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
specific heat
The quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1 K or 1 degree Celsius a specified way given constant pressure an volume