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Gerontology Exam 1
Terms in this set (89)
Jeanne Louise Calment
Longest-lived person in the world. Took up fencing, riding bike, and was a smoker.
Three groups of "old"
Young old - 65-74. Middle old - 75-84. Old-Old over 85
state of being and feeling that one strives to achieve through effective health practices.
Healthy People 2020 - Overachieving goals
attain high-quality, longer lives free of preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death
Healthy People 2020 - Emerging issues in the Health of Older Adults
Help older adults manage their own care.
Maslows Hierarchy of Human Needs
ranks needs from most basic of biological integrity to most complex associated with self-actualization. Needs of the higher level cannot be obtained until those of the lower were met.
Human needs and wellness diagnoses using Maslow's Hierarchy Framework
1. Biological and Physiological Integrity 2. Safety and Security 3. Belong and Attachment 4. self-esteem and Self - efficacy 5. Self-actualization and Transcendence
Orems Universal Self-Care Requirements
1. maintain sufficient intake of air, water, and food 2. maintain satisfactory elimination function 3. maintaining a balance btw activity and rest 4. maintaining a balance between solitude and social interaction.
Healthy People 2020 - Older Adults
increase the proportion of the health care workforce with geriatric certification
Successful Healthy aging
Spiritual, cultural, environmental, social, biological, psychological, spiritual
Acute Care Orientation
1. Illness 2. high technology 3. short term 4. episodic 5. one-dimensional 6. professional 7. medical model 8. cure
Long-Term Care Orientation
1. function 2. high touch 3. extended 4. interdisciplinary model 5. ongoing 6. multidimensional 7. paraprofessional and family 8. care
Elder Friendly Community
1. Addresses basic Needs 2. Promotes social and Civic Engagement 3. Maximizes Independence for Frail and Disabled 4. Optimizes physical and mental health and well-being
Members of rehabilitation Care team
rehab nurse specialist, PT, OT, speech therapist, social worker, discharge planner, psychologist
Institution Centered Care
schedules and routines are designed by the institution and staff, and residents must comply
Emphasis is on relationships between staff and residents
Suggested Elements of Traditional Care Models
utilize interdisciplinary teams guided by evidence-based protocols
both the rapid increases in the total numbers of older adults, especially those over 85 years old, and the relative proportion of older adults in most countries across the globe.
differences in the state of health and health outcomes between people.
excess burden of illness or the difference between an expected incidence and prevalence and that which actually occurs in excess in comparison population group.
Western or Biomedical System
disease is thought to be the result of abnormalities in the structure and function of body organs and systems, often caused by an invasion of germs or genetic mutation
Personalistic or Magicoreligious System
illness is caused by the action of the supernatural, such as gods, deities, or nonhuman beings, such as ghosts, ancestors, or spirits. Health is viewed as a blessing of God and illness as a punishment
Naturalistic or Holistic Health System
the concept of balance and stems from the ancient civilizations of china, india, and greece. Sign of balance, exercise, food, sleep, evacuation ,interpersonal relationships
L - listen carefully to what elder says E - explain your perception of situation A - aknowledge and discuss both similarities and differences R - recommend a plan of action N - negotiate a plan is mutually acceptable.
Error (stochastic) Theories
explain aging as the result of an accuulation of errors in the synthesis of cellular DNA and RNA.
Wear/Tear. Cross-Link. Oxidative Stress Theory
Programmed Aging (Nonstochastic Theories)
attribute the changes of aging to a process that is thought to be predetermined or programmed at the cellular level. Each cell has a natural life expectancy. Neuroendocrine- Immunological.
Promote Healthy Skin While Aging
Avoid excessive exposure to UV lights. Keep skin moist. avoid dry soaps. use sunscreen. keep hydrated
Promote Healthy Bones/Muscles
Ensure regular intake of vitamin D and calcium. Engage in regular weight-bearing exercise. Flexibility and balance exercises. For women - pharmacotherapeutics.
Promote Healthy Heart
engage in regular exercise, eat a low-fat, low cholesterol, balanced diet. do not smoke
Percentage of total body weight/water
Newborn - 80% Adult Male - 60%. Adult female - 45-50%
Healthy Digestion Promotion
practice good oral hygiene, wear properly fitting dentures, eat meals in relaxed atmosphere
Promote healthy eyes
protect eyes from UV light, avoid eye strain
Promote Healthy Hearing
avoid exposure to loud noises. avoid injury with cotton swap. Use assistive devices
The mental process characterized by knowing, thinking, learning and judging.
A study design in which data are collected at one point in time on several variables such as gender, income, education, and health status.
Practice of viewing the world from a European perspective.
The application of the principles of adult learning theory to teaching for older adults
The degree to which individuals have the ability to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed.
A study design that studies a group of subjects over time, assessing their experiences at predetermined stages.
Life Span Developmental principles
1. Development is lifelong. 2. Development depends on history and context. 3. It is multidimensional 4. Plastic rather than rigid.
Jung's Theory of Personality
The last half of life as having a purpose of its own, quite apart from species survival. The last half of life is often a time of inner discovery.
Last stage of life as a vantage point from which one could look back with ego integrity or despair on one's life.
1. Ego differentiation vs Work role preoccupation 2. Body transcendence vs body preoccupation 3. ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation
Havighurst's Developmental Task
look up in book.
Characteristics of Gerotranscendence
High degree of life satisfaction. Midlife patterns are no longer prime motivators. complex and active coping.
human aging brings about a general potential for what he terms gerotranscendence, a shift in perspective from the material world to the cosmic and, concurrent with that , an increasing life satisfaction.
Identifying Elders at Risk for Spiritual Distress
Individuals experiencing events that affect the ability to participate in spiritual needs. Diagnosis and treatment of a life-threatening chronic illness
Spiritual Nursing Responses
1. Relief of physical discomfort, which permits focus on the spiritual 2. Creating a peaceful environment 3. Authentic presence, Attentive listening
the ability to understand and interpret language and wording used in the health care setting.
Report by proxy
one person answering questions or providing information for a second person, based on the first person's knowledge of the second person
F - fluids A - Aeration N - Nutrition C - Communication A- Activity P-Pain E- elimination S - socialization and social skills
Mini-mental State Examination
30 item instrument that has been used to screen for cognitive difficulties and is one of the tools often used in the determination of a diagnosis of dementia or delirium
Clock Drawing Test
help identify those with cognitive impairment and is used as a measure of severity
establishes cognitive status more quickly than the MMSE and without the limitations of educational adjustments
Global Deterioration Scale
levels of cognitive changes as one passes through the process of dementia.
Functional Assessment Test
check page 96-97
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living
1. Telephone 2. Traveling 3. Shopping 4. Preparing meals 5. housework 6. medication 7. money
addresses the social skills and the ability to negotiate and make friends.
income, pensions, are needed to determine the adequacy of income compared with the cost of living, food, shelter, clothing, medications.
consideration is given to intellectual function, the presence or absence of psychiatric symptoms, and the amt of enjoyment and interaction the person gets from life.
designed to evaluate ability, disability, and the capacity level at which the person is able to function. (social resources, economic resources, physical health, mental health, and ability to perform ADLS)
simple and overall assessment tool of older adults focusing on geriatric syndromes
used to both to improve the quality of care and the communication about the individual and serve as a guide for reimbursement.
A group in which members share some common experience.
person who is at least 100 years of age
Holistic Health Care
the whole person and the interaction with and between the parts
broad range of services and environments designed to promote the safe and timely passage of patients between levels of care and across care setting.
identifying with or deriving from the cultural, racial, religious, or linguistic traditions of a people or country.
the belief in the inherent superiority of one's ethnic group
reduced near vision
Biological Theory, Stiffening of the cells causing arthritis
Social Exchange Theory
Adults are withdrawn from socialization, an imbalance in older and younger adults. Adults are separated form younger and grandparents get "payed back" for taking care of their kids.
Wear and Tear theory
Biological. The more you use your body, the more it gets torn up. Relax joints to prevent injuries.
Sociological. People aged based on their cultural experiences. They age and react the same.
Oxidative Stress Theory
damaged caused to cells by free radicals happens faster than cells can repair themselves, causing tissue damage. Take antioxidants
Normal progression of aging, personality traits continues. Personality influences role activities. Which influences life satisfaction.
Psychological theory. 8 stages of development. Infancy -> maturity. Interventions to help them advance developmentally and move toward the next level.
Personality throughout life. Purpose and growth and self-awareness of a person. As you age, you focus more on your inner self and achieving life satisfaction.
Can't avoid getting old. Level of disengagement as you age depends on various things. Patient withdraw socially as they're taken out of their environment.
Process a population goes through as it goes from traditional society to modernized one. Older people can't deal with society with the increase in technology.
Neuroendocrine Immunity Theory
free radicals over time damage the immune system (B/T). Attack their own cells causing organ failure, can't fight illness.
remaining as active as possible in middle years allows activities in later life. Opportunities in later life provide meaningful relationships with others associated with same things.
you get to a certain level where you feel life satisfaction. Spirituality becomes more important.
the passage or movement from one state condition, to another. Can be developmental, situational, health related, or organizational.
basic framework for most of the measures of ADLS
used in rehab settings to measure the amount of physical assistance required when a person can no longer carry out ADLS.
Functional Independence Measure
more detailed measured of ADLS, mobility, cognition, and social functioning
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