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A report comes back indicating that muscular atrophy has occurred. A nurse recalls that muscular atrophy involves a decrease in muscle cell:


During childhood, the thymus decreases in size, and this is referred to as _____ atrophy.


When planning care for a cardiac patient, the nurse knows that in response to an increased workload, cardiac myocardial cells will:

Increase in size

A 55-year-old male with a 30-year history of smoking is examined for respiratory disturbance. Examination of his airway (bronchial) reveals that stratified squamous epithelial cells have replaced the normal columnar ciliated cells. This type of cellular adaptation is called:


When planning care for the pregnant patient, the nurse will recall that the mammary glands enlarge as a consequence of:

Hormonal hyperplasia

A 24-year-old female presents with excessive menstrual bleeding. The physician identified endometrial changes that are due to hormonal imbalances. These cellular changes would be referred to as:

Pathologic hyperplasia

A 55-year-old male is diagnosed with hepatocellular cancer secondary to hepatitis C. If the cancerous region of the liver were removed, the remaining cells would undergo:

Compensatory hyperplasia

A 40-year-old female is diagnosed with cervical cancer after a Pap smear. Which of the following cellular changes would the nurse most likely see on the report?


A 75-year-old male presents with chest pain on exertion. The chest pain is most likely due to hypoxic injury secondary to:


A patient has a heart attack that leads to progressive cell injury that causes cell death with severe cell swelling and breakdown of organelles. What term would the nurse use to define this process?


A 50-year-old male sustained a closed head injury as a result of a motor vehicle accident. CT scan revealed a collection of blood between the inner surface of the dura mater and the surface of the brain. Which type of injury will the nurse be caring for?

Subdural hematoma

Liquefactive necrosis occurs in the brain because:

It is rich in hydrolytic enzymes and lipids

A 2-year-old swallowed watch batteries. Following ingestion, kidney function was impaired, and the heart began to fail. Which of the following was the most likely cause?

Coagulative necrosis

A group of prison inmates developed tuberculosis following exposure to an infected inmate. On examination, tissues were soft and granular (like clumped cheese). Which of the following is the most likely cause?

Caseous necrosis

A 50-year-old female became infected with Clostridium bacteria and died a week later. Examination of her red blood cells revealed lysis of membranes. Which of the following was the most likely cause of her death?

Gas gangrene

When a nurse observes muscle stiffening occurring within 6 to 14 hours after death, the nurse should document this finding as _____ present.

Rigor mortis

A 10-year-old male is brought to the emergency room (ER) because he is incoherent and semiconscious. CT scan reveals that he is suffering from cerebral edema. This type of edema is referred to as:

Localized edema

While reading a textbook, the student reads the term, "apoptosis." The student recalls that apoptosis is a condition in which cells program themselves to:


What principle should the nurse remember when trying to distinguish aging from diseases?

It is difficult to tell the difference because both processes are believed to result from cell injury.

An 86-year-old female patient has the wasting syndrome of aging, making her vulnerable to falls, functional decline, disease, and death. The nurse knows this patient is experiencing:


A nurse is reviewing lab reports. The nurse recalls blood plasma is located in which of the following fluid compartments?

Intravascular fluid

While planning care for elderly individuals, the nurse remembers the elderly are at a higher risk for developing dehydration because they have a(n):

Decreased muscle mass

Water movement between the ICF and ECF compartments is determined by:

Osmotic forces

An experiment was designed to test the effects of the Starling forces on fluid movement. Which of the following alterations would result in fluid moving into the interstitial space?

Increased interstitial oncotic pressure

When planning care for a dehydrated patient, the nurse remembers the principle of water balance is closely related to _____ balance.


A 70-year-old male with chronic renal failure presents with edema. Which of the following is the most likely cause of this condition?

Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure

A nurse is teaching the staff about antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Which information should the nurse include? Secretion of ADH is stimulated by:

Increased plasma osmolality

A 25-year-old male is diagnosed with a hormone-secreting tumor of the adrenal cortex. Which finding would the nurse expect to see in the lab results?

Decreased blood K+ levels

A patient has been searching on the Internet about natriuretic hormones. When the patient asks the nurse what do these hormones do, how should the nurse respond? Natriuretic hormones affect the balance of:


The most common cause of pure water deficit is:

Renal water loss

Hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia are associated with:

Hypertonic hyponatremia

A 52-year-old diabetic male presents to the ER with lethargy, confusion, and depressed reflexes. His wife indicates that he does not follow the prescribed diet and takes his medication sporadically. Lab results indicate hyperglycemia. Which assessment finding is most likely to occur?

Decreased sodium

A 60-year-old female is diagnosed with hyperkalemia. Which assessment finding should the nurse expect to observe?


Which patient is most prone to metabolic alkalosis? A patient with:

Excessive loss of chloride (Cl)

Which patient should the nurse assess for both hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis? A patient diagnosed with:

Renal failure

For a patient experiencing metabolic acidosis, the body will compensate by:


Which finding would support the diagnosis of respiratory acidosis?


A 54-year-old male with a long history of smoking complains of excessive tiredness, shortness of breath, and overall ill feelings. Lab results reveal decreased pH, increased CO2, and normal bicarbonate ion. These findings help to confirm the diagnosis of:

Respiratory acidosis

For a patient with respiratory acidosis, chronic compensation by the body will include:

Kidney excretion of H+

A 55-year-old female presents to her primary care provider and reports dizziness, confusion, and tingling in the extremities. Blood tests reveal an elevated pH, decreased PCO2, and slightly decreased HCO3. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis?

Respiratory alkalosis with renal compensation

A 10-year-old male is stung by a bee while playing in the yard. He begins itching and develops pain, swelling, redness, and respiratory difficulties. He is suffering from:


When a patient presents at the emergency department for an allergic reaction, the nurse recognizes the most severe consequence of a type I hypersensitivity reaction is:


When histamine is released in the body, which of the following responses would the nurse expect?


Several prisoners are experiencing symptoms of tuberculosis. A tuberculin reaction test was ordered. This test is an example of type _____ hypersensitivity.


An aide asks the nurse what is the most common cause of elevated levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion. How should the nurse respond?


A 54-year-old patient with pulmonary tuberculosis (lung infection) is evaluated for syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH). Which of the following electrolyte imbalances would be expected in this patient?


A 50-year-old male patient presents with polyuria and extreme thirst. He was given exogenous ADH. For which of the following conditions would this treatment be effective?

Neurogenic diabetes insipidus

A patient's anemia is described as having erythrocytes that demonstrate anisocytosis. The nurse would recognize the erythrocytes would be:

Able to assume various shapes

A newborn is diagnosed with congenital intrinsic factor deficiency. Which of the following types of anemia will the nurse see documented on the chart?

Pernicious anemia

When a nurse is reviewing lab results and notices that the erythrocytes contain an abnormally low concentration of hemoglobin, the nurse calls these erythrocytes:


A 5-year-old male was diagnosed with normocytic-normochromic anemia. Which of the following anemias does the nurse suspect the patient has?

Hemolytic anemia

A 2-year-old malnourished child has vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies. A blood smear suggests the deficiency is macrocytic and normochromic. The nurse would expect the hemoglobin to be:


A 45-year-old male is diagnosed with macrocytic, normochromic anemia. The nurse suspects the most likely cause of this condition is:

Defective DNA synthesis

When a patient wants to know why vitamin B12 and folate deficiencies cause anemia, how should the nurse respond?

Red blood cells have a shorter life span.

A 20-year-old female undergoes lab testing for anemia. Results show high iron, bilirubin, and transferrin and low hemoglobin and hematocrit. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis to be documented on the chart?

Sideroblastic anemia

A 35-year-old female is diagnosed with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia (pernicious anemia). How should the nurse respond when the patient asks what causes pernicious anemia? A decrease in ______ is the most likely cause.

Intrinsic factor

A 65-year-old male experienced loss of appetite, weight loss, lemon-yellow skin, liver enlargement, and a beefy red tongue shortly before his death. Autopsy suggested pernicious anemia, and the cause of death would most likely reveal:

Heart failure

How should the nurse prepare a patient who is to receive a Schilling test for pernicious anemia?

Administer radioactive cobalamin and measure its excretion in the urine.

A 67-year-old female has chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. A nurse recalls the primary cause of her anemia is:

Iron deficiency

A 34-year-old male presents in the emergency room with extreme fatigue and shortness of breath. His skin and sclera appear to have a yellowish discoloration. These assessment findings are consistent with which type of anemia?

Hemolytic anemia

A 58-year-old female presents in the clinic presenting with fatigue, weight loss, and tingling in her fingers. Laboratory findings show low hemoglobin and hematocrit, a high mean corpuscular volume, and normal plasma iron. These assessment findings are consistent with which type of anemia?

Pernicious anemia

The nurse will check which of the following tests to directly measure iron stores?

Bone marrow biopsy

A 21-year-old female was recently diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia. In addition to fatigue and weakness, which of the following clinical signs and symptoms would she most likely exhibit?

Spoon-shaped nails

A 21-year-old woman was recently diagnosed with iron deficiency anemia. Her hematocrit is 32%. Which of the following treatments would the nurse expect to be prescribed for her?

Iron replacement

A 45-year-old male is diagnosed with sideroblastic anemia. When he asks what the most likely cause of this disease is, what is the nurse's best response?

Ineffective iron uptake and abnormal hemoglobin production

A 50-year-old female was diagnosed with sideroblastic anemia. Which of the following assessment findings would most likely occur?

Bronze colored skin

A nurse is preparing to teach the staff about aplastic anemia. Which information should the nurse include? Aplastic anemia is caused by:

Stem cell deficiency

A 15-year-old female presents with splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and lymph node enlargement. She is diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis. What should the nurse tell the patient about the recovery time?

A few weeks

A 15-year-old male is diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis. When the patient asks how he got this disease, how should the nurse respond? The most likely cause is:

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

A 15-year-old male with infectious mononucleosis is being given instructions on how to prevent the spread of this infection to others. Which statement represents a correct instruction?

Do not share drinking glasses or eating utensils.

A 60-year-old male presents to his primary care provider reporting chest pain. He is diagnosed with atherosclerosis. This disease is caused by:

Abnormal thickening and hardening of vessel walls

A patient wants to know what causes atherosclerosis. How should the nurse respond? In general, atherosclerosis is caused by:

Endothelial injury and inflammation

Most cases of combined systolic and diastolic hypertension have no known cause and are documented on the chart as _____ hypertension.


A 30-year-old Caucasian female was recently diagnosed with primary hypertension. She reports that she eats fairly well, usually having red meat and potatoes daily. She also reports that her father has hypertension as well. A nurse determines which of the following risk factors is most likely associated with this diagnosis?


A 52-year-old male is diagnosed with primary hypertension. He has no other health problems. Present treatment would cause the nurse to anticipate administering which drug to the patient?

A diuretic

A 55-year-old female has undiagnosed hypertension. She presents to her primary care provider reporting impaired vision and chronic edema. Lab tests reveal that she also has renal insufficiency. While planning care, the nurse realizes the most likely cause for these findings is:

End-organ damage

When a nurse checks the patient for orthostatic hypotension, what did the nurse have the patient do?

Stand up

A 50-year-old male is diagnosed with orthostatic hypotension. Which of the following symptoms would he most likely experience?

Syncope and fainting

A 32-year-old female presents with lower leg pain, with swelling and redness. While obtaining the patient's history, which finding could have caused her condition?

Venous thrombus

A 28-year-old female presents with severe chest pain and shortness of breath. She is diagnosed with pulmonary embolism, which most likely originated from the:

Deep veins of the leg

Individuals with Raynaud disease need to be counseled to avoid which of the following conditions to prevent severe symptoms?

Cold exposure

While planning care for a patient with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS), which principle should the nurse remember? SVCS is a progressive _____ of the superior vena cava (SVC) that leads to venous distention of the upper extremities and head.


A 50-year-old male with a 30-year history of smoking was diagnosed with bronchogenic cancer. He developed edema and venous distention in the upper extremities and face. Which of the following diagnosis will the nurse observe on the chart?

Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS)

A 52-year-old female is diagnosed with coronary artery disease. The nurse assesses for myocardial:


When a patient asks the nurse what is the most common cause of myocardial ischemia, which statement is the correct response? The most common cause of myocardial ischemia is:


A 51-year-old male presents with recurrent chest pain on exertion. He is diagnosed with angina pectoris. When he asks what causes the pain, how should the nurse respond? The pain occurs when:

The myocardial oxygen supply has fallen below demand.

A 68-year-old male presents to the ER reporting chest pain. He has a history of stable angina that now appears to be unstable. He most likely has:

Impending myocardial infarction (MI)

A 55-year-old male died of a myocardial infarction. Autopsy would most likely reveal:

Platelet aggregation within the atherosclerotic coronary artery

A 60-year-old female had a myocardial infarction. She was brought to the hospital 30 minutes later. She survived, but now the nurse is providing care for impaired ventricular function because:

The resulting ischemia leads to hypoxic injury and myocardial cell death.

A 75-year-old male has severe chest pain and dials 911. Lab tests at the hospital reveal elevated levels of cardiac troponins I and T. Based upon the lab findings, the nurse suspects which of the following has occurred?

Myocardial infarction (MI)

A 28-year-old female presents to the ER reporting severe chest pain that worsens with respirations or lying down. She has a fever, tachycardia, and a friction rub. Based upon the assessment findings, the nurse determines the patient is experiencing:

Acute pericarditis

A 42-year-old female is diagnosed with constrictive pericarditis. The nurse assesses the blood pressure for decreased cardiac output because of:

Fibrosis and calcification of the pericardial layers

A 30-year-old female presents to her primary care provider with fever, cardiac murmur, and petechial skin lesions. She is diagnosed with infective endocarditis. When the patient wants to know what caused the disease, what is the nurse's best response? The most likely cause of the disease is:


A nurse is teaching staff about endocarditis. Which information should the nurse include? Inflammatory cells have difficulty limiting the colonization of microorganisms in infective endocarditis because the:

Microorganisms are sequestered in a fibrin clot.

Which characteristic changes should the nurse keep in mind while caring for a patient with left heart failure? As left heart failure progresses:

Left ventricular preload increases.

A 65-year-old male with a history of untreated hypertension is now experiencing left heart failure. A nurse recalls his untreated hypertension led to:

Myocardial hypertrophy and ventricular remodeling

A 68-year-old female is experiencing left heart failure. Physical exam reveals elevated blood pressure. The nurse understands this is most likely caused by:

Sympathetic nervous system compensation for decreased cardiac output

When a patient with left heart failure starts to have a cough and dyspnea, which principle should the nurse remember? Pulmonary symptoms, common to left heart failure, are a result of:

Pulmonary vascular congestion

A 73-year-old female has increased pulmonary pressure resulting in right heart failure. The nurse should monitor for a possible complication because a potential cause for her heart to fail is:

Left heart failure

A 65-year-old male is diagnosed with chronic pulmonary disease and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Which of the following heart failures should the nurse assess for in this patient?

Right heart failure

A 72-year-old female has a history of right heart failure caused by a right ventricular myocardial infarction. Which of the following symptoms are specifically related to her right heart failure?

Significant edema to both lower legs and feet

When a person is in shock, a nurse remembers impairment in cellular metabolism is caused by:

Inadequate tissue perfusion

One consequence of switching from aerobic to anaerobic cellular metabolism during shock states is:

Decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production

A nurse is planning care for a patient in shock. Which principle should the nurse remember? During shock states, glucose uptake is usually:


A 50-year-old male was admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (MI). He is being treated for shock. His cardiopulmonary symptoms include low blood pressure, tachycardia, and tachypnea. His skin is pale and cool. The primary cause of his shock is most likely:

Decreased cardiac contractility

A 27-year-old male is admitted to a neurologic unit with a complete C-5 spinal cord transection. On initial assessment, he is bradycardic, hypotensive, and hyperventilating. He appears to be going into shock. The most likely mechanism of his shock is:

Vasodilation caused by a decrease in sympathetic stimulation

What factors make a patient prone to neurogenic shock? Neurogenic shock can be caused by any factor that inhibits the:

Sympathetic nervous system

A 15-year-old male who is allergic to peanuts eats a peanut butter cup. He then goes into anaphylactic shock. Which assessment findings will the nurse assess for?

Bronchoconstriction, hives or edema, and hypotension

A nurse is teaching a patient about anaphylactic shock. Which information should the nurse include? The onset of anaphylactic shock is usually:

Immediate and life threatening

For an infection to progress to septic shock, which of the following factors should the nurse determine occurred?

Bacteria must enter the bloodstream.

A 20-year-old female is being admitted to the hospital with fever and septic shock. Which set of assessment findings would the nurse expect the patient to exhibit?

Low blood pressure, tachycardia, generalized edema

The hypotensive state seen in septic shock can lead to:

Gut lining disruption and the translocation of bacteria into the bloodstream

Which patient is most prone to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)? In a patient with:

Septic shock

A 75-year-old female has been critically ill with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) for longer than a week and has developed a severe oxygen supply and demand imbalance. The statement that best describes this imbalance is which of the following?

The reserve has been exhausted, and the amount of oxygen consumed depends on the amount the circulation is able to deliver.

Which organ should the nurse monitor closely since it is often the first to fail in patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)?


Which of the following findings in the patient with Raynaud disease would indicate a need for further teaching?

The patient smokes cigarettes.

Which of the following lab tests will the nurse check to help diagnose heart failure and provide insight into its severity?

Brain natriuretic

A 10-year-old female develops pneumonia. Physical exam reveals subcostal and intercostal retractions. She reports that breathing is difficult and she feels she cannot get enough air. What term should the nurse use to document this condition?


A 20-year-old male presents to his primary care provider reporting difficulty breathing when lying down. What term should the nurse use to document this condition?


A 50-year-old diabetic male did not take his medication and is now in metabolic acidosis. He is experiencing Kussmaul respirations. What type of breathing will the nurse observe upon assessment?

A slightly increased ventilatory rate, large tidal volumes, and no expiratory pause

Which patient would the nurse assess for paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)? A patient with:

Left ventricular failure

A 65-year-old female with emphysema presents to the ER for difficulty breathing. Physical exam reveals bluish skin and mucous membranes. How should the nurse chart this condition? Patient has:


A 28-year-old male reports to his primary care provider that he has had a cold for a week and is coughing up bloody secretions. When giving report, what term should the nurse use to describe this condition?


A nurse is reviewing the results of an ABG and finds reduced oxygenation of arterial blood. What term should the nurse use to describe this condition?


A 30-year-old female received a severe head injury in a motor vehicle accident. She is now experiencing respiratory abnormalities characterized by alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing with periods of apnea. What term should the nurse use when charting this condition?


A 65-year-old male recently had a cerebrovascular accident that resulted in dysphagia. He now has aspiration of gastric contents. The nurse assesses the patient for which complication?


An 80-year-old female develops pneumonia in the hospital. She becomes cyanotic, tachycardic, and develops a fever and cough. Chest x-ray reveals pus in the pleural space. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis documented on the chart?


A 54-year-old male is diagnosed with empyema. Upon receiving and reviewing the culture result, which organism does the nurse suspect is the most likely cause?

Staphylococcus aureus

A 60-year-old female with emphysema is having difficulty expiring a given volume of air. When giving report, the nurse will relay that the patient is most likely experiencing _____ pulmonary disease.


When the nurse is asked what causes asthma, how should the nurse respond? Asthma is thought to be caused by:

Interactions between genetic and environmental factors

A nurse recalls asthma is classified by:

Clinical severity

A nurse is preparing to teach the staff about asthma. Which information should the nurse include? Airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma is related to:

Exposure to an allergen causing mast cell degranulation

A nurse is preparing to teach the staff about asthma. Which information should the nurse include? Airway obstruction contributing to increased airflow resistance and hypoventilation in asthma is caused by:

Mucus secretion, bronchoconstriction, and airway edema

A 10-year-old male is brought to the ER with prolonged bronchospasm and severe hypoxemia. The most likely diagnosis on the chart is:

Status asthmaticus

A 53-year-old male with a 20-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. When a staff member asks why the patient's airways are obstructed, how should the nurse respond? The airways are obstructed because of:

Loss of elastic recoil

A 53-year-old male with a 20-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. When the nurse is asked what causes this, what is the nurse's best response? Changes in his lungs are caused by:

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

Individuals with a recent diagnosis of emphysema should be assessed for which most common presenting factor?


A 60-year-old female with a 25-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. She has an increased anterior-posterior chest diameter. The nurse attributes this finding to:

Air trapping

A patient asks what causes pneumonia. How should the nurse reply? Pneumonia is caused by:

Viral or bacterial infections

A 30-year-old male prison inmate contracted tuberculosis during an outbreak. When the nurse reviews the lab results, the organism that caused this condition is a:


A 30-year-old male prison inmate contracted tuberculosis during an outbreak. While planning interactions, the nurse realizes the patient can transmit this disease through:

Airborne droplets

A 70-year-old female is in the hospital for pelvic fracture. She develops pulmonary thromboembolism. The nurse realizes this embolus is composed of:

Blood clot

When a patient asks what the most common type of renal stones is composed of, how should the nurse respond? The most common type of renal stone is composed of:


A 25-year-old female presents with burning urination. She was diagnosed with a urinary tract infection. When the nurse checks the culture results, which of the following organisms is most likely infecting her urinary tract?

Escherichia coli

A nurse assesses a patient with a complicated urinary tract infection (UTI) for:

Other health problems

A 28-year-old female presents with fever, chills, and flank pain. She is diagnosed with pyelonephritis. A nurse recalls the patient's infection is located in the:

Renal pelvis

While planning care for a patient who has acute pyelonephritis. A nurse recalls the most common condition associated with the development of acute pyelonephritis is:

Urinary tract obstruction

A 54-year-old female is diagnosed with nephrotic syndrome. Which of the following is a common symptom of this disease?


A 60-year-old male is diagnosed with renal failure. While the nurse is reviewing lab results, which of the following lab values would be most consistent with this diagnosis?

Elevated plasma creatinine level

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