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substance that alters the structure or function of a living organism

psychoactive drug

acts promarily on the brain, changes behavior, emotion, perceptions and or consciousness

Monitoring the Future study (MTF)

assessment of substance abuse, survey, shows trends

Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)

assessment of substance abuse, tracks trends in major cities based on ER and morgue

psychoactive drugs categories

stimulants, hallucinogens, marijuana, depressants, opiates, psychotherapuetics, nicotine


stimulant, the speed at wihich the cocaine delivery system gets it to your blood = how addictive

LSD, mushrooms, ecstasy, PCP


Marijuana, medical uses...

glaucoma, asthma, chemo


alcohol, barbiturate, sedatives, inhalants


-men more likely to be dependant
-clinicians should screen often
-usually comes with something (smoking, depression, other drugs, anxiety, etc)

opiates (narcotics)

heroin, most commonly abused perscriptions are opiates (oxycodone, oxycontin, valium), cold medicine


prozac, haldal, lithium

drugs that affect dopamine

cocaine, amphetamine

drugs that affect serotonin

LSD, psilocybin

Drugs that affect GABA

alcohol, barbiturates, benzodiaapines

drugs that affect ehdorphins

heroin, oxycodone

comprehensive drug act 1970

prevention, treatment, harsher punishments for dealing/using

drug schedule

whether or not a drug can be used in medicine (S1-heroin-no, S2-morphine-some use, S3-barbiturate-can prescribe with limits...S5=OTC )

moral defect model of addiction

person has personal weakness, is sinnful, not a disease

psychological model

addictive personality

medical model

physiological/psychological addiction

biopsychosocial model

acknowledges the biological components but doesn't think addiction is a disease, has social factors

formal diagnosis uses

diagnostic and statistial manual of mental disorders DSM IV-TR

substance induced disorder


substance use disorder


Abuse criteria

continued used despite (1 or more):
-fail to fulfil life roles ie, work
-high risk taking
-legal problems
-social problems

Dependence criteria

at least three:
-use more, more often than intended
-presistant desire
-a lot of time devoted to drug
-use despite knowledge of problems
-give up activities
-marked tolerance

adolescent risk factors

gateway drug use, low SES, abuse history, culture/racial group, depression, alcohol/smoking, friends that do, no goals

adolescent protective factors

-positive home environment
-positive educational experience
-conventional peers
-positive attitude/beliefs


cut down
eye opener


depends on substance abused, usually drugs (withdrawal relief) and/or psychosocial

three phamocotherapy approaches

adjunct (treat co-occuring disprder), detox (withdrawal relief), maintenance (antagonist, agonist, punishment )

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