(endocrine) anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
is connected to the hypothalamus by blood vessels that form a portal system called the hypophyseal portal system.
The posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
is connected to the hypothalamus - it releases, but does not synthesize any hormones
Oxytocin (Posterior pituitary)
targets smooth muscle in the uterus and breasts.In the uterus, oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions, and in response to the sucking from an infant, oxytocin stimulates "milk letdown" in the breasts
ADH (Posterior pituitary)
targets the collecting ducts in the kidney and sweat glands in the skin to minimize water loss. It also directly causes arterioles to constrict thereby increasing blood pressure
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates the gonads to secrete progesteroneand or testosterone?
Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
Which of the following pairs of homrones are secreted by the posterior pituitary gland?
Functions of Blood
Transportation- blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body, and takes carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs to be exhaled out (Gas transportation).
Regulation- maintains homeostasis by regulating blood pH, adjusting body temperature.
Protection- WBC's destroy pathogens, blood can stop excessive bleeding by clotting.
the most abundant in the body; transports oxygen.
strange shape Biconcave, do not have a nucleus; which leaves space for oxygen transport.
- can change shape without breaking allowing them to squeeze single file through capillaries.
- contain hemoglobin which allows them to carry oxygen.
Hemoglobin has a protein called globin which house the pigment heme.
Heme has iron in its center that binds with 1 oxygen molecule.
life span of 120 days.
the body's defense mechanism, immunity.They circulate in our body looking for infections so that they can take action.
WBC's have a nuclei and a full complement of other organelles.
Their life span can range from several months or years, but most live only a few days.WBC's can be broken down into two groups :Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
Granulocytes- have a grainy feature.
Agranulocytes- have a smooth appearance.
are fragments of the cytoplasm; they lack a nucleus and are found circulating in the blood.
Platelets play a role in hemostasis.
Type of WBC agranulocyte Monocytes-
function like neutrophils. They break down huge pieces of bacteria so it can kill it.
Neutrophiles, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (Order from highest to lowest of WBC)
Which of the following hormones stimulates proliferation of red blood cells in red bone marrow?
Which of the following blood cells release granules that intensify the inflammatory response and promote hypersensitivity (allergic reactions)
Which of the following formed elements in blood are removed by fixed macrophages in the spleen and liver after only 5 to 9 days in the circulation?
The volume of blood that circulates through the systemic or pulmonary blood vessels per minute is called
If a patients cardiac output is 4760/ min her heart reate is 70 beat/min, her stroke volume is ?
A 20 year old man is stabbed in the middle on the sternum at the level of the 5th rib. Which of the following was most likely penetrated?
The blood vessels that play the most importatnt role in the regulation of blood flow to a tissue and blood pressure are the
The total blood volume is distributed throughout the vasculature and heart, In which vessels is most of the blood?
wall is the thickest because LV pushes blood to supply systemic circulation. pumps oxygenated blood onto aorta.
wall is thinner because it supplies blood to the lungs( smaller flow resistance),pumps blood to pulmonary trunk.
The inflammatory response
prevents the spread of harmful agents, disposes of pathogens, and dead tissues and promotes healing.
Steps to the inflammation process
Cells are injured
Histamine and kinis are released and they cause the blood vessels to dilate and the capillaries to become leaky.
Phagocytes and WBCs come to the scene of the injury via chemotaxis.
a monomer with two antigen-binding sites
Comprises 80% of total antibody
Only class able to cross the placenta
Provides long-term immunity
a pentamer with ten antigen-binding sites
It is a great activator of complement, but has a short-lived response.
It is the first antibody to appear in an immune response
a dimer with four antigen-binding sites
prevalent in body secretions like sweat, tears, saliva, breast milk and gastrointestinal fluids
a monomer with a wide array of functions, some of which have been a puzzle since its discovery in 1964
A 2 month old baby girl is diagnosed with syphilis. Which of the following antibodies in the infants serum will determine that the syphilis is a results of sexual abuse?
Histamine and kinis are released and cause blood vessels to constrict and the capillaries to become leaky
A 7 year old female picks up a bag of peanuts and immediatley has an allergic reaction. What /immunoglobulin was involved in this episode
Stimulate the release of lysosomes
The inflammatory process begins with the release of chemicals which do all of the following except?
stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each beat. SV is calculated using measurements of ventricle volumes from an echocardiogram and subtracting the volume of the blood in the ventricle at the end of a beat (called end-systolic volume) from the volume of blood just prior to the beat (called end-diastolic volume).
states that the stroke volume of the heart increases in response to an increase in the volume of blood filling the heart (the end diastolic volume).
When a person stands up:
cardiac output falls because of a fall in central venous pressure, which leads to a decrease in stroke volume.
The tongue is composed of skeletal muscle
it forces the moistened food bolus into position for swallowing and places the bolus into contact with the teeth for chewing.
There are 20 deciduous or "baby teeth" which begin to erupt around 6 months of age.
There are 32 permanent teeth
Saliva starts the process of chemical digestion of food.
Saliva is 99.5% water, with tiny amounts of dissolved ions, IgA, lysozyme (a bacteriolytic enzyme), and salivary amylase (a digestive enzyme that acts on starch).q
of the functions of the stomach is to serve as a mixing chamber and holding reservoir.
It secretes enzymes, which digest food in the small intestine, and sodium bicarbonate, which buffers the acidic pH of chyme.
Hepatocytes are the major functional cells of the liver.
the synthesis, transformation, and storage of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats detoxification, modification, and excretion of a variety of exogenous and endogenous substances
the gallbladder contracts and ejects stored bile.After surgical removal of the
gall bladder (called a cholecystectomy), a person would experience severe indigestion if they ate a large meal high in fat content
To become activated which requires being bound to a foreign antigen and simultaneous costimulation
Dilate blood vessels, Attract phagocytes to the area, Cause capillaries to become leaky, activate pain receptors
The inflammatory process begins with the release of chemicals which do all of the following
Glucose is the body's preferred source for making ATP.
The oxidation(OIL) of glucose to form ATP...
Glucose (C6H12O6) + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP
... is known as "Cellular Respiration" and occurs in 4 steps
4 steps of cellular respiration
Glycolysis is occurring in the
The Krebs cycle takes place in
the mitochondrial matrix
The cytochrome proteins of the
electron transport chain are embedded into the inner
the inner mitochondrial membrane
Regulation blood ionic composition, blood cell size, blood volume, blood pressure, blood pH
Function of the kidney
Interlobar arteries, arcuate arteries, glomerular capillaries, arcuate veins
Path of blood flow through the kidneys RSIAI AGEP IAISR
Which is the correct order of filtrate flow?
Glomerular capsule, proximal convulted tubes, loop of henle, distal convluted tubule, collecting duct
Increased secretion of aldosterone would results in a _________ of blood_____________.
Stress, causing excessive amounts of epinephrine secretion which stimulates glycogen breakdown, indicates which condition? This condition can also indicate diabetes mellitus
The afferent arterioles has a larger diameter
Glomerular pressure is due to a cariation in the size of the afferent and efferent arterioles. How the afferent arteriole differ in size form the efferent
A 63 yr old hospitalized woman becomes oliguirc and confused her blood glucose if found to be only 35 mg. an intravenous access is obtained and an ampute of 50% dextrose is give followed by a continous infusion of 10% detrose. Most of the glucose that is filtered through the glomerulus undergoes reabsorption in which of the following ?
Can be stimulated or innibited by higher centers in the brain, is stimulated by increased pressure in the bladder, can be stimulated by irritation of the bladder or urethra
The micturiation reflex
The location of the kidneys in relationship to the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is referred to as
Which endocrine gland is primarily concerned with sodium and potassium ion balance in the body
The tube that carries urine from the urinary fladder to the outside world is the _____and the tuve that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder is the ________
When MAP falls the sympathetic nervous system signals the kidneys to be stimulated.
The afferent arterioles are stretched less and the juxtaglomerular cells release the enzyme renin.
Once renin is released from the kidney it acts on angiotensinogen which is produced by the liver.
Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
In order to activate this mechanism,
Angiotensin I must pick up angiotensin-converting enzyme( ACE) to convert it to fully functional Angiotensin II.
Angiotensin II functions:
Vasoconstriction decreases GFR.
It increases blood volume by increasing reabsorption of water and electrolytes in the PCT.
It stimulates the adrenal cortex to release aldosteron
Metobolic alkalosis conditions
Excessive vomiting, endocrine disorders, excessive intake of antacids
How is respiratory alkalosis corrected
Renal compensation(decrease excretion of H+ and reabsorption of HCO3-) breathe into paper bag for quick results
How is metobolic acidosis corrected
Correctedby respiratory compensation
(hyperventilation decreases H+ ions and raises pH)
How is respiratory acidosis corrected
Corrected by renal compensation ( increasing excretion of H+ and reabsorption of bicarbonate)
The concentration of solutes
The direction of water movement bt fluid compartements is determined by
Because more bicarbonate ions are used up in venous blood to buffer hydrogen ions
Why are levels of bicarbonate ion higher in arterial blood than in venous blood?
Controlling reabsorption of sodium ions, which chloride ions follow due to electrical attraction
Aldosterone regulates the level of chloride ions in body fluids by
When bicarbonate ion diffuses out of reb blood cells into plasma, it is usually exchanges with which anion
Blood flows from the lungs toward the tissues w/ increasing acidity (ph decreases) and shifts the 02-Hb saturation curve to the right, enhancing unloading of 02.
Chest wall and lung expand easily, can be decreased by broken rib, emphysema or pneumonia
Surfactant keeps alveoli from collapsing, respirtory distresas syndrome= no surfactant occurs only in premies, fetus needs alot of surfactant and begin making it on womb