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181 terms

Final exam

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(endocrine) anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
is connected to the hypothalamus by blood vessels that form a portal system called the hypophyseal portal system.
Flatpeg
hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary are called
FSH (Follicle-stimulating hormone)
stimulates follicle development in the ovaries.
LH (Luteinizing hormone)
triggers ovulation.
ACTH( Adrenocorticotropic hormone)
released in response to stress
TSH ( Thyroid-stimulating hormone)
growth activity,
Prolactin
produces milk
GH (Growth hormone)
growth of skeletal muscles and long
The posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)
is connected to the hypothalamus - it releases, but does not synthesize any hormones
Oxytocin (Posterior pituitary)
targets smooth muscle in the uterus and breasts.In the uterus, oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions, and in response to the sucking from an infant, oxytocin stimulates "milk letdown" in the breasts
ADH (Posterior pituitary)
targets the collecting ducts in the kidney and sweat glands in the skin to minimize water loss. It also directly causes arterioles to constrict thereby increasing blood pressure
Prolactin
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates milk production?
Lutenizing hormone
Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates the gonads to secrete progesteroneand or testosterone?
Anterior pituitary produces
hGH, Human growth hormone
Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone
Which of the following pairs of homrones are secreted by the posterior pituitary gland?
Thyroid hormone
Which of the following hormones promotes increases in the basal metobolic rate BMR?
Bones and skeletal
The major target of growth hormones are
True
ADH causes arterioles to constrict thereby increasing blood pressure.
Oxytocin
release is an example of positive feedback mechanism
Antidiuretic hormone ADH
is inhibited by alcohol
Arteries-
carry blood away from the heart.
Arterioles-
are small arteries that regulate blood flow into the capillaries.
Capillaries-
allow gas exchange between the blood and the body
Venules-
groups of capillaries that form small veins.
Veins-
blood vessels that carry blood from the tissues back to the heart.
Functions of Blood
Transportation- blood transports oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body, and takes carbon dioxide from the cells to the lungs to be exhaled out (Gas transportation).
Regulation- maintains homeostasis by regulating blood pH, adjusting body temperature.
Protection- WBC's destroy pathogens, blood can stop excessive bleeding by clotting.
Erythrocytes(RBCs)-
the most abundant in the body; transports oxygen.
strange shape Biconcave, do not have a nucleus; which leaves space for oxygen transport.
- can change shape without breaking allowing them to squeeze single file through capillaries.
- contain hemoglobin which allows them to carry oxygen.
Hemoglobin has a protein called globin which house the pigment heme.
Heme has iron in its center that binds with 1 oxygen molecule.
life span of 120 days.
Thrombocytes( Platelets)-
responsible for blood clotting
Leukocytes( WBCs)-
the body's defense mechanism, immunity.They circulate in our body looking for infections so that they can take action.
WBC's have a nuclei and a full complement of other organelles.
Their life span can range from several months or years, but most live only a few days.WBC's can be broken down into two groups :Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
Granulocytes- have a grainy feature.
Agranulocytes- have a smooth appearance.
Platelets( Thrombocytes)-
are fragments of the cytoplasm; they lack a nucleus and are found circulating in the blood.
Platelets play a role in hemostasis.
Type or WBC granulocyte Basophills-
activated in allergic reactions.
Type or WBC granulocyte Esonophills-
activated in parasitic infections and allergies.
Type or WBC granulocyte Neutrophils-
Kill bacteria and foreign particles
Type of WBC agranulocyte Lymphocytes-
function with the immune system. (NK cells)
Type of WBC agranulocyte Monocytes-
function like neutrophils. They break down huge pieces of bacteria so it can kill it.
NLMEB
Neutrophiles, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Erythrocytes, Basophils (Order from highest to lowest of WBC)
EPO erythropoietin
Which of the following hormones stimulates proliferation of red blood cells in red bone marrow?
Nutrient transport
The Major function of reb blood cells
Normal blood ph
7.35-7.45
Basophil
Which of the following blood cells release granules that intensify the inflammatory response and promote hypersensitivity (allergic reactions)
Basophil
Which of the following cells is not an agranular leukocyte?
Thrombocytes
Which of the following formed elements in blood are removed by fixed macrophages in the spleen and liver after only 5 to 9 days in the circulation?
Arterioles
This type of blood bessel plays a key role in regulationg blood flow into capillaries
Cardiac output is dependent on both
heart rate and stroke volume
Distributing vessels
Capillaries are also referred to as
Cardiac output
The volume of blood that circulates through the systemic or pulmonary blood vessels per minute is called
Arterioles
Which of the following types of blood vessels have high pulsing blood pressure?
70 is
Normal resting stroke volume is about ? mL
68mL
If a patients cardiac output is 4760/ min her heart reate is 70 beat/min, her stroke volume is ?
5 liters
In an adult the blood volume is about
True
Granulocytes called neutrophils are phagocytic and the most numerous of all white blood cells
False
In an ECG, the electrical activity assocated with atrial repolariztion is seen in the T wave
Right Ventricle
A 20 year old man is stabbed in the middle on the sternum at the level of the 5th rib. Which of the following was most likely penetrated?
Arterioles
The blood vessels that play the most importatnt role in the regulation of blood flow to a tissue and blood pressure are the
Veins
The total blood volume is distributed throughout the vasculature and heart, In which vessels is most of the blood?
Cardiac output times TPR
Mean Arterial pressure MAP is defined as ?
4900 mL
You can calculate your normal patients CO at a normal resting rate and you calculate?
Left ventricle
wall is the thickest because LV pushes blood to supply systemic circulation. pumps oxygenated blood onto aorta.
Right ventricle
wall is thinner because it supplies blood to the lungs( smaller flow resistance),pumps blood to pulmonary trunk.
P-wave-
atrial depolarization.
P-Q interval-
the time it takes the atrial kick to fill the ventricles.
QRS wave-
ventricular depolarization and atrial repolarization.
ST segment-
the time it takes to empty the ventricle before they repolarize.
Twave-
ventricular repolarization.
"lub-dub"
When you hear ? it is because you are hearing your valves open and close
The "Lub" (s1)
sound is heard when the mitral valve and tricupsid valve shut.
The "Dub" (S2)
sound is heard when the aortic valve and the semilunar valves shut.
The 5 Cardinal signs of inflammation:
Pain
Redness
Swelling
Heat
Loss of function
The inflammatory response
prevents the spread of harmful agents, disposes of pathogens, and dead tissues and promotes healing.
Steps to the inflammation process
Cells are injured
Histamine and kinis are released and they cause the blood vessels to dilate and the capillaries to become leaky.
Pain
Phagocytes and WBCs come to the scene of the injury via chemotaxis.
IgG antibody-
a monomer with two antigen-binding sites
Comprises 80% of total antibody
Only class able to cross the placenta
Provides long-term immunity
IgM -
a pentamer with ten antigen-binding sites
It is a great activator of complement, but has a short-lived response.
It is the first antibody to appear in an immune response
IgA -
a dimer with four antigen-binding sites
prevalent in body secretions like sweat, tears, saliva, breast milk and gastrointestinal fluids
IgD -
a monomer with a wide array of functions, some of which have been a puzzle since its discovery in 1964
Lipids
What cause lymph from the small intestines to appear white?
Macrophages
Which of these does not provide a physical and chemical barrier?
Mucus production
Which of the following is not a sign of inflammation ?
Antigen
Which induces the production of a specific antibody?
Antigen presenting cells
Which class of cells includes macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells ?
Helper T Cells
Which cells display CD4 proteins and interact with MHC Class II antigens
IgA
Which class of anitbodies is mainly found in sweat, tears, breast milk and GI secretions
IgM
Which class of antibodies indicates a recent invasion?
Mucous Cells
Which is part of the bodies second line of defense?
IgM
Which immunoglobulin is a pentamer?
IgG
A 2 month old baby girl is diagnosed with syphilis. Which of the following antibodies in the infants serum will determine that the syphilis is a results of sexual abuse?
True
Histamine and kinis are released and cause blood vessels to constrict and the capillaries to become leaky
IgE
A 7 year old female picks up a bag of peanuts and immediatley has an allergic reaction. What /immunoglobulin was involved in this episode
Stimulate the release of lysosomes
The inflammatory process begins with the release of chemicals which do all of the following except?
Stroke volume
stroke volume (SV) is the volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each beat. SV is calculated using measurements of ventricle volumes from an echocardiogram and subtracting the volume of the blood in the ventricle at the end of a beat (called end-systolic volume) from the volume of blood just prior to the beat (called end-diastolic volume).
Sterling's Law
states that the stroke volume of the heart increases in response to an increase in the volume of blood filling the heart (the end diastolic volume).
cardiac output
increases or decreases in response to changes in heart rate or stroke volume.
When a person stands up:
cardiac output falls because of a fall in central venous pressure, which leads to a decrease in stroke volume.
The tongue is composed of skeletal muscle
it forces the moistened food bolus into position for swallowing and places the bolus into contact with the teeth for chewing.
Teeth
There are 20 deciduous or "baby teeth" which begin to erupt around 6 months of age.
There are 32 permanent teeth
Saliva
Saliva starts the process of chemical digestion of food.
Saliva is 99.5% water, with tiny amounts of dissolved ions, IgA, lysozyme (a bacteriolytic enzyme), and salivary amylase (a digestive enzyme that acts on starch).q
The stomachone
of the functions of the stomach is to serve as a mixing chamber and holding reservoir.
Pancrease
It secretes enzymes, which digest food in the small intestine, and sodium bicarbonate, which buffers the acidic pH of chyme.
Liver
Hepatocytes are the major functional cells of the liver.
the synthesis, transformation, and storage of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats detoxification, modification, and excretion of a variety of exogenous and endogenous substances
Gallbladder
the gallbladder contracts and ejects stored bile.After surgical removal of the
gall bladder (called a cholecystectomy), a person would experience severe indigestion if they ate a large meal high in fat content
Salivary Glands
Which of the following accessory organs produces a fluid to soften food?
Macrophages
Which of these does not provide a physical or chemical barrier?
Antigen
Which induces the production of a specific antibody?
Antigen presenting cells
Which class of cells includes macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells?
MHC antigen
To become activated which requires being bound to a foreign antigen and simultaneous costimulation
Helper T cells mature
in Bone
Natural killer cells
Which if part of the bodies second line of defense
Transfer of IgG from mother to fetus
Natural immunity is associated with which of the following ?
True
helper T lymphocytes cells are also called CD4
True
Helper T cells are involved in humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity
False
MHC I molecules are only found on APCs
Dilate blood vessels, Attract phagocytes to the area, Cause capillaries to become leaky, activate pain receptors
The inflammatory process begins with the release of chemicals which do all of the following
Cellular respiration
Glucose is the body's preferred source for making ATP.
The oxidation(OIL) of glucose to form ATP...
Glucose (C6H12O6) + O2 CO2 + H2O + ATP
... is known as "Cellular Respiration" and occurs in 4 steps
4 steps of cellular respiration
Glycolysis is occurring in the
cytoplasm
The Krebs cycle takes place in
the mitochondrial matrix
The cytochrome proteins of the
electron transport chain are embedded into the inner
the inner mitochondrial membrane
Regulation blood ionic composition, blood cell size, blood volume, blood pressure, blood pH
Function of the kidney
Interlobar arteries, arcuate arteries, glomerular capillaries, arcuate veins
Path of blood flow through the kidneys RSIAI AGEP IAISR
Which is the correct order of filtrate flow?
Glomerular capsule, proximal convulted tubes, loop of henle, distal convluted tubule, collecting duct
Proximal convoluted tubule
which structure of the nephron reabsords the most substances?
Glomerular capsule
This is the structure of the nephron that filters blood
Reabsorption
This term means the return of substances into the blood stream from the filtrate
Increase, sodium
Increased secretion of aldosterone would results in a _________ of blood_____________.
Urinalysis
An analysis of the physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of urine is called
95%
Water accounts for which percentage of teh toltal volume of urine?
Plasma creatine
This is a test to measure kidney function
Ureter
This transports urine from the kidney to the bladder
Glucosuria
Stress, causing excessive amounts of epinephrine secretion which stimulates glycogen breakdown, indicates which condition? This condition can also indicate diabetes mellitus
Decreased blood pressure
Absence of angiotensin converting enzyme will lead to
The afferent arterioles has a larger diameter
Glomerular pressure is due to a cariation in the size of the afferent and efferent arterioles. How the afferent arteriole differ in size form the efferent
Both voluntary and involuntary
Micturation is under what type of control
Proximal tubule
Most reabsorption of substances from the flomerular filtrate occurs in the ?
Liver
Angiotensinogen is produced by the
Nephron
This is the functional unit of the kidney
Increased urine volume, decreased urine osmolarity
Drinking large amount of beer results in
Proximal tubule
A 63 yr old hospitalized woman becomes oliguirc and confused her blood glucose if found to be only 35 mg. an intravenous access is obtained and an ampute of 50% dextrose is give followed by a continous infusion of 10% detrose. Most of the glucose that is filtered through the glomerulus undergoes reabsorption in which of the following ?
ADH
The permeability of the distal tubule and the cellecting duct is controlled by
Can be stimulated or innibited by higher centers in the brain, is stimulated by increased pressure in the bladder, can be stimulated by irritation of the bladder or urethra
The micturiation reflex
Retroperitoneal
The location of the kidneys in relationship to the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is referred to as
Prostate
All of the following belong to the urinary sytem except the
Adrenal cortex
Which endocrine gland is primarily concerned with sodium and potassium ion balance in the body
Renal cortex
What is the outermost portion of the kidney
2
How many sphincters are found in the urethra
Ureter, urethra
The tube that carries urine from the urinary fladder to the outside world is the _____and the tuve that carries urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder is the ________
Angiotensin
What causes vessel constriction to reaise bloode pressure
Renin,lowered
The JGA produces _____which is needed which blood pressure is __________.
Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
When MAP falls the sympathetic nervous system signals the kidneys to be stimulated.
The afferent arterioles are stretched less and the juxtaglomerular cells release the enzyme renin.
Once renin is released from the kidney it acts on angiotensinogen which is produced by the liver.
Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I.
Angiotensin
causes blood vessels to constrict, and drives blood pressure up.
In order to activate this mechanism,
Angiotensin I must pick up angiotensin-converting enzyme( ACE) to convert it to fully functional Angiotensin II.
Angiotensin II functions:
Vasoconstriction decreases GFR.
It increases blood volume by increasing reabsorption of water and electrolytes in the PCT.
It stimulates the adrenal cortex to release aldosteron
Normal range of urine pH
4.6-8.0
How is metobolic alkalosis corrected
Respiratory compensation (hypoventilation)
Metobolic alkalosis conditions
Excessive vomiting, endocrine disorders, excessive intake of antacids
Metobolic alkalosis
Occurs whenever HCO3- concentration is above 26 mEq/liter
Respiratory alkalosis
Occurs whenever the blood Pco2 falls below 35 mmHg
Respiratory alkalosis conditions
Oxygen deficiency, stroke, pulmonary disease
How is respiratory alkalosis corrected
Renal compensation(decrease excretion of H+ and reabsorption of HCO3-) breathe into paper bag for quick results
Metobolic Acidosis
Occurs whenever HCO3 level drops below 22 mEq/liter
Metobolic Acidosis conditions
Diabetic ketoacidosis or aspirin overdose
How is metobolic acidosis corrected
Correctedby respiratory compensation
(hyperventilation decreases H+ ions and raises pH)
Respiratory acidosis
Occurs when CO2 reaches above 45 mmHg; accumulates because of hypoventilation
Respiratory acidosis conditions
Emphysema, pulmonary edema.
How is respiratory acidosis corrected
Corrected by renal compensation ( increasing excretion of H+ and reabsorption of bicarbonate)
The concentration of solutes
The direction of water movement bt fluid compartements is determined by
Water intoxication
Drinking plain water after excessive sweating leads to
Weak Base
Bicarbonate ion acts as a
Enhancing passive movement of water out of the collecting ducts
ADH saves water by
Hypothalmus
The area that stimulates the conscious desire to drink water is located in the
Aldosterone
Levels of sodium ions in the extracellular fluid are regulated primarily by
Aldosterone
Levels of potassium ions in the extracellular fluid regulated primarily by
HCO3-
Which of the following would serve to buffer H+
Bicarbonate ions
In compensating for respiratory alkalosis the body excretes more
NA+
Which of the following ions is most abuncant in extacellular fluid
Because more bicarbonate ions are used up in venous blood to buffer hydrogen ions
Why are levels of bicarbonate ion higher in arterial blood than in venous blood?
Controlling reabsorption of sodium ions, which chloride ions follow due to electrical attraction
Aldosterone regulates the level of chloride ions in body fluids by
Chloride
When bicarbonate ion diffuses out of reb blood cells into plasma, it is usually exchanges with which anion
Bohr effect
Blood flows from the lungs toward the tissues w/ increasing acidity (ph decreases) and shifts the 02-Hb saturation curve to the right, enhancing unloading of 02.
Curve shifted to the left
Decrease in temp, c02 and h+
Curve shifted to the right
Increased temperature, c02 and h+ 02-hb curved is
Lung compliance
Chest wall and lung expand easily, can be decreased by broken rib, emphysema or pneumonia
Surface tension
Surfactant keeps alveoli from collapsing, respirtory distresas syndrome= no surfactant occurs only in premies, fetus needs alot of surfactant and begin making it on womb
High surface tension
This means the lungs and the chest wall expand easily.
Decreases lung compliance
Inability to produce surfactant will?
Boyles law
If volume increases pressure decreases and vice versa, curve is shifted to the right meaning oxygen is not binding as strongly to hemoglobin