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what did middle ages come from

medium (middle)
-combined elements of classical and germanic cultures with christian beliefs

merovingian rulers

early frankish rulers
-held power until ad 700

decline of frankish kingdom

-followed custom of dividing kingdom among heirs
-heirs became rivals and fought each other for the land

mayors of the palace

government officials

where did carolingian come from

charles the great, written as charles magnus

capital of charlemagne's empire


what idea united western europeans

creation of the christian roman empire

controvery over charlemagne being granted emperor of roman empire

the pope granted it to him, so it was stating that the pope had more power over him which he did not like


local officials
-solved local problems
-stopped feuds
-protected the weak
-raised armies for the emperor

missi dominici

-royal messengers who went on inspections to tell charlemagne how the counts were doing

results of charlemagnes death

left void Loui the Pious, son, could not fill
-three grandsons fought over realm

people who invaded and destroyed carolingian empire

-muslims from north africa, slavs, Magyars, Vikings


traveled in good ships
-became known for surprise attacks
-what they could not steal, they burned
-explorers and settlers
-skilled in trading and sailing
-worshiped many dietiestold great stories of gods,



consequences of vikings

-isolated communities
-weakened central authority
-trade declined
-economic collapse

what brought feudalism?

rise of a new central government


highly decentralized form of government that stressed alliances of mutual protection between monarchs and nobles of varying degrees of power

-->based on giving land to nobles in exchange for loyalty and military aid

what year did feudalism rise?


musim technology

used saddles with stirrups and fought on horseback

-->charles martel wanted them but he would need a new military system: granted fiefs


estates with peasants

how did fiefs help charles martel

allowed warriors to get income to buy horses and battle equipment

-->granted them to nobles and lots: swore an oath of loyal and granted military service to kings

-->emerged as feudalism

feudal pyramid

-king at top
-each lord =vassal : noble who served lord that was next or higher rank
-bottom: knights


-solemn ceremony between lords and vassals

-->in return for a fief, a vassal pledged to perform certain duties ex: military service

vassals agreements to lord

provide lord with certain amount of knights during battle , serve lords court, provide food and lodging when lord came to visit, contribute funds when lords son became a knight/ daughter married, paid ransom


needed because of lack of central government and lots of warfare

-every noble built a castle

first castles: wooden buildings with high fences
evolved to:
castles made out of stone, thick walls, small towers

where were castles?

built on hills surrounded with moats
-square tower called keeps
-many rooms, halls, dungeons

-cold, dingy, and damp

buildings in castle

barracks, storerooms, workshops, chapel

who made up nobility?

lords ladies and knights


had few rights--arranged marriage at 12, brought up children, took care of household, made medicines, embroidery
--some shared supervision of estate with lord and took over mens duties while away at war


tournaments, hunting, falconry, archery

how to become a knight

-men began training at age 7 as a page
-at 15 became a squire
-knighted in elaborate ceremony


-learned manners and use of weapons


assisted a knight and practiced using weapons


code calling knights to be brave in battle keep promises defend church , that women in good manner

where did wealth of feudal lords come from?

peasants who worked the land


system of agriculture production
-provided lords and peasants with food, shelter, and protection
-concerns economic ties between nobles and peasants

--lack of freedom/opportunity
--created stable/secure way of life during violent times

what did manorials include

lords house, pastures, fields for crops, forest acres, peasant village

peasant life on the manor

-obligted to give to lord
-set number of days aside to help out lord
-could not trade b/c of warfare so they had to produce everything
-had specialized jobs
-rarely left manor


-peseants bound to the manor and could not leave without permission
**not slaves!


plow, three field system


-deeper cuts in soil
-made less time in field for peasants
-farmers developed better methods of planting

three field system

ad 1000
-rotated between three fields, one always left open
-produced more crops, helped preserve soil

pesant life

-poverty/ hardship
-famine and disease
-hardest hit with plagues etc.


-lived in tiny one room houses with dirt floors, no chimney, one to two pieces of furniture
-little food, meat was a rarity
-able to relax on sundays

what did nobles and serfs share in common

-interest in the land
-all equal in eyes of god

dominant spiritual influence in europe

catholic church
-church=center of peoples lives

how did church take on political tasks?

decline of rome in 400's

-bishop of rome (pope) became strongest political leader


-strongest political leader
-claimed spiritual authority over all christians
-first pope=chosen by jesus to lead people

teachings of catholic church

-all people were sinners and dependent on gods grace/ favor
-only way to receive grace was by taking part in sacraments


-church rituals: baptism, penance, eucharist, confirmation, matrimony,anointing of the sick, holy orders


-holly communion-->commemorated christ's death

what did the priest do at mass/ why

blessed wheat wafers and a cup of wine that stood on an alter

-people received jesus's invisible presence through bread and wine

how did people learn about christianity

-could not understand prayer, could not read or write
-learned with stain glassed windows, paintings, and statues

parish priests

-conducted services in communities

secular clergy

pope, bishops, and priests
-lived in saeculo
"in the world"

regular clergy

-lived by a regula (rule)
-monks and nuns
-strengthened medieval church


founded first monastery (monte cassino) in italy
-became model for monks
-drew up list of rules

benedicts rule about monks

-could not marry, could not own goods, bound to obay monastic laws, life=one of poverty, charity, and obedience to monastery head


head of monastery

monk life

-long robes made of simple materials
-tied at the waist
-ate one or two plain meals a day
-had rule of silence


lived in abbess
-simple clothes
-wrapped white cloth around face
-alternate prayer with spinning, wheeling, weaving, embroidering items such as tapestries
-taught needlework, medicinal use of herbs to the daughters of nobles

role monks and nuns play

-preserved ancient writings
-scribes copied books by hands
-illuminated manuscripts
-provided schools and hospitals
-taught peasants carpentry and weaving
-spread christian teachings (missionaries)

medieval catholic church

-had own laws and courts that dealt with cases related to clergy, doctrine, and marriage/ morals
-feudal ties that boosted its wealth and political power
-church officials held land from king in return for military service
-received donations from nobles wanting to earn salvation
-nobles began to influence church positions

monastery at cluny

-sent representatives to monasteries to help them undertake reforms

how did people want to change church

-wanted to reform it and free it from control of feudal lords
-wanted church, not state, to be final authority

instead of by political leaders, how was the pope to be elected?

cardinals: high church officials ranking directly below pope

who was to elect church officials instead of secular rulers?


lay investiture

secular rulers gave symbols of office to bishops they appointed

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