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68 terms

HUM CH. 12

what did middle ages come from
medium (middle)
-combined elements of classical and germanic cultures with christian beliefs
merovingian rulers
early frankish rulers
-held power until ad 700
decline of frankish kingdom
-followed custom of dividing kingdom among heirs
-heirs became rivals and fought each other for the land
mayors of the palace
government officials
where did carolingian come from
charles the great, written as charles magnus
capital of charlemagne's empire
what idea united western europeans
creation of the christian roman empire
controvery over charlemagne being granted emperor of roman empire
the pope granted it to him, so it was stating that the pope had more power over him which he did not like
local officials
-solved local problems
-stopped feuds
-protected the weak
-raised armies for the emperor
missi dominici
-royal messengers who went on inspections to tell charlemagne how the counts were doing
results of charlemagnes death
left void Loui the Pious, son, could not fill
-three grandsons fought over realm
people who invaded and destroyed carolingian empire
-muslims from north africa, slavs, Magyars, Vikings
traveled in good ships
-became known for surprise attacks
-what they could not steal, they burned
-explorers and settlers
-skilled in trading and sailing
-worshiped many dietiestold great stories of gods,
consequences of vikings
-isolated communities
-weakened central authority
-trade declined
-economic collapse
what brought feudalism?
rise of a new central government
highly decentralized form of government that stressed alliances of mutual protection between monarchs and nobles of varying degrees of power

-->based on giving land to nobles in exchange for loyalty and military aid
what year did feudalism rise?
musim technology
used saddles with stirrups and fought on horseback

-->charles martel wanted them but he would need a new military system: granted fiefs
estates with peasants
how did fiefs help charles martel
allowed warriors to get income to buy horses and battle equipment

-->granted them to nobles and lots: swore an oath of loyal and granted military service to kings

-->emerged as feudalism
feudal pyramid
-king at top
-each lord =vassal : noble who served lord that was next or higher rank
-bottom: knights
-solemn ceremony between lords and vassals

-->in return for a fief, a vassal pledged to perform certain duties ex: military service
vassals agreements to lord
provide lord with certain amount of knights during battle , serve lords court, provide food and lodging when lord came to visit, contribute funds when lords son became a knight/ daughter married, paid ransom
needed because of lack of central government and lots of warfare

-every noble built a castle

first castles: wooden buildings with high fences
evolved to:
castles made out of stone, thick walls, small towers
where were castles?
built on hills surrounded with moats
-square tower called keeps
-many rooms, halls, dungeons

-cold, dingy, and damp
buildings in castle
barracks, storerooms, workshops, chapel
who made up nobility?
lords ladies and knights
had few rights--arranged marriage at 12, brought up children, took care of household, made medicines, embroidery
--some shared supervision of estate with lord and took over mens duties while away at war
tournaments, hunting, falconry, archery
how to become a knight
-men began training at age 7 as a page
-at 15 became a squire
-knighted in elaborate ceremony
-learned manners and use of weapons
assisted a knight and practiced using weapons
code calling knights to be brave in battle keep promises defend church , that women in good manner
where did wealth of feudal lords come from?
peasants who worked the land
system of agriculture production
-provided lords and peasants with food, shelter, and protection
-concerns economic ties between nobles and peasants

--lack of freedom/opportunity
--created stable/secure way of life during violent times
what did manorials include
lords house, pastures, fields for crops, forest acres, peasant village
peasant life on the manor
-obligted to give to lord
-set number of days aside to help out lord
-could not trade b/c of warfare so they had to produce everything
-had specialized jobs
-rarely left manor
-peseants bound to the manor and could not leave without permission
**not slaves!
plow, three field system
-deeper cuts in soil
-made less time in field for peasants
-farmers developed better methods of planting
three field system
ad 1000
-rotated between three fields, one always left open
-produced more crops, helped preserve soil
pesant life
-poverty/ hardship
-famine and disease
-hardest hit with plagues etc.
-lived in tiny one room houses with dirt floors, no chimney, one to two pieces of furniture
-little food, meat was a rarity
-able to relax on sundays
what did nobles and serfs share in common
-interest in the land
-all equal in eyes of god
dominant spiritual influence in europe
catholic church
-church=center of peoples lives
how did church take on political tasks?
decline of rome in 400's

-bishop of rome (pope) became strongest political leader
-strongest political leader
-claimed spiritual authority over all christians
-first pope=chosen by jesus to lead people
teachings of catholic church
-all people were sinners and dependent on gods grace/ favor
-only way to receive grace was by taking part in sacraments
-church rituals: baptism, penance, eucharist, confirmation, matrimony,anointing of the sick, holy orders
-holly communion-->commemorated christ's death
what did the priest do at mass/ why
blessed wheat wafers and a cup of wine that stood on an alter

-people received jesus's invisible presence through bread and wine
how did people learn about christianity
-could not understand prayer, could not read or write
-learned with stain glassed windows, paintings, and statues
parish priests
-conducted services in communities
secular clergy
pope, bishops, and priests
-lived in saeculo
"in the world"
regular clergy
-lived by a regula (rule)
-monks and nuns
-strengthened medieval church
founded first monastery (monte cassino) in italy
-became model for monks
-drew up list of rules
benedicts rule about monks
-could not marry, could not own goods, bound to obay monastic laws, life=one of poverty, charity, and obedience to monastery head
head of monastery
monk life
-long robes made of simple materials
-tied at the waist
-ate one or two plain meals a day
-had rule of silence
lived in abbess
-simple clothes
-wrapped white cloth around face
-alternate prayer with spinning, wheeling, weaving, embroidering items such as tapestries
-taught needlework, medicinal use of herbs to the daughters of nobles
role monks and nuns play
-preserved ancient writings
-scribes copied books by hands
-illuminated manuscripts
-provided schools and hospitals
-taught peasants carpentry and weaving
-spread christian teachings (missionaries)
medieval catholic church
-had own laws and courts that dealt with cases related to clergy, doctrine, and marriage/ morals
-feudal ties that boosted its wealth and political power
-church officials held land from king in return for military service
-received donations from nobles wanting to earn salvation
-nobles began to influence church positions
monastery at cluny
-sent representatives to monasteries to help them undertake reforms
how did people want to change church
-wanted to reform it and free it from control of feudal lords
-wanted church, not state, to be final authority
instead of by political leaders, how was the pope to be elected?
cardinals: high church officials ranking directly below pope
who was to elect church officials instead of secular rulers?
lay investiture
secular rulers gave symbols of office to bishops they appointed