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100 terms


from the turtorial test
The component of personality that operates according to the reality principle is the
People who use "giving up" or behavioral disengagement as a coping strategy typically experience
increased, rather than decreased, distress
While a person with _____ experiences anxiety only in certain specific situations, a person with _____ experiences anxiety in a wide variety of situations
phobic disorder; generalized anxiety disorder
The two identity statuses that decrease with age are
identity diffusion and identity foreclosure
Which of the following personality traits appears to be related to the likelihood of developing a somatoform disorder?
Within academic psychology, Freud's ideas initially encountered resistance because he emphasized
the unconscious
Cultural variations in the emergence of basic skills such as sitting and walking demonstrate that environmental factors
can accelerate or slow early motor development.
John Watson differed with Sir Francis Galton on this matter related to the field of psychology
genetic vs. environmental influence on behavior
An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical exercise helps people's mood (makes them happier). Subjects in the experimental group participate on Monday and Tuesday and those in the control group on Wednesday and Thursday. What is an extraneous variable?
day of the week
According to the notion of semantic networks, which pair of words should be linked MOST closely?
At what age does the "vocabulary spurt" occur?
18 months
When their mom took them to the store yesterday she asked David and Andrew to help her remember to buy apples. While David focused his attention on how apples were his favorite fruit, Andrew thought of seeing a bag of big red apples in the shopping cart. David was using ____ and Andrew was using ____.
elaboration; visual imagery
Studies of response-outcome relations and reinforcement have found that
people actively reason out the relations between responses and the outcomes that follow
During which stage in Piaget's system is the child first able to handle conservation problems and hierarchical classification problems?
concrete operations
In experimental research, subjects in the control group
do not receive special treatment in regard to the independent variable
John suffers from chronic anxiety. He tends to worry constantly and is uncomfortable in a wide variety of situations. He decides to seek therapy. John put considerable thought into what he wants to gain from therapy. John believes that if he learns why he is so anxious he will be better able to cope. Based on John's beliefs, he is MOST likely to seek a therapist that emphasizes the _____ approach.
insight therapy
Therapeutic drugs that reduce tension, apprehension, and nervousness are
antianxiety drugs
A psychologist conducts a memory study. To ensure the validity of the results the researcher should
replicate their results
Roommates Ann and Margaret both woke up yesterday with a headache, upset stomach, and muscle stiffness. While Ann was showering for her 9:00 art history class, Margaret rushed off to the college health clinic. Most likely Margaret exhibits a _____ than Ann.
higher level of anxiety and higher level of neuroticism
Which of the following is NOT an example of punishment?
nagging a child until she pick up her toys
A gunshot wound in the back of the head would cause the victim to be permanently unable to maintain bodily coordination. The part of the brain that would be damaged is the
If an employee of a company that conducts telephone surveys receives $1.00 for every three completed surveys he conducts, he is being paid on a _____ schedule.
fixed ratio
Forty-seven-year-old Jennifer has recently started tutoring students at the elementary school her own children attended many years ago. She enjoys being around the children and feels a great deal of satisfaction from her tutoring. Jennifer appears to be successfully resolving the crisis of
generativity versus self-absorption
Which of the following is not a factor that plays an important role in the etiology of somatoform disorders?
genetic endowment
Freud believed that we are often not the masters of our mind because of
the unconscious
Psychologists who doubt the accuracy of recovered memories of abuse maintain that
the recovered memories are inadvertently created in individuals after a therapist makes suggestions of childhood abuse
According to Hans Eysenck, personality is largely
Which of the following is NOT correct regarding who seeks therapy?
people with flexible jobs are more likely to receive therapy
The size of the human brain does NOT increase after what age?
Which broad category of personality theories has been characterized as having a sexist bias?
Aggression is frequently triggered by
The assertion that "psychology is empirical" means that psychology is based on
The neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that schizophrenia may be caused, in part, by
disruptions in the normal maturational process of the brain before or at birth
Systematic desensitization involves
training to relax when confronted with anxiety arousing stimuli
If you remember the names of the Great Lakes (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior) by recalling the word "HOMES" as a cue, you are using a(n)
Research concerning the etiology of schizophrenic disorders has implicated excessive activity of the neurotransmitter(s)
Forgetting can be caused by all of the following EXCEPT
repression failures
An eating disorder characterized by out-of-control overeating followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts such as self-induced vomiting is
bulimia nervosa
Which of the following is NOT a major area of specialization in research psychology?
Broca's area is located in the
left frontal lobe.
Camilla thinks of herself as a shy person who is often anxious in social settings, however her friends would describe her as outgoing and relaxed. According to Carl Rogers, Camilla is likely to
experience incongruence
The research on adopted children and intelligence has found that there is a significant similarity between the children and
both sets of parents
Theodore suffered a stroke recently, and now he finds he constantly hears a buzzing sound in his ears. In this case, it is likely that the stroke occurred in Theodore's
temporal lobe
Alexander's physician has patients double and triple booked. He spends less than five minutes examining and talking with Alexander during his latest doctor's appointment. Alexander's experience illustrates which of the common barrier to effective provider-patient communication?
time constraints on the length of the provider-patient interaction
Corrina constantly experiences feelings of dread and despair. Lately, she finds that she is thinking more and more about committing suicide so she can end her feelings of desperation and hopelessness. In this example, Corrina's feelings of dread and despair would most likely be considered
personally distressing
The fact that research results can be affected by experimenter bias illustrates which of your text's unifying themes?
our experience of the world is highly subjective
For John B. Watson, the appropriate subject matter of psychology was
animal behavior
Which of the following personality traits, when seen in married individuals, reduces the risk of divorce?
Which of the following correlation coefficients would make you MOST likely to bet, "If you tell me a person's score on variable A, I can predict their score on variable B?"
Which of the following is NOT one of the primary reasons people procrastinate seeking medical attention when faced with a medical emergency such as a heart attack?
people tend to be immobilized by anxiety and fear associated with their symptoms
Personality traits that have been associated with the development of anorexia nervosa include all of the following EXCEPT
high self-esteem
Which of the following is a short-term side effect of electroconvulsive therapy?
impaired attention
Which of the following definitions of "personality" BEST reflects the views of B.F. Skinner?
a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations
The personality trait known as extraversion is also referred to by psychologists as _____.
positive emotionality
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
females tend to score higher on measures of visual-spatial abilities than males
Which of the following is NOT good advice for improving your test-taking ability?
check for hidden complexities in simple-looking questions
Having a rather poor sense of self-worth, Bruce attempts to make himself feel important by belonging to an exclusive tennis club and eating at the best restaurants. Bruce may be using the defense mechanism of
Krista is 28-years-old. She was burned quite badly in a kitchen accident when she was seven-years-old. Today, even though her parents still sometimes mention the kitchen accident, Krista has no memory of ever being burned. According to Freud, Krista may be
using repression to keep the distressing memories buried in the unconscious
Car manufacturers try to encourage drivers to buckle their seat belts through the use of reinforcement. As you know, if you start your car without buckling-up you will hear a somewhat annoying sound. If you learn to buckle-up after hearing the sound, you show _____ If you acquire the response of buckling-up before you turn on the ignition, you show _____.
escape learning; avoidance learning
The first step in the process of systematic desensitization is to
build an anxiety hierarchy
Which of the following is NOT a secondary sex characteristic?
increased growth of the penis
Contemporary models account for or explain evolutionary theory in
genetic terms
Physiological interventions intended to reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders are referred to as
biomedical therapy
Discovery of __________ in the 1990's lead to a better understanding of the neural substrates underlying complex psychological behavior.
mirror neurons
Which of the following describes neurogenesis?
the formation of new neurons
William James' development of the concept of the self was influential to which of the following fields?
psychology of personality
The major qualification of the research findings on gender differences is that
the data are indicative of group differences and tell us little about individuals
Which of the following are disorders that occur in all cultures?
schizophrenia, bipolar mood disorder, and depression
When describing schedules of reinforcement, the key factor in interval schedules is
elapsed time
For the majority of people the right hemisphere is superior on all the following types of tasks EXCEPT
In a variable-ratio schedule, the reinforcer is given
after a variable number of nonreinforced responses
At preschool, Jessi has learned that she must wash her hands before snack-time in order to get a snack. At home, however, her parents do not check to make sure she washes her hands. When she is home, Jessi does not wash her hands before eating. Jessi's behavior illustrates the process of
stimulus discrimination
Active efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the demands created by stress are called
The main function of the axon is to
transmit information
Negative reinforcement involves
the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
Imagine you studied for this psychology exam with two of your classmates. If one classmate, Becky, was very nervous and "stressed-out" about the exam, and the other classmate, Craig, thought the exam "wasn't a big deal," their differing attitudes are MOST consistent with the finding that
people's appraisals of stressful events are highly subjective
Today there are many alternative approaches to treatment, including client-centered therapy, cognitive therapy, and behavior therapies. This wide range of alternatives illustrates that
psychology is theoretically diverse
Michael Domjan suggests that the rapid conditioning seen in conditioned taste aversions is
an example of what happens when ecologically relevant conditioned stimuli are studied
A choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects in an
approach-avoidance conflict.
Goals of Pyschology
applications of research findings to solve everyday problems ;understanding why certain behaviors occur ;the development of measurement techniques for describing behavior precisely and accurately
According to the ethical guidelines for conducting psychological research with animals, exposing animals to harmful or painful procedures
cannot be justified unless the potential benefits of the research are substantial
Finding humor in a stressful situation
can help to reduce stress by promoting social support
If a child is born with a small head, heart defects, irritability, hyperactivity, and retarded mental and motor development, the mother MOST likely ____ during her pregnancy
consumed excessive amounts of alcohol
Amanda describes herself as intelligent, friendly, and responsible. Amanda's family, friends, and teachers all agree that she shows those qualities. According to Rogers her self-concept is
A man is really angry at his boss but he takes out his anger on his wife. The wife then spanks her child, the child then kicks the dog, and the dog then bites the mailman. This situation illustrates the defense mechanism known as
Which of the following is NOT a mnemonic device that involves verbal encoding?
link method
Jamie has been diagnosed with bulimia nervosa and has been undergoing psychotherapy with moderate success. Her therapist has referred her to a medical doctor to supplement her current treatment with pharmacotherapy. Her doctor will most likely prescribe her
a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor
Negative reinforcement _____ the rate of a response; punishment _____ the rate of a response.
increases; decreases
Which of the following is NOT one of the three primary criteria commonly used by psychologists to diagnose psychological disorders?
Which of the following is NOT one of the three primary criteria commonly used by psychologists to diagnose psychological disorders?
A group of researchers wanted to determine if people will eat more food in a room with red paint and red decorations than in a room that is decorated blue. Half the participants in this study ate in a red room and half ate in a blue room. The researchers then measured how much food was consumed in each of the two rooms. In this study, the independent variable was
the color of the decorations in the room
Critical thinking includes all of the following EXCEPT
originally believing that the stated position on a topic is incorrect
While a chemical that mimics a neurotransmitter, can bind to receptor sites, and causes postsynaptic potentials is a(n) ____, a chemical that can bind to receptor sites and block the action of neurotransmitters is a(n) ____.
agonist; antagonist
the color of the decorations in the room
help clients realize they don't have to worry constantly about pleasing others and winning acceptance
Dr. Redding has found a correlation of +0.65 between snoring and weight. This indicates that
overweight individuals tend to snore more than underweight individuals
In studies of long-term memory, researchers have found that
the passage of time is not as influential as what happens during the time interval
Which group of therapeutic drugs tend to exert their effect almost immediately but also tend to have an effect that lasts a short length of time?
antianxiety drugs
The major criticism of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale is that
it does not measure change exclusively
Recent research trends in psychology involve two areas largely ignored by early behaviorists. These two areas are
cognition (thinking) and physiological processes
Which of the following researchers is known for identifying the capacity of short-term memory as "seven plus or minus two" items?
George Miller
The repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results duplicate is referred to as