History of Rock and Roll exam 1
Terms in this set (45)
The roots of rock and roll
run deep in folk and popular music of the 20th century, draws from jazz, gospel, blues, blue grass, country, 1920s' radio, R&B.
It just kind of happened once cultures joined.
Indi radio companies helped spread it.
The first rock and roll albums came out around 1950ish but rock and roll started before the albums came out.
In 1945 after the WWII the country was in a good place for rock and roll
Bill Monroe: "The Father of Blue Grass"
Bob Wills and His Texas Play Boys: "The King of Western Swing"
first to use drums and amps
Robert Johnson: "King of Mississippi Delta Blues" important guitar player
"sold his soul to the devil" for his talent
died at the age of 27
his song was "Crossroad Blues"
Pete Johnson: one of the great piano players
Jazz, Swing Era, Big Band
Lionel Hampton: up beat music
Cab Calloway: Jazz singer, band leader, scat
Bessie Smith: biggest name of the 1920s', Janis Joplin was influenced by her
Thomas Dorsey: "The Father of Gospel Music"
Rock and Roll
(another name for Rhyme/Blues)
First Rock and Roll Record
Rocket 88: Jackie Brenton and Ike Turner 1951
By Jackie Brenton and Ike Turner
Turner was the pianist/guitarist, from the Mississippi Delta.
in the style of the Jump Bands from the coast (Louis Jordan).
song about a car (influenced Chuck Berry, The Beach Boys).
Sixty Minute Man
By Billy Ward and His Dominos 1951.
First R&B hit to crossover to pop charts.
First double-entendre to hit the pop charts.
First million seller by a formative R&B vocal group.
Double-entendre have been around since the 40s'.
Sung in pool halls and rent parties (people would throw parties with live music and charge people to come and listen when they needed rent money).
First to sell a million and flaunt it.
Written by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller for Big Mama Thornton 1953.
Country, blues, rich with gospel.
Voice is alive and vivid.
Precedes Elvis' recording.
Major influence for Janic Joplin.
Rock Around the Clock
Billy Haley and the Comets.
Most people think its the first Rock and Roll song, but its not.
First to go to #1 on Billboard pop charts.
It punctured a hole in the smug of conformity of 1950s'.
Sound track of the movie Blackboard Jungle.
First important white rock song.
Innovator of the Jump Band.
Group known as The Tympani Five
Athletic choreography (jump) in horn line.
Influenced Haley, Berry, BB King
Music appealed to both black and white.
Jump Band grew out of swing.
T Bone Walker
First to popularize the electric guitar in R&B.
First to realize the instruments dramatic potential.
At age 14 dancer/singer in medicine shows.
Influenced Chuck Berry and Jimi Hendrix.
Worked with Cab Calloway.
Formal name McKinley Morganfield.
Originator of Chicago Blues sound.
All instruments electrified (wailing harmonica).
Played a major influence on many rock bands (especially British).
Influenced Eric Clapton, John Mayall, Mick Jagger, and many more.
AM Radio-Disc Jockeys
R&B stations for black audiences, but white young teens also listened.
Callers could not tell color.
Powerful stations reached all over US.
Ignored mainstream white major labels.
Played small independent labels.
Encouraged by fan mail.
Nat D Williams
First black dics Jockey.
Know as "Jackie Robinson"
William "Hoss" Allen, John R. Richbourg, Gere Hobbes, Herman Grizzard
Known as "The 50,000 Watt Quartet".
White dics jockey of WLAC (Nashville).
Major contributor to crossover R&B music.
Boogie-woogie piano mixed with the second line bass groove (Latin overtones).
Segregation (black and white bars).
2 separate jukeboxes.
Played each others music.
Black interested in country/ whites interested in R&B.
Emphasis on piano, bass, and saxophone.
Bass lines derived from cultural mix of New Orleans populations.
Caribbean/latin American culture.
Second line drumming from New Orlean marching bands.
Piano revived from barrelhouse style jazz, R&B, and ragtime.
Owner of J and M Recording Studio.
Only studio in New Orleans.
Great R&B/R&R recordings were made there during 40s'-60s'.
J and M recorded "live in the studio" approach without gimmicks.
Bandleader and top-notch musician in New Orleans.
Played a crucial role in the development of R&R in New Orleans.
Formed the core group of studio musicians at J&M studio.
Collaborations with Fats Domino.
Excellent arranger/song writer.
Ambassador of the New Orleans sound.
Discovered by Dave Bartholomew in 1949.
Combined country with R&B.
Had a twang in his voice which suggested country.
Music was simple/easy to remember.
Offered white kids an easy first step into the world of black music.
Music was non-threatening.
"Blueberry Hill" 1956.
Sold 30 million in 1950s' alone.
Unthreatening image avoided suspicion/outrage.
Ranked behind only Elvis and Pat Boone in consistent record sales in 1950s'.
Little Richard (Richard Penniman)
Direct opposite to the music of Fats Domino.
Originally from Macon, Georgia.
Grew up in the church with gospel music.
His voice is equivalent to the powerful black gospel groups of the 40s'.
Total extravert ( the Bronze Liberace).
Wanted to be the best at what he does.
Has written some of rocks landmark songs.
Showed what R&R could be if you take it all the way.
Liberation through energy/audacity.
Little Richard broke the conventions of R&B while Jerry Lee Lewis changed country music.
The "King of Covers"
Promised land for migrating black from the south around WWII.
Exodus included many bluesmen from Mississippi Delta.
Delta blues became amplified in Chicago.
Area south of Chicago was known as little Mississippi.
Chess Records began in the late 40s' by Leonard and Phil Chess.
Polish born immigrants.
Chess was the most stable of the Chicago blues labels.
Transplanted southern most included the following: Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, Willie Dixon, Sonny Boy Williamson.
Chess Brothers realized blues needed to break into pop charts.
Born December 30 1928, Died June 2, 2008.
Real name Otha Ellis Bates.
AKA Ellis McDaniel (song writing credit).
Moved to Chicago in 1934.
Nicknamed by schoolmates Bo Diddley (the southern instrument the diddley-bow).
Instruments: guitar, violin, trombone.
Self taught using open tuning guitar.
Mid 50s' played south side of Chicago.
Frank kirkland, drums/Jerome Green, Maracas.
Green was his sidekick and alter ego.
The Bo Diddley Beat.
Known for the distinctive rhythm pattern called "The Bo Diddley Beat".
Traced back to the "hambone" beat and the "ring shout" of slavery.
Bing band era called it the "shave and a haircut- two bits"beat.
Has a latin feel.
Primary inspiration for many rock tunes.
Songs: Bo Diddley 1955, I'm a Man 1955.
Born October 18th 1926 St Louis Mo.
Run ins with the law in his youth.
Was a hair dresser (brief employment).
Gained a reputation as a guitarist around St Louis.
Played with Sir John's Trio early 50s'.
Influenced by John Johnson (pianist).
House band at the Cosmopolitan Club in east St. Louis.
Changed to Chuck Berry combo due to popularity.
Group played blues/ Nat King Cole ballads.
Joking "hillbilly" songs become the crowd pleasers.
Frequent request for this, wanted to dance.
-very definition of R&R
-articulated the concerns and attitudes of its audience
-helped established R&R as a musical form in itself
-established the guitar as the rock instrument
-first great rock poet
-broke through the color-barriers
-played to integrated audience
-sidestepped issues of age/color
-many didn't know he was black
Songs: "Maybellene", "My ding a ling", "Johnny be good", "Sweet little 16".
Invented by Elvis (That's Alright Mamma).
Frenzied mix of country, blues, gospel, and popular music.
Pervasive spirit and one of youth/fun.
Brief in popularity.
Crucial sound, image, and rebellious spirit for rocks initial wave into mid 50s'.
Purest form of R&R.
No use of slapping bass.
Alternation of country style (two beats) and blue walking style (four beats).
Acoustic guitar played hard and percussively.
*Classic rockabilly was almost entirely the product of Sun Records/Sam Phillips.
Owner/operator of Sun Studios.
Important figure in the development of R&R.
Loved the music he recorded.
Had a knack for helping artist find their unique styles.
Provided an outlet for memphis blues and R&B.
First recording of B.B. King, Ike Turner, Refers Thomas, Willie Mae Thorthon.
Loved black music and its intensity/vitality.
Viewed the pop music as stagnant
History of Elvis
Born January 8th 1935 Tupelo Mississippi.
An only child (twin died at birth).
Poor blue collar family, but given so much love.
Painfully shy and introverted.
Revered his mother, respected his elders.
Gospel music was an early important influence.
Gospel remained a part of Elvis' repertoire throughout his career.
He started at a monumental moment in history, mainly white songs were played.
Sun Studio Year of Elvis (1953-1955)
Phillips saw promise in Elvis through the recordings done in the summer of 1953 (cover versions of Ink Spot "Thats When My Heartache Begins).
One year later, hooked Elvis up with Scotty Moore and Bill Black (his band).
Sun Recording reflect discovery for Elvis.
Dubbed the "hillbilly cat" (white negro).
Named "most promising young country singer" by billboard in 1955.
Many believe the true birth of R&R would be July 5 1954 in Memphis (but its not).
Presley played "Thats Alright Mama" off the cuff to blow steam and producer Sam Phillis told him to do it again for the tape.
Thats Alright Mama 1954 by Big Boy Crudup.
Blue Moon of Kentucky 1954 by Bill Monroe( the king of blue grass).
Presley and Important Observatory
Remains the most indelible image of R&R.
The first rock hero (The King or Rock).
Elvis was the singer, not the song.
The model for many, idealized image.
First to battle mainstream.
Forced R&R down mainstreams throat.
Made R&R more than a passing fad of R&B.
Opened the gates for black R&B artists.
Elvis with RCA
Bought Elvis' contract for $40,000.
Col. Tom Parker became new manager.
Reached national status with heartbreak hotel.
First tv appearances January 28 1956.
Appearance sent shock waves through the country.
Defined the rock image of the 50s'.
Brooding sensuality defined the male ideal.
First fully televised ascent to stardom.
Helped link R&R with television.
Elvis dominated 50s' and Beatles dominated the 60s'.
Created and acceptance for black music.
Elvis never wrote any song/covered or got songs written for him.
41 gold albums, 107 top songs.
Love Me Tender 1956.
He was drafted for the army 1958-1960.
Could of served in special services but chose not to.
Salary cut from $100,000 to $78 a month.
Parker saw this as good PR (GI Elvis).
Won over parents.
Army was popular destination in 1958.
Hollywood After the Army 1960-1969
Earlier pictures were his strongest.
R&R had gone soft in his absence.
Industry was trying to make it safer and controllable.
Saw himself as a movie star, not a R&R star.
Strong desire for mainstream and all around entertainer.
Nameless ballads and forgettable movies.
Lost the edge he had prior to the army.
Come back was a 1968 Christmas special.
Brought back Elvis rocker.
Memphis record yielded a group of hits.
"In The Ghetto" and "Suspicious Minds".
Became the basis for his return to stage.
Made the mistake of going to Las Vegas.
Flopped in Vegas in 1956.
Leather jacket replaced by glitter jumpsuits.
Concerts became more circus-like.
Burning Love last major hit.
Divorced Pricilla in 1973.
Fought obesity with prescription drugs.
Died August 16 1977 of an overdose.
King of Rockabilly.
Grew up in dire poverty.
Loved the Grand ole Opry, blues, and gospel.
Wrote his own songs.
Remained true to his style.
Encouraged by Phillips to fill the void at Sun after Elvis left.
Country music needed a black mans' rhythm.
Jerry Lee Lewis
From Ferriday, Louisiana.
Hell-raiser of the family.
First cousin is Jimmy Swaggert.
Deep religious background (Pentecostal).
Expelled from S.W. Bible Institute for playing hymns with a boogie-woogie bass.
Carried conflict between music/religion throughout his career.
Influenced by the great barrelhouse piano players in New Orleans.
Little Richard on steroids.
Known as "The Killer".
Piano played in concert always took a beating.
Appeared on the Steve Allen Show in 1957.
Viewers shocked at how he mistreated the instruments.
Viewed as Elvis' rival.
Outlandish image was a perfect foil to Elvis's increased respectability.
"Great Balls of Fire" 1957.
Married his 13 year old cousin in December of 1957.
Was his third wife of seven.
Status of one of his previous marriages questioned.
Branded a "Baby Snatcher".
Forced to cancel his European tour.
Revitalized his career in the mid 60s' as a country star.
Jerry Lee Lewis gave R&R soul and he sold his for R&R.
In photo with Elvis, Carl Perkins, and Johnny Cash.
Million dollar quartet.
Rock Styles Expand, Pushed awards pop charts
Late 50s' transitional period between initial R&R and teen idol period.
a second wave appears in 1957.
Elvis (at RCA) brought R&R to a much wider audience.
New comers had clean-cut image- broadened the appeal.
Sexual overtones of the music was fading-replaced by hummable tunes.
But the beat was not gone.
3 transitional Rockabilly artists:
Grew up in front of the nation as "Little Ricky".
The adventures Ozzie and Harriet.
His actual family in the sitcom.
"America's Darling" before he even sang a note.
Talented musician- know what he wanted.
Made consistently good records from 1957 to 1963.
Singing worked into the plots of the show.
Put R&R music into America's living room.
"LA Rockabilly" style in some of his music (not from the south).
Too early for teen idol crowd.
"I'm Walking", "Hello Marry Lou", "Lonesome Town".
Career overshadowed by British invasion.
Ozzie and Harriet went off air in 1966.
Formed the Stone Canyon Band in 1969.
Did not want to be an old act.
Rock revival show in 1972 Madison Square Garden- jeered by older crowd.
Wrote Garden Party- his last top ten hit 1972.
Killed in a plane crash December 31, 1985.
Last of the 50s' giants.
Similar interest in combing country with pop.
Pointed the music toward the first rock band.
Not fully realized until the Beatles.
First major white artist to write/produce his music.
First to use the studio as an instrument.
Explored the techniques of sound and production.
Vocal techniques, stretched syllables and hiccups.
Popularized by the Fender Stratocaster.
"Boy Next Door" image (not sexy, geeky).
Music was pure and simple.
Born in Lubbock Texas September 7th 1983.
Easy love of C and W, and Western Swing.
Embraced Rockabilly/imitated Elvis as best he could.
Prototype for a self-contained rock band.
Two guitar/ bass/ drums combination.
Set the standard for British Bands.
Revered in England.
The name inspired the Beatles and Hollies?
Beatles recorded "That'll be the day" in 1958 in a small studio in Liverpool.
February 3rd 1959 "The Day the Music Died".
A plane crashed and him and his band died.
Born Oklahoma in 1938.
Gained more fame in England then America.
Major influence on British guitar player.
Early development of the power chord sound.
Style (musical, vocal, fashion) strongly influenced by Elvis.
Appeared in "The Girl Can Get it" (Big-budget rock pollination film).
Biggest American hit- "Summer Time Blues".
Died in a car accident in April of 1960 at the age of 21.
The Everly Brothers
Nashville finally has inroad to the R&R memorial.
Brothers, Don and Phill Everly- calming sound compared to Memphis market.
Updated tradition of country/western.
Brought a soft melodic beauty to R&R with proud appeal.
Featured a duo voice- unique in the solo voice market.
Influenced others such as John/Paul.
Direct descendant: Simon and Garfunkel, Peter and Gorden, Chad and Jeremy.
Buddy Holly and Everly Brother- "Ancestors of California Country Rock".
"Bye Bye Baby".
Like Nelson grew up in show business family.
Parents were country singers.
Connections with guitarist Chet Atkins.
Recorded in Nashville RCA studios.
Created a tight polished sound.
"Wake up Little Suzie" "All I Have to do is Dream".