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affirmative action

policies beginning in 1970's to make up for past discrimination and give minorities and women advantages in applying for jobs and getting into universities

affluent society

term used by economist John Kenneth Galbraith to describe the American economy in the 1950s, during which time many Americans became enraptured with appliances and homes in the suburbs

Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)

established by the agricultural act of 1932 (part of the New Deal) designed to restore economic position of farmers by paying them not to produce goods that are overproduced

Agricultural Marketing Act

1929-Herbert Hoover: lending of fed. money to farmer's cooperatives to buy crops to keep them from oversaturated markets (lack of fed. financial support)

Albany Congress

1752- meeting of representatives from 7 colonies to coordinate their efforts in the French and Indian War (western fontier regions)

Alien and Sedition Acts

gave president the power to expel aliens "dangerous to the country's well-being" and outlawed printing and public pronouncement of "false/malicious" statement about the government.

Allied Powers

England, Soviet Union, France, and later U.S. joined (WW1)

America First Committee

A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.

American Colonization Society

Best way to end slavery problem is to send blacks back to Africa (not very successful)

American Expeditionary Force

commanded by General John J. Pershing; name of the army sent to Europe during WW1 to aid France and England

American Federation of Labor (AFL)

founded by Samuel Gompers; members had to be skilled laborers, white anglo-saxon protestant, male, native born

American Indian Movement (AIM)

1968- founded to protest government policies and injustices suffered by native americans; 1973 organized armed occupation of Wounded Knee

American Liberty League

1934- formed by anti-New Deal politicians and business leaders to oppose Roosevelt's policies

American System

Henry Clay's economic plan following War of 1812. Promoted growth of the economy, use of protected tariffs, favored a national bank

Anaconda Copper Company

large mining organization with many companies involved 1860's and 1870's

Anaconda Plan

critical component for the north in the civil war; north put a blockade on southern ports to hurt them economically-prevent them from exporting cotton


opposed radification of proposed constitution in 1787 without a bill of rights; claimed government would be too strong

Anti-Imperialist League

1898- oppose American annexation of Philippines and American imperialism in general; informed public of financial, military and morale costs of imperialism

Anti-Saloon League

1893- advocated prohibition; wanted a ban on alcohol


courthouse in Virginia where Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant (1865)

Army-McCarthy hearings

1954-television hearings McCarthy accuses U.S. army of having communist members (ruined McCarthy's reputation)

Articles of Confederation

1781- 1st official U.S. government; limited powers of federal government and gave more power to the states

Atlantic Charter

1941-agreement between Roosevelt and Churchill stating that America and Britain will support a post


a dispute between U.S. Forest Service Chief Gifford Pinchot and U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Achilles Ballinger that contributed to the split of the Republican Party before the 1912 Presidential Election and helped to define the U.S. conservation movement in the early 20th century.

Bank War

Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power and was too rich. Vetoed the 2nd Bank charter and withdrew gov't money from the US Banks and put it into "pet banks"

Bataan Death March

Brutal march of American and Filipino prisoners by Japanese soldiers in 1942 from the Bataan Peninsula

Bay of Pigs

In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. CIA landed in Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.

Bear Flag Republic

nickname for California after the American settlers there declared independence from Mexico in 1846

Beat Generation

literary movement in 1950's which criticized the conformity of American society and the threat of atomic warfare; Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsburg, William Burroughs

Berlin Airlift

Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city 1948-1949; Stalin ended the blockade in May 1949

Berlin Wall

built 1961; divided West and East Berlin; a symbol of communist repression during the cold war

Black Codes

laws adopted by Southern States during Reconstruction to limit the freedom of Southern blacks


prevented people accused of being communist from getting work in entertainment and other industries duringlate 1940's and early 1950's

black nationalism

spurred by Malcom X and other black leaders; called for black pride and advancement without the help of whites

Black Panthers

protect blacks from police harassment; promoted militant black power; founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton

"Bleeding Kansas"

Result of the Kansas-Nebraska of 1854; popular soveriegnty caused pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers to flood the territory; violence between the two

bonanza farms

large farms that came to dominate agricultural life in much of the West in the late 1800s; instead of plots farmed by yeoman farmers, large amounts of machinery were used, and workers were hired laborers

bonus army

Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash; driven from their camps by U.S. army; Hoover looked bad

Boston Massacre

The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans

Boston Tea Party

demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor

Brown vs. Board of Education

1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

Battle of the Bulge

Dec. 1944 last major offensive from Axis Powers by Germany. pushed forward to Belgium but then had to retreat

Bull Moose Party

Name given to the Progressive Party in 1912 campaign. Roosevelt ran against Wilson and Taft. Wilson won

Battle of Bull Run

Both battles were won by the Confederates

Battle of Bunker Hill

1775 British attack on colonists; British victory despite heavy losses


Protestant sect founded by John Calvin; believed in predestination; Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.

Camp David Accords

A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel; brokered by President Carter


northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction

Central Powers

in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and Italy

Battle of Chancellorsville

An 1863 Civil War battle in Virginia; important victory for the Confederacy.

Checkers Speech

Given by Richard Nixon on September 23, 1952, when he was the Republican candidate for the Vice Presidency. Said to have saved his career from a campaign contributions scandal.

Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia

a lawsuit regarding the Cherokee as a nation within a nation thus not required to sell the government their land

Circular Letter

A letter circulated in 1767 in reaction to the Townshend Act. It urged colonists to jointly sign a petition of protest and was influential in causing colonists to work together against the British.

Civil Rights Act of 1866

Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.(overturned black codes)

Civil Rights Act of 1964

This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.

Civil Service Commission

created by Pendleton Act to oversee examinations for potential government employees (got rid of spoils system)

Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)

New Deal Program set up to help put the unemployed back to work and to help the environment - built bridges, planted trees, etc...

Clayton Antitrust Act

Corrected the problems of the Sherman Antitrust Act; outlawed certain practices that restricted competition; unions on strike could no longer be considered violating the antitrust acts

Cold War

1945-1991: A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years

Committee on Public Information

created by Wilson during WW1; goal of the committee was to persuade Americans the war represented a battle for democracy and freedom; used propaganda

Committee of Correspondence

colonial organization organized in 1770 to spread news of Great Britain's actions and acts throughout the colonies

Common Sense

1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation

Compromise of 1850

Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War

Compromise of 1877

This settled the election of 1876, South would accept the presidency of Hayes, in return reconstruction would end

Battle of Concord

first battle of revolutionary war

Confederate States of America

made up of 11 Southern states under leadership of Jefferson Davis

Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)

union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1935 and rejoined it in 1955

Contract with America

1994 pledge by Republican candidates for House of Representatives (led by Newt Gingrich) promised to balance the budget, lessen size of fed. government

convoy system

the protection of merchant ships from U-boat-German submarine-attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships


a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War

Battle of the Coral Sea

A battle between Japanese and American naval forces that stopped the Japanese advance on Australia.


a rebellion of teens and young adults against mainstream American society in the 1960s

Coxey's Army

unemployed workers marched to wahsington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief (Panic of 1893)

Crittenden Plan

1860 compromise proposal on the slavery issue designed to defuse tension between North and South; would have allowed slavery to continue in the South and would have denied Congress the power to regulate interstate slave trade; Republicans in Congress voted against it.

Cuban Missile Crisis

an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.

Currency Act

restricted colonists from printing their own currency and instead using "hard" currency (gold and silver)

dark horse candidate

recives unexpected support as a candidate for the nomination of a political convention (James Polk)

Dawes Act

1887, dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, attempt to assimilate the Indian population

Declaration of Neutrality

issued by Wilson after the outbreak of WW1 in 1914, U.S. would have normal relations with both sides of the conflict; submarine warfare made neutrality difficult. Also made by Washington in 1793 to allow merchant ships trade with both sides of French Revolution

Declaration of Rights and Grievances

1774-Parliament didnt have the right to tax the colonies without their consent

Declaratory Act

1766- British law stating that Parliament had the right to tax the colonies

deficit spending

economic policy where the government spends money it doesnt have (New Deal, post twin towers)

Democratic Party

began with Andrew Jackson; limited government; modern times: favor domestic programs that a larger, powerful government can give


believed in Jefferson's ideologies; limited government; values of yeomen farmer; opposed federalists


lessening of tensions between nations; policy of detente between U.S and USSR and China began during Nixon's presidency (Henry Kissinger architect of policy)

Battle of Dien Bien Phu

1954 victory of Vietnamese forces over the French, causing French to leave Vietnam and all Indochina

direct primary

a primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office

Dollar Diplomacy

President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad; increase American influence abroad

domino theory

the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control

Double V campaign

The World War II-era effort of black Americans to gain "a Victory over racism at home as well as Victory abroad."

Dred Scott case

Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south( couldnt ban slavery in the territories)

Dust Bowl

Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.

Eisenhower Doctrine

1957-promised economic and military aid to "friendly" nations in the Middle East; prevent communism in the region

Electoral College

the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president

Embargo of 1807

Jefferson- banned all trade with Europe (result of war between England and Napoleon's France)

Emergency Quota Act

(Johnson Act) 1921- limited immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe to equal 3% of the number of immigrants that country has in the U.S. in 1910

Enola Gay

1945-American bomber that dropped the 1st atomic bomb on Hiroshima

Era of Good Feelings

1816-1823 after end of the War of 1812, U.S. remained out of foreign affairs (Monroe)

Esionage Act

1917 severe penalties for citizens who criticized the war effort or government (WW1); prison sentences to those who interfered with the draft process

Essex Junto

Group of Massachusetts Federalists who met to voice their displeasure with the policies of Thomas Jefferson during Jefferson's second term, and proposed that the New England states and New York secede from the Union.


African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South to Kansas.

Fair Deal

domestic programs by Truman that included Fair Employment Practices Act, construction of public houses, extension of Social Security, and a proposal to ensure employment for all American workers

Farmers' Alliance

major famers' organization after the decline of the Grange organizations; supported Populist Party

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation

passed during the 1st hundred days of FDR's presidency, insured individual bank deposits; restored confidence in America's banks

Federal Reserve System

Established by Federal Reserve Act of 1913; established 12 district reserve banks; created Federal Reserve Board to regulate entire structure

Federal Trade Commission

Authorized after the passage of the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914; major government body in charge of regulating big business; investigates possible violation of antitrust laws


supporters of large national government; federalist influence ended with the election of 1816

The Feminine Mystique

Betty Friedan's 1963 book during the feminist movement 1960's-1970's; more to just being a housewife

Fifteenth Amendment

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Final Solution

Adolf Hitler's plan to eliminate Jewish civilization from Europe

fireside chats

broadcasts on the radio by FDR addressed directly to the American people; boosted his popularity

First Continental Congress

1774 meeting in Philidelphia; colonists vowed to resist further efforts by Britain to tax them without their consent

First Great Awakening

religious revival in colonies 1720's to 1740's (Jonathan Edwards-speaker) led to further splits in religion


women in the 1920's who wore short skirts, bobbed hair, rejected many social regulations

Food and Drug Act

1906 created a federal Food and Drug Administration during progressive era; result of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle

Force Act

1832 gave president Jackson to invade any state if it was necessary to enforce federal law; response to nullification of federal tariff by South Carolina

Fordey-McCumber Tariff

High tax on imports adopted in 1922 to increase profits for American business

Fort Sumter

located in South Carolina; fired on by Confederates starting the Civil War

Fourteen Points

Wilson's view of post WW1 during the Treaty of Versailles; would eliminate secret treaties, arms reduction, self-determination, creation of the League of Nations (only League of Nations was adopted which the U.S. wasnt a part of)

Fourteenth Amendment

1868-made "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" citizens of the country. All former Confederate supporters were prohibited from holding office in the U.S

Battle of Fredericksburg

1862 Union suffered major defeat

Free Speech Movement

Protests at the UC Berkeley in 1964 and 1965 wanted changes in university regulations and broader changes in American society

free trade

philosophy that trade barriers and protective tariffs inhibit long-term economic growth (basis for 1994 North American FreeTrade Agreement)

Freedom Rides

buses of black and white civil rights workers who in 1961 rode on interstate buses to South to see if South was obeying the desegregation of interstate busing, waiting rooms, and restaurants. Violence!!

Freeport Doctrine

Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so

Free-Soil Party

political party dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery into newly acquired territories (former Whig party)

French and Indian War

Britain and France fought for the right to expand their empire in the America. Colonists fought French colonies, Britain emerged victorious

Fugitive Slave Act

part of the Compromise of 1850- a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders

Gadsen Purchase

(President Pierce) strip of land in present day Arizona and New Mexico for which the United States purchased from Mexico in 1853.

Geneva Accords

After French were defeated in Vietnam, agreement made in 1954 that temporarily divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel and promised nationwide election in two years (U.S. sought to prevent elections from happening to preven spread of communism)

Battle of Gettysburg

1863-most important civil war battle; turning point in the civil war (Union victory)

Gettysburg Address

1863-speech that freedom should exist for all men

Treaty of Ghent

1814- treaty between U.S. and Britain ending War of 1812; restored diplomatic relations between the countries but didnt address the issues that had caused the war

Ghost Dances

religious practices by the Lokata tribesmen; thought to get rid of whites and restore the land taken from them

GI Bill

1944- gave benifits to to WW2 veterans including financial assistance for veterans wanting to go to college, buy a home, prefered treatment to veterans who wanted to apply for government jobs

The Gilded Age

late 19th century; era with the surface of great prosperity hiding deep problems of social inequality


belief the U.S. should work closely with other nations to solve common problems (foreign policy approach of Clinton)

Glorious Revolution

A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II gave up his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.

gold standard

a monetary system in which paper money and coins are equal to the value of a certain amount of gold (opposed by William Jennings Bryan)

"Gospel of Wealth"

philosophy of Andrew Carnegie that stated that the wealthy had an obligation to help their communities


formed in 1867, association of farmers that provided social activities and information about new farming techniques

Great Compromise

one house of Congress would be based on population (House of Representatives) and the other would be represented equally (Senate); help Constitution get ratified

Great Migration

migration of blacks to north during WW1 to find jobs and escape the south

Great Society

Lyndon B. Johnson 1965- included War on Poverty, Medicare, Medicaid, help civil rights, greater funding for education

Greenback Party

1870's and early 1880's stated that government should put more money into circulation, supported 8hr workday, and female suffrage. help farmers in debt


paper money issued by the American government during and after the Civil War, not backed by gold or silver


the inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government

Battle of Guadalcanal

1st major offensive for America against Japan in the Pacific War 1942-1943

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

treaty ending the Mexican-American war; U.S. gave Mexico 15 million for Texas, New Mexico, and California

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