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259 terms

AP U.S. History (5 steps to a 5)

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affirmative action
policies beginning in 1970's to make up for past discrimination and give minorities and women advantages in applying for jobs and getting into universities
affluent society
term used by economist John Kenneth Galbraith to describe the American economy in the 1950s, during which time many Americans became enraptured with appliances and homes in the suburbs
Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
established by the agricultural act of 1932 (part of the New Deal) designed to restore economic position of farmers by paying them not to produce goods that are overproduced
Agricultural Marketing Act
1929-Herbert Hoover: lending of fed. money to farmer's cooperatives to buy crops to keep them from oversaturated markets (lack of fed. financial support)
Albany Congress
1752- meeting of representatives from 7 colonies to coordinate their efforts in the French and Indian War (western fontier regions)
Alien and Sedition Acts
gave president the power to expel aliens "dangerous to the country's well-being" and outlawed printing and public pronouncement of "false/malicious" statement about the government.
Allied Powers
England, Soviet Union, France, and later U.S. joined (WW1)
America First Committee
A committee organized by isolationists before WWII, who wished to spare American lives. They wanted to protect America before we went to war in another country. Charles A. Lindbergh (the aviator) was its most effective speaker.
American Colonization Society
Best way to end slavery problem is to send blacks back to Africa (not very successful)
American Expeditionary Force
commanded by General John J. Pershing; name of the army sent to Europe during WW1 to aid France and England
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
founded by Samuel Gompers; members had to be skilled laborers, white anglo-saxon protestant, male, native born
American Indian Movement (AIM)
1968- founded to protest government policies and injustices suffered by native americans; 1973 organized armed occupation of Wounded Knee
American Liberty League
1934- formed by anti-New Deal politicians and business leaders to oppose Roosevelt's policies
American System
Henry Clay's economic plan following War of 1812. Promoted growth of the economy, use of protected tariffs, favored a national bank
Anaconda Copper Company
large mining organization with many companies involved 1860's and 1870's
Anaconda Plan
critical component for the north in the civil war; north put a blockade on southern ports to hurt them economically-prevent them from exporting cotton
Antifederalists
opposed radification of proposed constitution in 1787 without a bill of rights; claimed government would be too strong
Anti-Imperialist League
1898- oppose American annexation of Philippines and American imperialism in general; informed public of financial, military and morale costs of imperialism
Anti-Saloon League
1893- advocated prohibition; wanted a ban on alcohol
Appomattox
courthouse in Virginia where Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant (1865)
Army-McCarthy hearings
1954-television hearings McCarthy accuses U.S. army of having communist members (ruined McCarthy's reputation)
Articles of Confederation
1781- 1st official U.S. government; limited powers of federal government and gave more power to the states
Atlantic Charter
1941-agreement between Roosevelt and Churchill stating that America and Britain will support a post
Ballinger-Pinchot
a dispute between U.S. Forest Service Chief Gifford Pinchot and U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Achilles Ballinger that contributed to the split of the Republican Party before the 1912 Presidential Election and helped to define the U.S. conservation movement in the early 20th century.
Bank War
Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power and was too rich. Vetoed the 2nd Bank charter and withdrew gov't money from the US Banks and put it into "pet banks"
Bataan Death March
Brutal march of American and Filipino prisoners by Japanese soldiers in 1942 from the Bataan Peninsula
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. CIA landed in Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Bear Flag Republic
nickname for California after the American settlers there declared independence from Mexico in 1846
Beat Generation
literary movement in 1950's which criticized the conformity of American society and the threat of atomic warfare; Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsburg, William Burroughs
Berlin Airlift
Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into W Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city 1948-1949; Stalin ended the blockade in May 1949
Berlin Wall
built 1961; divided West and East Berlin; a symbol of communist repression during the cold war
Black Codes
laws adopted by Southern States during Reconstruction to limit the freedom of Southern blacks
blacklist
prevented people accused of being communist from getting work in entertainment and other industries duringlate 1940's and early 1950's
black nationalism
spurred by Malcom X and other black leaders; called for black pride and advancement without the help of whites
Black Panthers
protect blacks from police harassment; promoted militant black power; founded by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton
"Bleeding Kansas"
Result of the Kansas-Nebraska of 1854; popular soveriegnty caused pro-slavery and anti-slavery settlers to flood the territory; violence between the two
bonanza farms
large farms that came to dominate agricultural life in much of the West in the late 1800s; instead of plots farmed by yeoman farmers, large amounts of machinery were used, and workers were hired laborers
bonus army
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash; driven from their camps by U.S. army; Hoover looked bad
Boston Massacre
The first bloodshed of the Amercan Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans
Boston Tea Party
demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
Brown vs. Board of Education
1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional. Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Battle of the Bulge
Dec. 1944 last major offensive from Axis Powers by Germany. pushed forward to Belgium but then had to retreat
Bull Moose Party
Name given to the Progressive Party in 1912 campaign. Roosevelt ran against Wilson and Taft. Wilson won
Battle of Bull Run
Both battles were won by the Confederates
Battle of Bunker Hill
1775 British attack on colonists; British victory despite heavy losses
Calvinism
Protestant sect founded by John Calvin; believed in predestination; Calvinists supported constitutional representative government and the separation of church and state.
Camp David Accords
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel; brokered by President Carter
carpetbaggers
northern whites who moved to the south and served as republican leaders during reconstruction
Central Powers
in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and Italy
Battle of Chancellorsville
An 1863 Civil War battle in Virginia; important victory for the Confederacy.
Checkers Speech
Given by Richard Nixon on September 23, 1952, when he was the Republican candidate for the Vice Presidency. Said to have saved his career from a campaign contributions scandal.
Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia
a lawsuit regarding the Cherokee as a nation within a nation thus not required to sell the government their land
Circular Letter
A letter circulated in 1767 in reaction to the Townshend Act. It urged colonists to jointly sign a petition of protest and was influential in causing colonists to work together against the British.
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.(overturned black codes)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
Civil Service Commission
created by Pendleton Act to oversee examinations for potential government employees (got rid of spoils system)
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
New Deal Program set up to help put the unemployed back to work and to help the environment - built bridges, planted trees, etc...
Clayton Antitrust Act
Corrected the problems of the Sherman Antitrust Act; outlawed certain practices that restricted competition; unions on strike could no longer be considered violating the antitrust acts
Cold War
1945-1991: A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years
Committee on Public Information
created by Wilson during WW1; goal of the committee was to persuade Americans the war represented a battle for democracy and freedom; used propaganda
Committee of Correspondence
colonial organization organized in 1770 to spread news of Great Britain's actions and acts throughout the colonies
Common Sense
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Compromise of 1877
This settled the election of 1876, South would accept the presidency of Hayes, in return reconstruction would end
Battle of Concord
first battle of revolutionary war
Confederate States of America
made up of 11 Southern states under leadership of Jefferson Davis
Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)
union organization of unskilled workers; broke away from the American Federation of Labor (AFL) in 1935 and rejoined it in 1955
Contract with America
1994 pledge by Republican candidates for House of Representatives (led by Newt Gingrich) promised to balance the budget, lessen size of fed. government
convoy system
the protection of merchant ships from U-boat-German submarine-attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships
Copperheads
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
Battle of the Coral Sea
A battle between Japanese and American naval forces that stopped the Japanese advance on Australia.
counterculture
a rebellion of teens and young adults against mainstream American society in the 1960s
Coxey's Army
unemployed workers marched to wahsington to draw attention to the plight of workers and to ask for goverment relief (Panic of 1893)
Crittenden Plan
1860 compromise proposal on the slavery issue designed to defuse tension between North and South; would have allowed slavery to continue in the South and would have denied Congress the power to regulate interstate slave trade; Republicans in Congress voted against it.
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Currency Act
restricted colonists from printing their own currency and instead using "hard" currency (gold and silver)
dark horse candidate
recives unexpected support as a candidate for the nomination of a political convention (James Polk)
Dawes Act
1887, dismantled American Indian tribes, set up individuals as family heads with 160 acres, attempt to assimilate the Indian population
Declaration of Neutrality
issued by Wilson after the outbreak of WW1 in 1914, U.S. would have normal relations with both sides of the conflict; submarine warfare made neutrality difficult. Also made by Washington in 1793 to allow merchant ships trade with both sides of French Revolution
Declaration of Rights and Grievances
1774-Parliament didnt have the right to tax the colonies without their consent
Declaratory Act
1766- British law stating that Parliament had the right to tax the colonies
deficit spending
economic policy where the government spends money it doesnt have (New Deal, post twin towers)
Democratic Party
began with Andrew Jackson; limited government; modern times: favor domestic programs that a larger, powerful government can give
Democratic-Republicans
believed in Jefferson's ideologies; limited government; values of yeomen farmer; opposed federalists
detente
lessening of tensions between nations; policy of detente between U.S and USSR and China began during Nixon's presidency (Henry Kissinger architect of policy)
Battle of Dien Bien Phu
1954 victory of Vietnamese forces over the French, causing French to leave Vietnam and all Indochina
direct primary
a primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office
Dollar Diplomacy
President Taft's policy of linking American business interests to diplomatic interests abroad; increase American influence abroad
domino theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
Double V campaign
The World War II-era effort of black Americans to gain "a Victory over racism at home as well as Victory abroad."
Dred Scott case
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or states, fueled abolitionist movement, hailed as victory for the south( couldnt ban slavery in the territories)
Dust Bowl
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
Eisenhower Doctrine
1957-promised economic and military aid to "friendly" nations in the Middle East; prevent communism in the region
Electoral College
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
Embargo of 1807
Jefferson- banned all trade with Europe (result of war between England and Napoleon's France)
Emergency Quota Act
(Johnson Act) 1921- limited immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe to equal 3% of the number of immigrants that country has in the U.S. in 1910
Enola Gay
1945-American bomber that dropped the 1st atomic bomb on Hiroshima
Era of Good Feelings
1816-1823 after end of the War of 1812, U.S. remained out of foreign affairs (Monroe)
Esionage Act
1917 severe penalties for citizens who criticized the war effort or government (WW1); prison sentences to those who interfered with the draft process
Essex Junto
Group of Massachusetts Federalists who met to voice their displeasure with the policies of Thomas Jefferson during Jefferson's second term, and proposed that the New England states and New York secede from the Union.
Exodusters
African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South to Kansas.
Fair Deal
domestic programs by Truman that included Fair Employment Practices Act, construction of public houses, extension of Social Security, and a proposal to ensure employment for all American workers
Farmers' Alliance
major famers' organization after the decline of the Grange organizations; supported Populist Party
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
passed during the 1st hundred days of FDR's presidency, insured individual bank deposits; restored confidence in America's banks
Federal Reserve System
Established by Federal Reserve Act of 1913; established 12 district reserve banks; created Federal Reserve Board to regulate entire structure
Federal Trade Commission
Authorized after the passage of the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914; major government body in charge of regulating big business; investigates possible violation of antitrust laws
Federalists
supporters of large national government; federalist influence ended with the election of 1816
The Feminine Mystique
Betty Friedan's 1963 book during the feminist movement 1960's-1970's; more to just being a housewife
Fifteenth Amendment
The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
Final Solution
Adolf Hitler's plan to eliminate Jewish civilization from Europe
fireside chats
broadcasts on the radio by FDR addressed directly to the American people; boosted his popularity
First Continental Congress
1774 meeting in Philidelphia; colonists vowed to resist further efforts by Britain to tax them without their consent
First Great Awakening
religious revival in colonies 1720's to 1740's (Jonathan Edwards-speaker) led to further splits in religion
flapper
women in the 1920's who wore short skirts, bobbed hair, rejected many social regulations
Food and Drug Act
1906 created a federal Food and Drug Administration during progressive era; result of Upton Sinclair's The Jungle
Force Act
1832 gave president Jackson to invade any state if it was necessary to enforce federal law; response to nullification of federal tariff by South Carolina
Fordey-McCumber Tariff
High tax on imports adopted in 1922 to increase profits for American business
Fort Sumter
located in South Carolina; fired on by Confederates starting the Civil War
Fourteen Points
Wilson's view of post WW1 during the Treaty of Versailles; would eliminate secret treaties, arms reduction, self-determination, creation of the League of Nations (only League of Nations was adopted which the U.S. wasnt a part of)
Fourteenth Amendment
1868-made "all persons born or naturalized in the United States" citizens of the country. All former Confederate supporters were prohibited from holding office in the U.S
Battle of Fredericksburg
1862 Union suffered major defeat
Free Speech Movement
Protests at the UC Berkeley in 1964 and 1965 wanted changes in university regulations and broader changes in American society
free trade
philosophy that trade barriers and protective tariffs inhibit long-term economic growth (basis for 1994 North American FreeTrade Agreement)
Freedom Rides
buses of black and white civil rights workers who in 1961 rode on interstate buses to South to see if South was obeying the desegregation of interstate busing, waiting rooms, and restaurants. Violence!!
Freeport Doctrine
Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so
Free-Soil Party
political party dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery into newly acquired territories (former Whig party)
French and Indian War
Britain and France fought for the right to expand their empire in the America. Colonists fought French colonies, Britain emerged victorious
Fugitive Slave Act
part of the Compromise of 1850- a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Gadsen Purchase
(President Pierce) strip of land in present day Arizona and New Mexico for which the United States purchased from Mexico in 1853.
Geneva Accords
After French were defeated in Vietnam, agreement made in 1954 that temporarily divided Vietnam along the 17th parallel and promised nationwide election in two years (U.S. sought to prevent elections from happening to preven spread of communism)
Battle of Gettysburg
1863-most important civil war battle; turning point in the civil war (Union victory)
Gettysburg Address
1863-speech that freedom should exist for all men
Treaty of Ghent
1814- treaty between U.S. and Britain ending War of 1812; restored diplomatic relations between the countries but didnt address the issues that had caused the war
Ghost Dances
religious practices by the Lokata tribesmen; thought to get rid of whites and restore the land taken from them
GI Bill
1944- gave benifits to to WW2 veterans including financial assistance for veterans wanting to go to college, buy a home, prefered treatment to veterans who wanted to apply for government jobs
The Gilded Age
late 19th century; era with the surface of great prosperity hiding deep problems of social inequality
globalization
belief the U.S. should work closely with other nations to solve common problems (foreign policy approach of Clinton)
Glorious Revolution
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II gave up his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
gold standard
a monetary system in which paper money and coins are equal to the value of a certain amount of gold (opposed by William Jennings Bryan)
"Gospel of Wealth"
philosophy of Andrew Carnegie that stated that the wealthy had an obligation to help their communities
Grange
formed in 1867, association of farmers that provided social activities and information about new farming techniques
Great Compromise
one house of Congress would be based on population (House of Representatives) and the other would be represented equally (Senate); help Constitution get ratified
Great Migration
migration of blacks to north during WW1 to find jobs and escape the south
Great Society
Lyndon B. Johnson 1965- included War on Poverty, Medicare, Medicaid, help civil rights, greater funding for education
Greenback Party
1870's and early 1880's stated that government should put more money into circulation, supported 8hr workday, and female suffrage. help farmers in debt
"greenbacks"
paper money issued by the American government during and after the Civil War, not backed by gold or silver
gridlock
the inability of the government to act because rival parties control different parts of the government
Battle of Guadalcanal
1st major offensive for America against Japan in the Pacific War 1942-1943
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
treaty ending the Mexican-American war; U.S. gave Mexico 15 million for Texas, New Mexico, and California
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
1964 gave the president the authority to take all measures neccessary to repel the attack agaisnt U.S. military forces in Vietnam
Harlem Renaissance
Black literary and artistic movement centered in Harlem that lasted from the 1920's to early 1930's: Langston Hughs, Zora Neale Hurston
Hartford Convention
Meeting of New England Federalists at the end of the War of 1812 where they threatened to secede from the union unless trade restrictions imposed by Madison were lifted
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
1930- in response to initial effects of Great Depression, established tariff rates on imported goods (highest in history)- effect on world trade was disastrous
Haymarket Square
1886- bomb thrown at police officers, police opened fire into crowd--> anti-union sentiment
Head Start
One of Lyndon B. Johnson's War on Poverty programs; gave funding for nursery school program
Hessians
fought on Britain's side in the Revolutionary war
holding company
a company with controlling shares in other companies (John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company)
Homestead Act
1862- gave 160 acres of land to a farmer who lived on the land and farmed it for two years--> inspired many to move westward
horizontal integration
strategy of gaining as much control over a single industry as possible by creating trusts and holding companies (Standard Oil)
HUAC
Committee of House of Representatives that investigated possible communist infiltration in entertainment industry and the government (Hollywood Ten, Alger Hiss)
Huguenots
1630's-Protestants in France who were believers in Calvinism
Hull House
1889- Established by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr 1st settlement house in America helped working women
Hundred Days
the period from March- June 1933. first hundred days during FDR's presidency, programs were created that helped farmers, the banks, unemployed workers, businessmen, and prohibition was repealed
hydrogen bomb
1950's more powerful than atomic bomb
impeachment
President Andrew Johnson and Clinton
impressment
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service (one of the causes of the War of 1812)
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
1905- unionized unskilled workers, blacks, immigrants, sharecroppers
initiative process
A procedure whereby citizens can propose the adoption of a policy measure by gathering a prerequisite number of signatures. Voters must then approve the measure before it can take effect.
internment camps
made after Pearl Harbor- placed Japanese-American living in the West Coast in these camps; FDR authorized Executive Order #9066
Interstate Commerce Act
1887- regulated the railroad and railroad ratesq
Intolerable Acts
what the colonists called the series of bill passed in Britain to punish the Massachusetts colony for the Boston Tea Party; included closing of Boston Harbor, prohibiting local meetings, madatory quartering of troops
Iran-Contra Affair
2nd term of Reagan- government officials sold missiles to Iran (hoping to free hostages in Lebanon), money from the sale was used to aid the anti-communist Contra forces in Nicaragua. Big scandal for Reagan
Iranian Hostage Crisis
1979- Islamic fundamentalists seized American embassy and took Americans hostage, U.S. efforts to free the hostages failed; finally freed in 1981
iron curtain
1946- Winston Churchill's term for the Cold War division between the Soviet-dominated East and the U.S.-dominated West.
irreconcilables
after WW1- group of senators who were opposed to U.S. presence in Europe
island-hopping
1942-1943~ American tactic in the Pacific; took strategic islands that could be used for military offensives
isolationism
1920's and 1930's- policy of disengaging U.S. into world commitments; rather consentrating on domestic issues
Jay's Treaty
provided for evacuation of English troops from posts in the Great Lakes; Britain refused to make concessions to America over the rights of the American ships seized
Jazz Age
1920's
judicial review
1803- created in Marbury vs. Madison case. Marshall stated that the Supreme Court had the authority to decide whether a law is constitutional or not
Judiciary Act
1801- passed before Jefferson's presidency; reduced number of Supreme Court Judges and increased number of federal judges; bill repealed by new congress in 1802
Justice Reorganization Bill
1837- FDR's plan to increase the number of Supreme Court justices in order to get bills passed. He wanted to "pack" the courts
kamikaze pilots
1945- Japanese pilots that would crash their planes into American ships (desperate attempt by Japanese)
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854- created by Stephen Douglas that allowed popular sovereignty in the territories to decide whether the state would be slave or free
Kent State University
1970- anti-war protest where Ohio National Guardsmen fired on protesters
Kentucky and Virginia Resolves
Nullification- said that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional and said that they had the right not to follow them
Kerner Commission
went into various regions of the Middle East after WW1 to see what political future residents there desired; many didnt want to be under the control of Britain or France
King William's War
1689-1697~ Colonial war against France- New England colonies attacked Quebec but had to retreat
Kitchen Cabinet
Andrew Jackson- informal group of advisors who the president relies on for help
Knights of Labor
1880's- union for unskilled laborers, women, blacks, immigrants; ended after Haymarket Square riot of 1886
Know-Nothing Party
1850's- claimed that the other political parties were corrupt, that immigrants were destroying the economic base of America, and disliked Catholics (nativist)
Korean War
1950-1953~ America and other UN forces fought to prevent the spread of communism to S. Korea; Korea divided along the 38th parallel
Ku Klux Klan
1920's-founded during Reconstruction era; wanted to maintain white supremacy in the South
League of Nations
proposed by Wilson at Versailles Peace Conference; league was never an effective body in reducing international tensions partially because the U.S. was never a part of it
Lend-Lease Act
proposed by FDR and adopted in 1941; U.S. could sell or lease arms and other equipment to any country whos security was vital in America's interest (helped Britain)
Lever Food and Fuel Control Act
1917- gave Wilson the power to manage the production and distribution of foods and fuels vital to the war
Levittown
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
The Liberator
1831- William Lloyd Garrison; radical abolitionist
Battle of Little Bighorn
1876- Colonial George Custer and many other men were killed by a group of Cheyenne and Lakota warriors; last major victory for Native-American forces
"Lost Generation"
Group of writers in 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values and often choose to flee to Europe
Lousiana Purchase
1803-The purchase of French land between the Missippi river and the Rocky Mountains that doubled the size of the US
Lowell System
This system developed in the textile mills of Lowell, Massachusetts in the 1820s, in these factories as much machinery as possible was used, so that few skilled workers were needed in the production process; the workers were almost all young single farm woman.
Loyalty Review Boards
1947: An organization that investigated the employees of the "supposedly disloyal organizations" and eliminated any supporter of communism.
Manhattan Project
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
Marbury vs. Madison
1803- establishment of judicial review
March on Washington
In August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill. The high point came when MLK Jr., gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to more than 200,000 marchers in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
Marshall Plan
a plan for aiding the European nations in economic recovery after World War II in order to stabilize and rebuild their countries and prevent the spread of communism.
martial law
state of emergency when the rule of law may be suspended and government is controlled by the military (During the Civil War, Kentucky was placed under maritial law by President Lincoln)
Massacre at Wounded Knee
a massacre in 1890 that started when Sioux left the reservation in protest because of the death of Sitting Bull. The US army killed 150 sioux at wounded knee; last major incident in the great plains
massive retaliation
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten "massive retaliation" with nuclear weapons in response to any act of aggression by a potential enemy.
McCarran-Walter Act
limited immigration everywhere except Northern and Western Europe
McCarran Internal Security Act
1950- stated that all members of the Communist Party had to register with the office of the Attorney General
McCarthyism
unscrupulously accusing people of being communist
Meat Inspection Act
1906- inspired by Upton Sinclair's the Jungle; established a government commission that would monitor the quality of meat sold in America and inspect the meatpacking house for safety and cleanliness
Medicare
Part of LBJ's Great Society; health insurance for retired Americans
Meuse-Argonne Offensive
1918- last major offensive by allies; convinced Germany that victory was impossible
Mexican-American War
fought over possession of Texas and the boarder of Texas
"midnight appointments"
John Adams made judicial appointments in his last hours of presidency
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
Misouri Compromise
1820- Maine admitted as a free state and Missouri admitted as a slave state
Molasses Act
reduced colonial sugar trade with French
Monroe Doctrine
an attack by Europe in the Western Hemisphere means an attack on the U.S.
Montgomery bus boycott
blacks refused to ride the buses in Montgomery, Alabama because of their segregation policies. (Rosa Parks)
Morrill Land-Grant Act
of 1862, in this act, the federal government had donated public land to the states for the establishment of college
My Lai Massacre
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
1994- agreement to gradually eliminate tariffs and other trade barriers among the US, Canada, and Mexico
Nation of Islam
a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religious beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans; founded by Elijah Muhammad (Malcom X was a member)
National American Women Suffrage Association
leading force in suffrage movement; led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony; supported Wilson administration during WW1
National Association for the Advancement of the Colored People (NAACP)
Organization formed in 1909 to advance the cause of African Americans
National Consumer's League
1899- wanted to improve the working and living conditions of women in the workplace
National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
1935- part of Wagner Act; unsured that factory owners do not harass union organizers, ensured that collective bargaining was fairly practiced
National Origins Act
1924-restrictive immigration legislation which lowered immigration to 2% of each nationality found on the 1890 census
National Security League
1914- preached patriotism and preparation for war
National Women's Party
formed by Alice Paul after women got the right to vote; tried to get an Equal Rights Ammendment added to the Constitution (fail)
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization
1949- alliance between U.S and most of Western Europe during the Cold War
Naval Act of 1900
authorized large increase in building of ships to be used for offensive purposes; ensure creation of American world-class navy
Navigation Acts
1660- measure passed by Charles 2; designed to increase the dependence of the colonies on England for trade; certain goods produced in the colonies could only be sold to England
Neoconservation
political philosophy that opposes big-government approaches to domestic issues yet favors an aggressive foreign policy (wanted intervention in Iraq 2003)
Neutrality Act of 1935
illegal to trade arms with countries at war and those who traveling to a country at war was to do so at his/her own risk
New Deal
1933-1941- FDR's policies that attempted to offset the effects of the Great Depression on American society.
New Deal Coalition
coalition forged by the Democrats who dominated American politics from the 1930's to the 1960's. its basic elements were the urban working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews, the poor, Southerners, African Americans, and intellectuals.
New Democrat
term used to describe Clinton and his supporters during his two terms in office; conservative
New Federalism
a series of policies during Reagan's administration that began to give back some power to the states; tax dollars returned to state; then states could then spend the money whatever way they like
New Freedom policy
an approach favored by southern and midwestern democrats; stated that economic and political preparation for WW1 should be done in a decentralized manner
New Frontier
Kennedy's plan, supports civil rights, pushes for a space program, wans to cut taxes, and increase spending for defense and military
New Jersey Plan
favored only one legislative house with each state only getting one vote
New Nationalism
1912- series of progressive reforms supported by Theodore Roosevelt as he ran as the Bull Moose candidate
Nez Perce
Indian tribe led by Chief Joseph; ordered onto a reservation in Idaho in 1877, they fled instead; after giving up they were removed to a reservation in Oklahoma
Non-Intercourse Act
1809- (Madison) in response to the failure of France and Britain to respect rights of U.S. ships at sea, authorized trade with all countries except for France and Britain
Northwest Ordinances
1784, 1785, 1787- authorized sale of lands in the Northwest territory to raise money for the federal government; laid out the procedures for statehood
NOW National Organization for Women
1996- Betty Friedan; wanted to pass the Equal Rights Amendment
nullification
states had the rights to "nullify" a law they saw as unconstitutional. Nullification Crisis in 1832 solved by Jackson's Force Act
Ocala Platform
A platform that would have significant impact in later years: They supported 1) direct election of US senators, 2) lower tariff rates, 3) a graduated income tax, and 4) a new banking system regulated by the federal govt.
Old Age Revolving Pension Plan
national sales tax would pay for a pension of $200 per month for all retired Americans, proposed by Dr. Francis Townsend.
OPEC
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
Operation Desert Shield
after Iraq invaded Kuwait Bush sent 230,000 troops to protect Saudi Arabia
Operation Desert Storm
1991 American-led attack on Iraqi forces after Iraq refused to withdraw its troops from Kuwait; Iraq was driven from Kuwait, Suddam Hussein remained in power in Iraq however
Palmer Raids
part of Red Scare, measures to hunt out polt. radicals and immigrants who were polt. threats to security
Panic of 1837
Britain reduced amount of credit it offered U.S.; Businesses cut production--> layoffs