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differentiate, takes on specialized characterisics.
Some parts of plants are forever young.
Stem cells in plants capable of dividing, unspecialized, capable of giving rise to tissues that will mature.
On shoot tips, on root tips
give rise to all other tissues
primary growth- grwoth in length and number of branches
Characteristics of Apical Meristems
Secondary growth- growth in girt
Vascualar Cambium, new secondary xylem and phloem
Cork Cambium, Periderm
Characteristics of Lateral Meristems
Upper and lower epidermis
Gaurd cells are photosynthetic
may have trichomes
Produces a waxy cuticle that keeps in water
A leaf contains
angiosperms and gymnosperms
flowering plants and confers
long, slender, tapering cells
protoplast dies at maturity
secondary cell wall- walls are like pipeline
dead at maturity
found in flowering plants and gnetophytes
efficient and faster flow of water
larger diameter, pores in cell wall
Vessels in xylem
Primary ground tissue
alive at maturity
relatively less differentiable
can divide (wound healing)
Functions in photosynthesis
parenchy in a leaf-mesohpyll
Active at maturity
Primary wall is thicker in corners
Stregnthening young tissues
Epidermis splits to form new periderm
cortext parenchyma will differentia into cork cambium
2 layers of meristematic tissue makes new layers of growth.
spring (early wood- large diameter cells, thin walls; summer (late wood- smaller diameter, thicker walls.
Explain annual rings
between cells through cells and through cell membrane at the endodermis
In plants water travels through 3 places
Capable of being divided
Helps plants with making new layers and it is where branch roots originate
low amount of water, and abscic acid hormone (produced during drought)
Gaurd cells close in response to
take in CO2 and incorporates it into organic molecules during the day.
In CAM plants, an open stomata does what
at the source, solute enters sieve tube; water enters by osmosis; pressure increases
At the sink, solute leaves sieve tube; water leaves sieve tube by osmosis; presure decreases
What is the pressure flow hypothesis
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