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78 terms

Botany Final CH. 3

Plant Growth
STUDY
PLAY
Live for one growing season
Annuals
Live for two growing season
Biennials
Live for many years (growing season)
Perennials
No particular number of leaves or branches
Indeterminate flowers
Determinate
Flowers are determinate or indeterminate
are determinate or indeterminate
Leaves and branches
Meristem
Cell division takes place in
Takes up water, ions, and push against cell wall.
elongation in plant growth
differentiate, takes on specialized characterisics.
Some parts of plants are forever young.
Maturation process
Stem cells in plants capable of dividing, unspecialized, capable of giving rise to tissues that will mature.
Meristem
Apical & Latera
two types of Meristems
On shoot tips, on root tips
give rise to all other tissues
auxiliary buds
primary growth- grwoth in length and number of branches
Characteristics of Apical Meristems
Secondary growth- growth in girt
Vascualar Cambium, new secondary xylem and phloem
Cork Cambium, Periderm
Characteristics of Lateral Meristems
Woody Dicot
An example of secondary growth in Lateral Meristems
Covering Tissues
Dermal
Leaf
Example of a complex epidermis is
Upper and lower epidermis
Gaurd cells are photosynthetic
may have trichomes
Produces a waxy cuticle that keeps in water
A leaf contains
root hairs increase the surface area for absorption
no waxy cuticle
A root contains
Suberin: gummy, water proofing material outside bark of stem or a root.
Periderm with cork contains
Conducts water and absorbs nutrients and minerals
Xylem
angiosperms and gymnosperms
flowering plants and confers
long, slender, tapering cells
protoplast dies at maturity
secondary cell wall- walls are like pipeline
Tracheids
Programmed cell death
apoptosis
secondary wall
dead at maturity
found in flowering plants and gnetophytes
efficient and faster flow of water
larger diameter, pores in cell wall
Vessels in xylem
specialized to conduct organics
Phloem
conducting
alive at maturity
cytoplasmic connections from one cell to another
Sieve tube members
Primary ground tissue
alive at maturity
relatively less differentiable
can divide (wound healing)
Functions in photosynthesis
photosynthesis
parenchy in a leaf-mesohpyll
stoage
Parenchyma
Primary Wall
Active at maturity
Primary wall is thicker in corners
Stregnthening young tissues
Collenchyma
Secondary wall
Strong, used for strength
ofen dead at maturity
Sclerenchyma
Sclerdis
Example of sclerenchyma
long and slender, found in xylem and phloem for strength
fibers of sclerenchyma
Epidermis splits to form new periderm
cortext parenchyma will differentia into cork cambium
2 layers of meristematic tissue makes new layers of growth.
Secondary Tissue
Secondary xylem
Wood
water
Heart wood does not transport what
water
Sapwood transports wat
spring (early wood- large diameter cells, thin walls; summer (late wood- smaller diameter, thicker walls.
Explain annual rings
Layer of cells that control what will enter the plant and stele
Endodermis
filling the spaces in cell wall materials
Casparian strip
between cells through cells and through cell membrane at the endodermis
In plants water travels through 3 places
Capable of being divided
Helps plants with making new layers and it is where branch roots originate
Pericycle
Vascular cambium and pericycle
Secondary xylem and phloem are created by
periderm
Pericyle produces cork cambium this gives rise to
root pressure
Movement of water and minerals in xylem
osmosis
Water enters plant by what type of transport
Loss of water in liquid form.
guttation
end of leaf blades
guttation occurs
loss of water from leaves by evaporation
Transpiration
Transpiration
adhesion
cohesion
tension
4 elements of TACT force
lost of water by evaporation of leaves
Transpiration
attraction of unlike molecules
ex: water and cellulose
Adhesion
Attraction of like molecules
ex: water and water
Cohesion
Due to pulling (water molecules are being pulled,) tree gets skinnier
Tension
Pumps out H
water ender via aquaporins osmois
Function of Guard cells
low amount of water, and abscic acid hormone (produced during drought)
Gaurd cells close in response to
light (blue)
low CO2
Guard cells open in response to
Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
CAM Plant an acronym for
plants adapted to dry areas
Crassulcean acid metabolism is found in
take in CO2 and incorporates it into organic molecules during the day.
In CAM plants, an open stomata does what
Thicker epidermis and cuticle
Reduced leaf area
Sucken Stomata
Adaptions to reduce water loss are
Transport of solutes in phloem
Translocation
where solute is produced
Source
whter the solute is taken up
sink
leaves
In summer, where is the source of sugar
roots, and stem, (from storage.
In early spring, source of sugar is found in
at the source, solute enters sieve tube; water enters by osmosis; pressure increases

At the sink, solute leaves sieve tube; water leaves sieve tube by osmosis; presure decreases
What is the pressure flow hypothesis
Indole aceti acid
Auxin
Shoots
phototrophism loacted in
Auxin from apical bud inhibits growth of axillary buds
Apical Dominance
promotes formation of adventious roots
What is unique about a root tone
natural aging
sensce
shedding of plant parts
abscission
auxin
young leaf blade
protects from inavasion of bacteria's H2O loss
superized layer
cell walls get very weak
seperation layer
weed killers
dicots sensitve
angent orange
Synthetic auxin
influences development of plant parts
Balance of auxin/cytokinin-
promotes cell division
retart senesence
Cytokinin
Foolish seeding diseases of rice
Giberellins
fungus, promotes stem elongation
Giberella