Botany Final CH. 3

78 terms by MReese81

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Plant Growth

Live for one growing season


Live for two growing season


Live for many years (growing season)


No particular number of leaves or branches

Indeterminate flowers


Flowers are determinate or indeterminate

are determinate or indeterminate

Leaves and branches


Cell division takes place in

Takes up water, ions, and push against cell wall.

elongation in plant growth

differentiate, takes on specialized characterisics.
Some parts of plants are forever young.

Maturation process

Stem cells in plants capable of dividing, unspecialized, capable of giving rise to tissues that will mature.


Apical & Latera

two types of Meristems

On shoot tips, on root tips
give rise to all other tissues
auxiliary buds
primary growth- grwoth in length and number of branches

Characteristics of Apical Meristems

Secondary growth- growth in girt
Vascualar Cambium, new secondary xylem and phloem
Cork Cambium, Periderm

Characteristics of Lateral Meristems

Woody Dicot

An example of secondary growth in Lateral Meristems

Covering Tissues



Example of a complex epidermis is

Upper and lower epidermis
Gaurd cells are photosynthetic
may have trichomes
Produces a waxy cuticle that keeps in water

A leaf contains

root hairs increase the surface area for absorption
no waxy cuticle

A root contains

Suberin: gummy, water proofing material outside bark of stem or a root.

Periderm with cork contains

Conducts water and absorbs nutrients and minerals


angiosperms and gymnosperms
flowering plants and confers
long, slender, tapering cells
protoplast dies at maturity
secondary cell wall- walls are like pipeline


Programmed cell death


secondary wall
dead at maturity
found in flowering plants and gnetophytes
efficient and faster flow of water
larger diameter, pores in cell wall

Vessels in xylem

specialized to conduct organics


alive at maturity
cytoplasmic connections from one cell to another

Sieve tube members

Primary ground tissue
alive at maturity
relatively less differentiable
can divide (wound healing)
Functions in photosynthesis
parenchy in a leaf-mesohpyll


Primary Wall
Active at maturity
Primary wall is thicker in corners
Stregnthening young tissues


Secondary wall
Strong, used for strength
ofen dead at maturity



Example of sclerenchyma

long and slender, found in xylem and phloem for strength

fibers of sclerenchyma

Epidermis splits to form new periderm
cortext parenchyma will differentia into cork cambium
2 layers of meristematic tissue makes new layers of growth.

Secondary Tissue

Secondary xylem



Heart wood does not transport what


Sapwood transports wat

spring (early wood- large diameter cells, thin walls; summer (late wood- smaller diameter, thicker walls.

Explain annual rings

Layer of cells that control what will enter the plant and stele


filling the spaces in cell wall materials

Casparian strip

between cells through cells and through cell membrane at the endodermis

In plants water travels through 3 places

Capable of being divided
Helps plants with making new layers and it is where branch roots originate


Vascular cambium and pericycle

Secondary xylem and phloem are created by


Pericyle produces cork cambium this gives rise to

root pressure

Movement of water and minerals in xylem


Water enters plant by what type of transport

Loss of water in liquid form.


end of leaf blades

guttation occurs

loss of water from leaves by evaporation



4 elements of TACT force

lost of water by evaporation of leaves


attraction of unlike molecules
ex: water and cellulose


Attraction of like molecules
ex: water and water


Due to pulling (water molecules are being pulled,) tree gets skinnier


Pumps out H
water ender via aquaporins osmois

Function of Guard cells

low amount of water, and abscic acid hormone (produced during drought)

Gaurd cells close in response to

light (blue)
low CO2

Guard cells open in response to

Crassulacean Acid Metabolism

CAM Plant an acronym for

plants adapted to dry areas

Crassulcean acid metabolism is found in

take in CO2 and incorporates it into organic molecules during the day.

In CAM plants, an open stomata does what

Thicker epidermis and cuticle
Reduced leaf area
Sucken Stomata

Adaptions to reduce water loss are

Transport of solutes in phloem


where solute is produced


whter the solute is taken up



In summer, where is the source of sugar

roots, and stem, (from storage.

In early spring, source of sugar is found in

at the source, solute enters sieve tube; water enters by osmosis; pressure increases

At the sink, solute leaves sieve tube; water leaves sieve tube by osmosis; presure decreases

What is the pressure flow hypothesis

Indole aceti acid



phototrophism loacted in

Auxin from apical bud inhibits growth of axillary buds

Apical Dominance

promotes formation of adventious roots

What is unique about a root tone

natural aging


shedding of plant parts



young leaf blade

protects from inavasion of bacteria's H2O loss

superized layer

cell walls get very weak

seperation layer

weed killers
dicots sensitve
angent orange

Synthetic auxin

influences development of plant parts

Balance of auxin/cytokinin-

promotes cell division
retart senesence


Foolish seeding diseases of rice


fungus, promotes stem elongation


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