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a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume


stress force; pulls on the crust, stretching the rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle


stress force; squeezes rock until it folds or breaks


stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions


break in the rock of the crust where rock surfaces slip past each other

normal fault

caused by tension in Earth's crust; pulls rock apart

hanging wall

the block of rock that lies above the fault


the rock that lies below the fault

reverse fault

has the same structure as a normal fault, but the blocks move in opposite directions; caused by compression

strike-slip fault

the rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways, with little up or down motion; caused by shearing


a fold in rock that bends upward into an arch


a fold in rock that bends downward to form a valley


large area of flat land elevated high above sea level

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