Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads


a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume


stress force; pulls on the crust, stretching the rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle


stress force; squeezes rock until it folds or breaks


stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions


break in the rock of the crust where rock surfaces slip past each other

normal fault

caused by tension in Earth's crust; pulls rock apart

hanging wall

the block of rock that lies above the fault


the rock that lies below the fault

reverse fault

has the same structure as a normal fault, but the blocks move in opposite directions; caused by compression

strike-slip fault

the rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways, with little up or down motion; caused by shearing


a fold in rock that bends upward into an arch


a fold in rock that bends downward to form a valley


large area of flat land elevated high above sea level

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording