67 terms

AP Human Geography: Unit 7


Terms in this set (...)

base ratio
ratio between workers employed in the basic sector and those employed in the nonbasic sector
basic vs. nonbasic sectors
Basic sector of a local economy includes any industry that brings in money from outside the area

Nonbasic sector includes all industry that supports and services the local community
Burgess, E.W.
created the concentric zone model in 1923. It views cities as growing outward from the central area in a series of concentric rings (like growth rings of a tree). The size and width of the rings vary from city to city (he thought it fit most cities of his time).
the heavily populated area extending from Boston to Washington and including New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.
census tract
Small country subdivisions, usually containing between 2,500 and 8,000 persons, delineated by the US Census Bureau as areas of relatively uniform population characteristics, economic status, and living conditions.
central business district
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge.
center city
Cities that provide goods and services for the surrounding area.
central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
Christaller, Walter
German geographer credited with development central place theory
an area that is the center of business and culture and has a large population
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
complementary regions
where each individual urban center and its merchants have a sales monopoly
concentric zone model
A structural model of the American central city that suggests the existence of five concentric land-use rings arranged around a common center.
councils of government
cooperative agencies consisting of representatives from local governments in the region
disamenity sector
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.
edge cities
cities that are located on the on the outskirts of larger cities and serve many of the same functions of urban areas, but in a sprawling, decetralized suburban environment
export activities
the process of exporting goods from a region
feminization of poverty
The increasing concentration of poverty among women, especially unmarried women and their children
formative era
The period between about 7000 and 5000 bc which noted the beginnings of the development of states and urbanization
the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)
ghettos, ghettoization
GHETTOS: portion of a city in which members of a minority group live; especially because of social, legal, or economic pressure.
GHETTOIZATION: The process of becoming a ghetto, an isolated and underprivileged urban area.
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
a community of people smaller than a village
Harris and Ullman
developed multiple nuclei model explaining that large cities developed by spreading from several places of growth, not just one
hierarchy of central places
Central places are more economicly active and thrive
Hoyt, Homer
was an economist who worked in real estate and created the sector model and urban model.
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
in situ accretion
where less expensive homes and businesses seem to be in a chronic state of ongoing construction and renovation.
manufacturing city
a city overrun with factories, supply facilities, the expansion of transport systems, and the consturction of tenements for a growing labor force.
City with more than 10 million people
a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)
huge stores with a wide variety of products designed for one stop shopping.
mercantile city
a city in which a central square became the focus of the city flanked by royal, religious, public, and private buildings: streets leading to such squares formed the beginnings of a downtown
metropolitan area
a major population center made up of a large city and the smaller suburbs and towns that surround it
metropolitan statistical area
area with a city of 50 thousand or more people, together with adjacent urban communities that have strong ties to the central city.
micropolitan statistical area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
multiple-nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
multiplier effect
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
with one or more clear core areas
peripheral model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
physical city
a continuous development that contains a central city and many nearby cities, towns, and suburbs
primate cities
A city which is greater than two times the next largest city in a nation (or contains over one-third of a nation's population). The primate city is usually very expressive of the national culture and often the capital city.
public housing
a housing development that is publicly funded and administered for low-income families
rank-size rule
In a model urban hierarchy, the idea that the population of a city or town will be inversely proportional to its rank in the hierarchy.
rush hours
The four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
sector model
A model or urban land use that places the central business district in the middle with wedge-shaped sectors radiating outwards from the center along transportation corridors.
settlement geography
patterns of settlement on earth's surface: rank-size rule and Christaller's central place theory
smart growth
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
social area analysis
puts together information from the census tracts to create and overall picture of how various types of people are distrbuted within a broader area, like a city
special-function cities
cities are dominated by one activity such as mining, manufacturing or recreation and serving national and international markets.
Development of new housing sites at relatively low density and at locations that are not contiguous to the existing built-up area.
independent political units with territorial boundaries that are internationally recognized by other states
Residential areas surrounding a city. Shops and businesses moved to suburbia as well as people.
the people living in a municipality smaller than a city
transportation centers
Cities where major routes converge - roads, railroads, sea traffic, and air transportation
urban area
a geographical area constituting a city or town
urban elite
a group of decision makers and organizers who controlled the resources, and sometimes the lives of others
urban empire
A nation or group of territories ruled by a single, powerful leader or emperor
urban geography
The study of how people use space in cities
urban hierarchy
a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions
urban influence zone
Areas outside the city that are affected by it.
urban renewal
the clearing and rebuilding and redevelopment of urban slums
Wirth, Louis
American sociologist whose theory was based on an essay 'Urbanism as a Way of Life.', thought that urban development leads to social and personal disorders, belief technology causes problems
world city
Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
zone in transition
contains light industry and housing for the poor, and serves as a transition zone between the busnesses in the CBD and the more purely residential areas in the outer zones
zone of maturity
old part of city, more wealthy live here, bigger houses
zoning ordinances
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.