Which of the following are a criticism of differential association theory?
- The claim that Sutherland's initial formulation of differential association is not applicable at the individual level because even people who experience an excess of definitions favorable to law violation may still not become criminal and those who rarely associate with recognized deviants may still turn to crime.
- the theory is untestable because most people experience a multitude of definitions - both favorable and unfavorable to law violation - and it is up to them to interpret what those experiences mean, so classifying experiences as wither favorable or unfavorable to crime commission is difficult at best.
- that differential association alone is not a sufficient explanation for crime
- does not seem to provide for free choice in individual circumstances, nor does it explain why some individuals, even when surrounded by associates committed to lives of crime, are still able to hold to noncriminal values.
- fails to account for the emergence of criminal values, addressing only the communication of those values.